ancient time
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Divya Pandey

If we throw light on the history of the libraries in India, and then one main fact comes to light that the history of the libraries in India is a thousand of years old. The development of libraries in India can be divided in to Ancient Period, Middle Period, Mughal Period and Modern Period. Libraries existed those days when education was concentrated in Gurukul. Those days Guru was like a moving Library and they had unlimited store of knowledge. Over time, writing and ink began to be used and texts were also produced. In ancient times, handwritten texts were wrapped in cloth and leaf blisters because the art of printing was not invented at that time, But with the time the art of printing was invented and texts started to be printed and libraries came in to existence. The demolition of ancient cities which have been obtained by excavation is a proof that libraries existed in ancient times as well. Nalanda University established in ancient time had a three story Library Building called Ratnodadhi, Ratnasagar and Ratnaranjak. Similarly, temples and monasteries also had their own libraries which used to support religious and educational institutions. Father of Library Science Dr. S.R.Ranganathan who was presented the five laws of Library Science, his untiring efforts resulted in unlimited growth/development in the field of Library Science and the Library received a new direction and helped to give scientific form to the Library Service.

2022 ◽  
pp. 401-421
Neelesh Babu ◽  

From ancient time, plants have been utilized as a great source of medicinal products for several types of diseases and disorders. Traditional knowledge is an important source for the development of new drugs. Several studies revealed that traditional knowledge of medicinal plants is being practised among several tribes throughout the world. Many researchers have been evaluated the authenticity of this information. Family Asteraceae got an important place among this medicinal heritage. This is one of the widely distributed families and large numbers of plants have been utilized in various skin-related problems. This chapter highlights the ethnopharmacological properties of this family.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 1347-1352
Silvi Tiara Dewi ◽  
Chandra Susanto

Background. Aloe vera has been used as an anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and immune-boosting agent since ancient time. Hydrogel is a polymeric material that can retain a significant amount of water component and can last as long as possible in the gingival sulcus because the hydrogel is hydrophilic. This study is the first study that seeks to explore the potential of Aloe vera in healing socket wounds after tooth extraction. Methods. Twenty-five white rats of the Wistar strain were acclimatized for seven days before being included in the study. After acclimatization, the experimental animals were grouped into five groups. Evaluation of fibroblast response process with HE staining. Results. There were differences in the mean number of fibroblasts in all groups. From the results of this study, it can be stated that there is an effect of the application of hydrogel Aloe vera 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and xylazine on the increase in the number of fibroblasts in socket wounds after tooth extraction in Rattus novergicus. Conclusion. There is an effect of Aloe vera hydrogel application on increasing the number of fibroblasts in socket wounds after tooth extraction in Rattus novergicus.

2021 ◽  
Shweta Saboo

In all over world the importance of traditional medicine for the use as treatment against of life threatening diseases is acceptable. Due to heavy potency and availability of the natural sources it’s easy to utilize this traditional knowledge for treatment, prevention or mitigation against diseases. In this chapter we discuss about different potent Immuno-modulating drugs which majorly act as immune stimulant. From the ancient time these drugs having potent active constituent which shown prominent effect in treatment of diseases. Considering efficiency with safety plant derived drugs having very global market this review discusses immunomodulating plant with their active constituent.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (10) ◽  
pp. 17-22
Anjaly PR ◽  
Madhushree HS ◽  
Ganesh Puttur

The Shodhana procedures are mainly divided into three phases known as Trividha Karma. Acharya Dalhana has clarified Trividha Karma in the context of Shodhana as Poorva Karma, Pradhana Karma and Paschat Karma. Samsarjana Krama is a special diet pattern which is followed as Paschat Karma after Samshodhana. After Samshodhana Karma the Atura Shareera will have reduced tolerance owing to the elimination of large quantities of Dosha and Mala from the body, leading to weakness and reduction in digestive fire. This can be corrected only by following proper Samsarjana Krama with respect to the Shuddhi attained by the Atura. Acharyas detailed the Samsarjana Krama for two Annakala with respect to the ancient time period in contrast to the present scenario, where we are following three Annakala. To get a successful result from the treatment the patient should follow all the 3 stages properly. Hence, here an attempt is made to modify the Samsarjana Krama chart for the present era with respect to classical information given by the Acharyas.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 133-139
M Beham Kalitha

Poems are composed by many from ancient time till date, those who are having interest, great vocabulary and its timely and proper use are sustained and became famous in this field. In poems of this great people the events happened in their own life or witnessed by them will be the core of their poems. In this order, this poem is also the one which is expressing the feelings of the woman. The important relationship in the whole world and which one make us proud is “MOTHER”. This poem shed light on the feelings of the mother, the atrocities imposed on her in the name of family values or duty of mother and the husband’s doubts about her morality. Also, this is explaining about the sexual harassments of the working woman and their mindset, infant suffering, and the one still in home without marriage due to religion, cast, creed, and financial difficulties. In short this is detailing all the sufferings of a woman in non-traditional poetry form.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
pp. 241-263
Anuja S. Motule ◽  
Manisha P. More ◽  
Jagdish V. Manwar ◽  
Ashish B. Wadekar ◽  
Bhushan R. Gudalwar ◽  

There are thousands of herbs that are used in preparation of various herbal cosmetics and toiletries preparations. Day-by-day, use of herbal cosmetics and toiletries preparations are increasing as currently available cosmetics are showing unwanted effects upon prolong used. They are prepared by using different herbs or their extracts or juice derived from them. Herbal cosmetics and toiletries preparations are being used by Indian peoples and peoples from Indian sub-continental region since ancient time. They are used to improve the appearance of the skin. Herbal cosmetics are becoming more popular because they are comparatively cheaper, safe and easily available. WHO as well as AYUSH department of India, encourages the peoples to use these types of cosmetics for routine use. In the present paper, we have covered various pharmacognostic and relevant information of medicinal plants used in the cosmetics and toiletries preparations.

Yadullah Hayder

In Turtuk valley 50 species of plants were found to be used medicinal and nutritional. The study reveals that the villagers of remote area of baltistan in ancient time use medicinal plants for the treatment of many diseases. Eg. Joint pain, bone fracture, asthma, blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, dysentery headaches, toothaches etc. In addition, treatment for their livestock.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 386-390
Bineesh E P ◽  
Prashant Bedarkar ◽  
Patgiri B J ◽  
Mandip Goyal

Rasa Shastra which explains a compendium of formulations that act as spectacular remedies for numerous diseases. Metals were used for Deha Vada (for the cure of ailments) and also for Rasayana Karma(Immunity boosting). Loha Bhasma had been using in many formulations from ancient time itself. Kanta Loha, which is superior among Loha can be considered as Magnetite. The Magnetite should contain more than 60% of iron content in it. The incineration process  done according to the reference of classical Rasa Shastra classics. The controversy term “iron overload lead to diabetes” needs to be rechecked by monitoring the results of tests in diabetic patients after medication in the form of Kanta Loha Bhasma. In this article a single case study result showing towards the anti diabetic effect in human subject.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Muhammad Yudo Agression of Akbari ◽  
Rahmad Salahuddin

This research describes the concept of the kuttab curriculum during the ancient time and its implementation at the lembaga pendidikan kuttab al-fatih surabaya as part of the national education system. this research is qualified as a special study approach.  the data is  collected using interview,  observation and documents. whereas in analyzing data it uses the concept of analysis of miles and huberman, which is data reduction, data presentation and making conclusion. this research  concludes  that:  1.  formerly  the  concept  of  the  kuttab  curriculum during the ancient time was made only to wish for allah's blessing but later developed to have a social and even material aim. also the content of its curriculum is very simple and uses a separate curriculum pattern. 2. the concept of the kuttab curriculum which is applied at the lembaga pendidikan kuttab al- fatih surabaya contains the aim and contents of the curriculum, teaching method and the system of evaluation as well. kuttab al-fatih educational institution surabaya  also  uses  an  informal  education  (pusat  kegiatan  belajar masyarakat/pkbm) in applying its educational program by creating an equivalence program in order to achieve the primary education diploma known as the package a diploma as part of the national education which is available in indonesia.

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