diet pattern
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Chenjie Xu ◽  
Zhi Cao ◽  
Hongxi Yang ◽  
Yabing Hou ◽  
Xiaohe Wang ◽  

Background:The EAT-Lancet Commission has promulgated a sustainable dietary guideline and recommended that it was designed to improve the human health and support environmental sustainability.Objective:This research was designed to explore the association between this healthy diet pattern (EAT-Lancet diet pattern, EAT-LDP) and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D).Methods:Between 2006 and 2010, a total of 59,849 participants from the UK Biobank without diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancers were included at baseline. The EAT-LDP score was constructed on the sum of 14 food components and then categorized into three tertiles. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were conducted to explore the association between EAT-LDP score and the risk of incident T2D. A mediation analysis was also implemented to disentangle the role of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in the relationship between EAT-LDP score and T2D.Results:During a median follow-up of 10 years, 2,461 incident T2D cases were recorded. In analyses that compared tertile 3 of the EAT-LDP score (highest) with tertile 1 (lowest), the hazard ratio (HR) for T2D was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.72–0.90) after adjusting for sociodemographic status and health-related factors. Participants who reported a one-point increase in the diet score were associated with a 6% decrease in risk of T2D (HR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.91–0.97). A significant indirect association was observed between the EAT-LDP score and T2D (β: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.65–0.67), indicating that 44% of the association of EAT-LDP score with T2D was mediated by BMI. Additionally, 40% of the association of EAT-LDP score with T2D was mediated by waist circumference was also observed.Conclusions:Our findings indicate that a higher adherence to EAT-LDP contributes to lower risk of T2D. Further independent validation is needed to be conducted before applying the EAT-LDP to inform dietary guidelines.

2022 ◽  
pp. 778-809
John Intru Disouza ◽  
Kiran Shivaji Patil ◽  
Pratik Shailendra Kakade ◽  
Vandana Bharat Patravale

Hypertension is the major cause of mortality amongst many cardiovascular risk factors causing 7.5 million deaths annually. Macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies are very common in general population and have broad-ranging physiological effects in-vivo which lessen inflammatory cascades and vascular reactivity. A recent trend is to perform nutritional epidemiological studies linking overall diet pattern to the lifestyle, examining the link between food and nutrients of diet to risk of chronic diseases. This chapter would deal with pharmacological and pathological basis of hypertension, utilization of dietary fibers, functional foods, nutraceuticals for hypertensive populations as well as to those with increased cardiovascular risks.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (11) ◽  
pp. 4064
Ioanna Yiannakou ◽  
Martha R. Singer ◽  
Paul F. Jacques ◽  
Vanessa Xanthakis ◽  
R. Curtis Ellison ◽  

A Mediterranean-style diet is a healthy eating pattern that may benefit cancer risk, but evidence among Americans is scarce. We examined the prospective association between adherence to such a diet pattern and total cancer risk. A Mediterranean-style dietary pattern (MSDP) score was derived from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at exam 5 (1991–1995). Subjects included 2966 participants of the Framingham Offspring Study who were free of prevalent cancer. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric measures. Cox-models were also used to examine effect modification by lifestyle and anthropometric measures. During 18 years of median follow-up, 259 women and 352 men were diagnosed with cancer. Women with moderate or higher adherence to the MSDP had ≥25% lower risks of cancer than women with the lowest MSDP (HR (moderate vs. lowest): 0.71, 95% CI: 0.52–0.97 and HR (highest vs. lowest): 0.74; 95% CI: 0.55–0.99). The association between MSDP score and cancer risk in men was weaker except in non-smokers. Beneficial effects of the MSDP in women were stronger among those who were not overweight. In this study, higher adherence to MSDP was associated with lower cancer risk, especially among women.

Stefania Angela Di Fusco ◽  
Antonella Spinelli ◽  
Lorenzo Castello ◽  
Edoardo Mocini ◽  
Michele Massimo Gulizia ◽  

Mandatory working from home is one of the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for a large number of workers. Transition to working from home may significantly impact lifestyle, psychosocial status, and the overall health of workers. This review summarizes available data about the effects of lockdown measures, particularly working from home, on cardiovascular risk factors including sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet pattern, psychological distress, smoking, alcohol misuse, and cardiometabolic parameters. Finally, we suggest countermeasures that can attenuate the negative health impact of working from home. Indeed, timely and tailored interventions implemented by companies in cooperation with the health care system could allow workers to benefit more from some of the advantages associated with working from home.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 110-119
Dr. Mithilesh Kumar Sah ◽  
Binod Singh ◽  
Prasant Singh

In Ayurveda, Ageing is termed as ‘Jara’ for which some rules are given to make it healthy with longevity. This is the phase anticipatory care should be taken so that ageing process can be deferred and old age related diseases can be barred. Jara as natural prodigy of human body takes place in two ways i.e. Kalaja and Akalaja. Body gets affected from various factors like diet pattern, food particles, lifestyle, environment, etc. changes or degenerative changes are the nature of universe. These changes are known as Swabhaav in Ayurveda in which a constant decline may found in Shareera in old age. Ageing starts in different attributes at different period; thus, the ancient classics give a detailed version on the physiological, psychological and biological aspects of ageing including growth, puberty and senility.There are enough matter in relation to the establishment and termination of life which can be understood as theory as Theory of Innate Destruction (Swabhawoparamavada), Theory of Disturbance in Fundamental Principle of Body, Theory related to Kala (Time Factor), Theory Related to Environmental and other Biological Aspect. Jara management can be done via programming of lifestyle in such a way that Akalaj Jara can be avoided and Kalaj Jara can be delayed. For this purpose not only the Rasayana drugs but Ayurvediya Dinacharya, Ritucharya and other regimens in the way of ideal lifestyle is to be followed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (10) ◽  
pp. 17-22
Anjaly PR ◽  
Madhushree HS ◽  
Ganesh Puttur

The Shodhana procedures are mainly divided into three phases known as Trividha Karma. Acharya Dalhana has clarified Trividha Karma in the context of Shodhana as Poorva Karma, Pradhana Karma and Paschat Karma. Samsarjana Krama is a special diet pattern which is followed as Paschat Karma after Samshodhana. After Samshodhana Karma the Atura Shareera will have reduced tolerance owing to the elimination of large quantities of Dosha and Mala from the body, leading to weakness and reduction in digestive fire. This can be corrected only by following proper Samsarjana Krama with respect to the Shuddhi attained by the Atura. Acharyas detailed the Samsarjana Krama for two Annakala with respect to the ancient time period in contrast to the present scenario, where we are following three Annakala. To get a successful result from the treatment the patient should follow all the 3 stages properly. Hence, here an attempt is made to modify the Samsarjana Krama chart for the present era with respect to classical information given by the Acharyas.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Xinqi Deng ◽  
Jiangtao Si ◽  
Yonglong Qu ◽  
Li Jie ◽  
Yuansong He ◽  

Abstract Background Nutrient composition of vegetarian diets is greatly different from that of omnivore diets, which may fundamentally influence the gut microbiota and fecal metabolites. The interactions between diet pattern and gut environment need further illustration. This study aims to compare the difference in the gut microbiota and fecal metabolites between vegetarian and omnivore female adults and explore associations between dietary choices/duration and gut environment changes. Methods In this study, investigations on the fecal metabolome together with the gut microbiome were performed to describe potential interactions with quantitative functional annotation. In order to eliminate the differences brought by factors of gender and living environment, 80 female adults aged 20 to 48 were recruited in the universities in Beijing, China. Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) were applied to screen differential data between groups from gut microbiota and fecal metabolites. Furthermore, weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) was employed as the bioinformatics analysis tool for describing the correlations between gut microbiota and fecal metabolites. Moreover, participants were further subdivided by the vegetarian diet duration for analysis. Results GPCR-mediated integration of enteroendocrine signaling was predicted to be one of the regulatory mechanisms of the vegetarian diet. Intriguingly, changes in the gut environment which occurred along with the vegetarian diet showed attenuated trend as the duration increased. A similar trend of returning to “baseline” after a 10-year vegetarian diet was detected in both gut microbiota and fecal metabolome. Conclusions The vegetarian diet is beneficial more than harmful to women. Gut microbiota play roles in the ability of the human body to adapt to external changes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 623-630
Ravin Sundarlal Chandak ◽  
Abhinandan Muke

Introduction: Strotasa a unique concept explained in Ayurveda are the channels (micro/macro) through which constituents for nourishment of Sharira bhava(body constituents)are constantly circulated. Functioning of Purishvaha Strotasa (channels for feces transportation and transformation) deals with the formation, retention and evacuation of feces. Symptoms caused by vitiation of Purishvaha Strotasa are primarily concerned with defecation. For prevention and treatment of diseases related to Purishvaha Strotasa one must account for Nidana(causative factors) those vitiates the Strotasa.  Aim of study: To survey correlation if any between causative factors stated for vitiation of Purishvaha Strotasa and symptoms of Purishvaha Stroto dushti observed in patients. Material and methods: A cross sectional survey was carried out on 120 patients suffering from vitiation of Purishvaha Strotasa above age of 60 years irrespective of sex, religion and diet pattern. Patients were surveyed with help of questionnaire designed to evaluate Strotasa Parikshana (examination), Nidana for Purishvaha Stroto dushti. Observation and results: 66.66% of participants had mixed type of diet, 95% of patients had passage of sticky foul smelling stool. Bristol Stool Chart observations revealed80 % of patient were having hard stool. All (100%) patients had modified ODS (Obstructive Defecation System) Longo score more than 16. One or more causative factors stated in Charaka Samhita for vitiation of Purishvaha Strotasa were observed in all surveyed patients with Purishvega Sandharana- suppression of an urge to defecate (66.66%) and Adhyashana– overeating when previous food is undigested (62.5%)being more prevalent. Conclusion: Outcome of study asserts a strong correlation between Nidana (etiological factors) and symptoms of Purishvaha stroto dushti.

María López-Olivares ◽  
Carlos De Teresa Galván ◽  
Teresa Nestares ◽  
Elisabet Fernández-Gómez ◽  
Carmen Enrique-Mirón

The objectives of this study are to identify eating patterns of university professors and to assess the relationships among sociodemographic factors in relation to lifestyle and physical activity. It is a cross-sectional, descriptive-correlational, and observational study with a representative sample of 127 educators, which covers almost the total population of university professors belonging to one of the campuses of the University of Granada (Spain). Two eating patterns were identified a posteriori through explanatory factor analysis: a Western pattern characterised by the consumption of dairy products, eggs, meat, sausages, refined oils, and butter, sugar, processed baked goods, and sugar-containing beverages and alcoholic drinks, and a Mediterranean pattern based on olive oil, fish, fruits, nuts, vegetables, pulses, cereals, and honey, which explain the 20.102 and 17.411 of variance, respectively. Significant differences are observed between the two genders with respect to anthropometric characteristics (weight and size, p <.001 in both cases) and to nutritional status (p = 0.011). Origin (p = 0.022) and level of physical activity (p = 0.010) were significantly related to adherence to a Western diet pattern. In the case of the Mediterranean diet pattern, significant differences are observed according to the professors’ type of bachelor’s degree (p = 0.37). This study provides evidence on factors having an impact on adherence to eating patterns of professors of the University of Granada, and it suggests that programmes addressed to such groups should be developed to promote health.

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