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2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Flavia Pruiti Ciarello ◽  
Ana Moreno ◽  
Nicola Miragliotta ◽  
Aliberti Antonino ◽  
Michele Fiasconaro ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Aujeszky's disease is caused by Suid Herpes Virus-1 and species belonging to the genus Sus scrofa are the main reservoir hosts. This virus, however, is capable of infecting and causing severe disease, with an almost constant fatal outcome in other species, both domestic and wild (carnivores, monogastric herbivores and ruminants). Moreover, the possibility of transmission to humans has been demonstrated. This study reports and describes the clinical, diagnostic, pathological and phylogenetic aspects of two cases of Aujeszky's disease in two hunting dogs following the ingestion of infected wild boar raw meat. These cases are contextualized in the province of Messina (Sicily), where a high prevalence of Aujeszky's disease has been recorded (average of 12,20% in the period 2010–2019) in farmed pig, and with evidence of spread to other species. A severe outbreak in cattle has recently been reported in these areas. Nevertheless, cases of Aujeszky's disease in dogs are rarely reported and this study represents the first well-documented report in this species in Sicily. Case presentation After a wild boar hunt, two dogs showed neurological symptoms and intense itching unresponsive to therapy. Diagnosis of Aujeszky's disease was made based on clinical suspicion, anamnestic information and confirmed by the isolation of the virus from the brain of both dogs. In addition, molecular typing, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the Real-Time PCR products were performed. The sequences studied were placed in the Italian Clade 1 along with the sequences obtained from wild boars and hunting dogs from Italy and France. Conclusions The finding of this disease in non-natural hosts in Sicilian multi-host epidemiological contexts suggests that the risk of inter-species transmission is concrete and that attention should be paid to developing disease control programs in these territories. The data obtained from genome sequencing of the two SuHV-1 isolates contribute to the enrichment of the GenBank with unknown sequences and the phylogenetic analysis implementation.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lateefat Modupe Habeeb ◽  
Opasola Afolabi Olaniyi ◽  
Misbahu Garba ◽  
Morufu O Raimi

The frequent use of antibiotics may result in drug residues that can be discovered at varying quantities in animal products such as milk or meat. The presence of pharmaceutical residues in food above the MRLs has been perceived globally by various persons. Antibiotics residues are present in food, which can endanger human health by causing antibiotic sensitivity, allergic reactions, microflora imbalance, bacterial resistance to antibiotics in microorganisms, and financial loss to the food industry. Farmers around the world utilize them on a sporadic basis for both preventative and curative purposes. This study assessed the antibiotics residues in raw meat sold in 6 slaughter houses in Kano States. The study is a descriptive cross-sectional study involving six (6) major slaughter house in Kano state. Muscle, Kidney and liver samples were collected from each slaughterhouse. The antibiotic residues in the meat samples were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and oxytetracycline residue results were presented in charts and tables. Out of a total of 18 beef samples analyzed during this study, 15 (83%) of the total samples had detectable levels of tetracycline residues from which 6(33.3%) had tetracycline residues at violative levels above the WHO/FAO maximum residue limits (MRLs), out of those 18 beef samples analyzed during this study, 6(33%) of the total samples had detectable levels of oxytetracycline residues from which 3(17%) had oxytetracycline residues at violative levels above the WHO/FAO maximum residue limits (MRLs) and out of those 18 beef samples analyzed during this study, 12(67%) of the total samples had detectable levels of ciprofloxacin, all levels are below the WHO/FAO maximum residue limits (MRLs). This high level of tetracycline and oxytetracycline residues in greater proportion of meat destined for human consumption at violative levels could be as a result of the indiscriminate use and misuse of veterinary drugs as commonly practiced among livestock producers and marketers without observing withdrawal period prior to slaughter. These results indicate that consumers may be predisposed to health hazards and hinder international meat trade from Nigeria. Regulatory authorities should therefore ensure compliance with good agricultural practices including withdrawal period of drugs used for treatment of food animals.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lateefat Modupe Habeeb ◽  
Opasola Afolabi Olaniyi ◽  
Adiama Babatunde Yusu ◽  
Ibrahim Azaman ◽  
Morufu O Raimi

Antibiotics, which are commonly used to treat human illnesses, are also used in animals for therapy, prophylaxis, and growth promotion. Sub-therapeutic antibiotic doses have typically been utilized for the last-mentioned purpose, which has contributed to resistance development. According to scientific data, certain antibiotic applications in food-producing animals can result in antibiotic resistance in intestinal bacteria, which can then be passed to the general population, causing treatment-resistant sickness. These antibiotic applications can also result in antibiotic resistance in non-pathogenic bacteria, whose resistance genes can be passed to disease-causing bacteria, resulting in antibiotic-resistant illnesses in people. Thus, this study assessed the antibiotics residues in raw meat sold in 6 slaughter houses in Kaduna State. The study is a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 6 slaughter houses in Central market Kaduna. Muscle, Kidney and liver samples were collected from each slaughterhouse. The antibiotic residues in the meat samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and oxytetracycline residue results were presented in charts and tables. 18 different samples of beef (6 Muscles, 6 Liver and 6 Kidney) collected from abattoirs and meat vendors, the results shown that all beefs use three or more antimicrobial drugs. This research result revealed that 4(67%) tetracycline (oxytetracycline)were detected in meat samples at higher concentration), Oxytetraxycline (352.88, 221.58) of muscles is higher than (332.2, 217.05 of Liver and (263.33, 153.98) of Kidney is lower to muscles and liver. The Concentration of oxytetracycline were highest in muscles in samples 2. 3 and 6 which is above the WHO maximum residual limit. The concentration of streptomycin in the muscle, liver and kidney were detected (182.78, 56.23), (169.2, 58.39), (155.1, 50.20) but were within WHO Maximum residual limit. These high level of oxytetracycline residues in greater proportion of muscle samples destined for human consumption beyond MRLs could be as a result of the abuse of veterinary drugs as commonly practiced among livestock producers and vendors without observing withdrawal period prior to slaughter. The high-contamination rate of beef meat in the study areas is likely that consumers experience a high risk of exposure to drug residues.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jinming Zhang ◽  
Jing Xu ◽  
Weiliang Tang ◽  
Dabao Shang ◽  
Jie Lu ◽  
...  

Abstract BackgroundParasitic infections represent a worldwide public health issue in many developing countries. Few epidemiological studies regarding parasitic infections and the evolution of infection spectrum in China have been reported up to date. It is necessary to investigate the epidemiological feature of parasitic infection during recent years.MethodsThree hundred and thirty-six cases of parasitic infections were retrospectively enrolled and analyzed. Electronic medical records of the enrolled parasitic patients from January 1, 2010 to May 31, 2021 were retrieved from the Electronic Medical Record System of a tertiary hospital in China. Demographic characteristics and data of laboratory tests were exported in Excel and analysis were performed using Graphpad Prism 5.ResultsOverall, seventeen species of parasites were detected in 336 admissions with a total number of infected individuals reached the peak in 2018. Moreover, the regions of patients distributed mainly included: Shanghai (40.48%), Zhejiang (18.45%), Anhui (6.85%), Jiangsu (6.25%) and Jiangxi (4.76%). Two hundred and eighty-eight cases were diagnosed with single species of parasitic infection and 47 cases were found mixed species infection. Foodborne parasites (FBPs) were the primary species of parasites and the top 4 were clonorchis sinensis (24.70%), sparganum mansoni (16.07%), paragonimus westermani (20.83%) and cysticercus (17.86%). Obvious eosinophil elevation was found in 56.54% enrolled patients. Patients with periods of infection before the time of diagnosis lasted longer than 6 months includes four parasites: sparganum mansoni (28.30%, 15/53), paragonimus westermani (38.57%, 27/70), cysticercus (25.00%, 15/60).ConclusionsOur study demonstrated the prevalence of parasitic infection over the latest 12 years in a single center of China. The trend of parasitic infection rate reached the peak in 2018 with the dominating parasitic species changed from soil origin to foodborne. Furthermore, with the emergence of various dietary habits and the development of living conditions, unclean diets especially eating raw meat had become the main route of transmission for parasites, which alarmed that food safety education for public should be strengthened and enlarged. Although eosinophil elevation and IgE is reliable indicators for initiating screening of parasitic infection but enough for diagnosis, novel diagnostic kits for parasites should be devepoled.


Author(s):  
VLASENKO Iryna ◽  
SEMKO Tetiana

Background. The total production of beef and pork is declining from year to year. The study of development trends in the meat industry of Ukraine will help to outline the prospects for the successful realization of potential opportunities for production expansion. An analysis of recent research and publications has shown that despite some scientific developments, dynamic changes in the meat processing industry require constant monitoring of unresolved issues. The aim of the study is to analyze the current state and characteristics of the meat processing industry of Ukraine on the basis of analytical research in general and in the context of its innovation activities in particular. Materials and methods. Research methods were used: monographic, statistical groupings, correlation-regression analysis, graphical. Results. Analysis of the dynamics of industrial meat production shows that beef and veal occupy the least share in it. The basis for ensuring the economic balance of production and economic relations of economic entities is the consistency of supply and demand for raw meat and products of its processing. For the successful development of the industry, the state must protect and stimulate domestic producers; to harmonize domestic standards of safety and quality of products in accordance with international ones. The innovative development of the meat market requires adequate investment support, and the stimulation of investment activity should be considered in the context of the strategy of development of the national economy on an innovative basis. Conclusion. Livestock production in general and meat in particular are one of the leading sectors of agriculture. In recentyears, there have been some trends in the dynamics and structure of meat production and consumption in favor of cheaper poultry meat. The reason for this is the reduction in production; increase in retail prices for all types of products; low incomes of the majority of the population. A necessary condition for the sustainable development of the meat processing industry is the introduction of European regulations on product quality and safety standards; introduction of resource-saving technologies at enterprises; reconstruction of enterprises; provision of production facilities with domestic raw materials.


2021 ◽  
pp. 162-171
Author(s):  
Yasaman Kordi ◽  
Nazanin Khakipour

Background: Campylobacter strains are of the leading pathogens causing bacterial gastroenteritis, whose infections are generally considered to be one of the most common foodborne illnesses of animal origin. The etiology of this infection often goes back to eating contaminated raw meat or infected poultry. The bacteria are present in abundance in chicken skin. The use of appropriate bacteriophages is one of the most effective experiments in eliminating Campylobacter strains. Phage therapy refers to the use of bacteriophages to treat bacterial infections. Aim: Accordingly, the present study aimed to compare three experiments of bacteriophage isolation in chicken skin. Experiments: Thus, 15 samples of chicken skin were collected from five different fresh chicken suppliers in Ghaemshahr, Iran. The samples were transported to the laboratory aseptically in the vicinity of ice, and then cultured in blood agar medium, and the isolates were identified by various tests including gram staining, catalase and oxidase tests. Results: The results were compared before and after three bacteriophage isolation experiments. Out of 15 chicken skin samples tested in all three experiments, 6 (40%) strains were identified in the first experiment, 8 (53.4%) strains in the second experiment and 12 (20%) strains in the third experiment after bacteriophage therapy. Conclusion: The bacteriophage isolation experiments alone or in combination with other intervention strategies are recommended as promising tools for greater food safety. These experiments can be useful to increase food safety and reduce the risk of infection in humans through the consumption of potentially infected edible parts of chicken. According to the results of this study, among the three proposed experiments, the experiment of chicken skin enrichment in Bolton selective media containing target isolates was the most efficient approach, which showed a high limit of detection at low concentrations and the highest rate of phage recovery. This can be a more reliable way to isolate the Campylobacter bacteriophages and eliminate the Campylobacter strains.


2021 ◽  
pp. 227-231
Author(s):  
Kouengoua Kouengoua Armelle Prudence ◽  
Nankam Chimi Roland ◽  
Oyetola Wilfried Délé ◽  
Njayou Ngapagna Arouna ◽  
Alambedji Rianatou Bada ◽  
...  

Background and Aim: Shepherds are in constant contact with animals, and they are potential hosts for the transmission of zoonoses. This study aimed to assess the perceptions of shepherds in Cameroon's West region regarding zoonotic diseases. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October 2017, on 218 shepherds. The data were collected using semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaires. The participants were assessed on their knowledge, attitudes, and practices that might expose them to bovine zoonose transmission, and the data were analyzed with R, version 2.13.0. Descriptive statistics were generated, and the association between socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge was explored using the Chi-square test. Results: Out of the 218 herdsmen, (205/218) 94% did not have any education, and (195/218) 89.5% did not know the definition of zoonosis. There was a correlation between the level of education and knowledge of the definition of zoonosis: About (162/218) 74.6% cited tuberculosis as a zoonosis, (62/218) 28.4% said the main modes of transmission were by ingestion of contaminated milk, and (66/218) 30.3% by consumption of contaminated meat. Abortions during the third trimester of gestation, combined with the presence of hygroma, were described by (130/218) 59.6% of the participants as brucellosis symptoms. In terms of practices and attitudes, (187/218) 85.8% and (50.14/218) 23.0% of the participants confirmed that they consumed raw milk and raw meat, respectively. Almost all (214/218) 98.1% interviewees stated that blood consumption is forbidden. In case of suspicion of disease, (204/218) 93.6% maintained that they treated sick animals without a veterinary prescription, and (209/218) 95.9% left the carcasses in the wild. After contact with animals, (181/218) 83.3% washed their hands. Finally, (192/218) 88.3% would like to be informed about zoonoses. Conclusion: The level of knowledge about zoonotic diseases was low; a high percentage of shepherds followed inadequate hygiene practices and expressed concern about zoonoses. As a result, they are at risk of exposure to pathogens. It would be in the interest of public health to develop training programs for shepherds and livestock owners to mitigate zoonotic risks.


2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (103) ◽  
pp. 15-20
Author(s):  
O. S. Kalinina

Data on viral food contaminants that are actually or potentially capable of realizing the food route of infection are presented. The main sources of infection of food with viruses are named: human waste / faeces, contaminated food processing facilities, animals-carriers of zooanthroponotic infections. The groups of viruses transmitted through food are characterized: 1) gastroenteritis pathogens – Sapporo and Norwalk viruses from the family Caliciviridae; Rotavirus A from the family Reoviridae; Mammastroviruses 1, 6, 8 and 9 from the family Astroviridae; Human mastadenovirus F from the family Adenoviridae; Aichivirus A from the family Picornaviridae; 2) Hepatovirus A from the family Picornaviridae and Orthohepevirus A from the family Hepeviridae (with replication in the liver); 3) viruses with replication in the human intestine, which after generalization of the infection affect the CNS – Еnteroviruses B and C from the family Picornaviridae. The stability and survival time of viruses in the environment and food are shown. The main ways of transmission of viruses that are able to enter the human body through infected foods are considered. Influenza A (H1N1) virus has been identified as a possible contaminant in pork and chicken, which without heat treatment can pose a potential risk of human infection. The ability of classical and African swine fever pathogens to remain viable after industrial processing of meat or raw meat has been shown. Families of viruses whose zoopathogenic representatives can contaminate meat products (beef, pork, chicken) are named: Parvoviridae, Anelloviridae, Circoviridae, Polyomaviridae, Smacoviridae. To determine the possible latent infection of people with these viruses, it is necessary to test sera for the presence of specific antibodies. The detection of gyroviruses of the family Anelloviridae and huchismacoviruses of the family Smacoviridae in human faeces may be due to the consumption of infected chicken meat. Data on extraction and concentration methods and methods of virus detection in contaminated food products: PCR (reverse transcription and real-time), ELISA, IСA, electron microscopy, virus isolation in transplanted cell cultures with subsequent identification in serological reactions, NR, IFА, ELISA) or PCR.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Bettina M. Rosner ◽  
Martyna Gassowski ◽  
Stefan Albrecht ◽  
Klaus Stark

AbstractSurveillance of notified Campylobacter enteritis in Germany revealed a recurrent annual increase of cases with disease onset several days after the Christmas and New Year holidays (“winter peak”). We suspected that handling and consumption of chicken meat during fondue and raclette grill meals on the holidays were associated with winter peak Campylobacter infections. The hypothesis was investigated in a case–control study with a case-case design where notified Campylobacter enteritis cases served as case-patients as well as control-patients, depending on their date of disease onset (case-patients: 25/12/2018 to 08/01/2019; control-patients: any other date between 30/11/2018 and 28/02/2019). The study was conducted as an online survey from 21/01/2019 to 18/03/2019. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were determined in single-variable logistic regression analyses adjusted for age group and sex. We analysed 182 data sets from case-patients and 260 from control-patients and found associations of Campylobacter infections after the holidays with meat fondue (aOR 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2–3.8) and raclette grill meals with meat (aOR 1.5; 95% CI 1.0–2.4) consumed on the holidays. The associations were stronger when chicken meat was served at these meals (fondue with chicken meat: aOR 2.7; 95% CI 1.4–5.5; raclette grill meal with chicken meat: aOR 2.3; 95% CI 1.3–4.1). The results confirmed our initial hypothesis. To prevent Campylobacter winter peak cases in the future, consumers should be made more aware of the risks of a Campylobacter infection when handling raw meat, in particular chicken, during fondue or raclette grill meals on the holidays.


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