Moringa oleifera is nowadays raising as the most preferred medicinal plant, as every part of the moringa plant has potential bioactive compounds which can be used as herbal medicines. Some bioactive compounds of M. oleifera possess potential anti-cancer properties which interact with the apoptosis protein p53 in cancer cell lines of oral squamous cell carcinoma. This research work focuses on the interaction among the selected bioactive compounds derived from M. oleifera with targeted apoptosis protein p53 from the apoptosis pathway to check whether the bioactive compound will induce apoptosis after the mutation in p53. To check the toxicity and drug-likeness of the selected bioactive compound derived from M. oleifera based on Lipinski’s Rule of Five. Detailed analysis of the 3D structure of apoptosis protein p53. To analyze protein’s active site by CASTp 3.0 server. Molecular docking and binding affinity were analyzed between protein p53 with selected bioactive compounds in order to find the most potential inhibitor against the target. This study shows the docking between the potential bioactive compounds with targeted apoptosis protein p53. Quercetin was the most potential bioactive compound whereas kaempferol shows poor affinity towards the targeted p53 protein in the apoptosis pathway. Thus, the objective of this research can provide an insight prediction towards M. oleifera derived bioactive compounds and target apoptosis protein p53 in the structural analysis for compound isolation and in-vivo experiments on the cancer cell line.
Osteosarcoma is considered to be a highly malignant tumor affecting primarily long bones. It metastasizes widely, primarily to the lungs, resulting in poor survival rates of between 19 and 30%. Standard treatment consists of surgical removal of the affected site, with neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy commonly used, with the usual side effects and complications. There is a need for new treatments in this area, and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one potential avenue for exploration. AgNPs have been found to possess antitumor and cytotoxic activity in vitro, by demonstrating decreased viability of cancer cells through cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis. Integral to these pathways is tumor protein p53, a tumor suppressor which plays a critical role in maintaining genome stability by regulating cell division, after DNA damage. The purpose of this study was to determine if p53 mediates any difference in the response of the osteosarcoma cells in vitro when different sizes and concentrations of AgNPs are administered. Two cell lines were studied: p53-expressing HOS cells and p53-deficient Saos-2 cells. The results of this study suggest that the presence of protein p53 significantly affects the efficacy of AgNPs on osteosarcoma cells.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history of treating glaucoma with remarkable effects, but there is no clear conclusion on its mechanism.
Network pharmacology and molecular docking were used to analyze the mechanism and targets of TCM in the treatment of glaucoma, and baicalein was used to treat chronic ocular hypertension animal models rats for observation.
The results of animal experiments showed that baicalein could significantly reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in a rat model of chronic ocular hypertension and protect the structure of the retina and optic nerve, as shown by hematoxylin–eosin (H&E) staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Reducing the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) by upregulating the expression of the antiapoptotic protein BCL-2 is basically consistent with the results of molecular docking. In the network pharmacology analysis, many key proteins of biological pathways involved in the herbal therapeutic processes in glaucoma, such as threonine kinase 1 (AKT1, core protein of PI3K/AKT signaling), tumor protein p53 (TP53, a tumor suppressor gene coding tumor protein P53), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, core protein of JAK/STAT signaling), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 17 (IL-17, proinflammatory factors), were identified. Their interactions built complicated chain reactions in the process of glaucoma.
By combining the analysis of network pharmacology and animal experimental results, baicalein could effectively improve the symptoms of glaucoma and reduce RGC apoptosis, suggesting that the potential mechanism of TCM in treating glaucoma is related to regulating inflammation and cellular immunity and reducing apoptosis.
Inactivation or mutation of the tumour suppressor gene p53 or its regulator mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) is the commonest event in breast cancer. These altered genes usually express abnormally high levels of their proteins in many carcinomas. The phenotypic expression of p53 and MDM2 in breast cancer cases in our setting is not known. This study investigated the expression of the tumour suppressor protein p53 and its regulator MDM2, using immunohistochemistry in a Ghana breast cancer cohort.
A 9-year retrospective cross-sectional study on archived tissue blocks–formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue (FFPE) was carried out. Demographic data were abstracted. Based on complete clinical data and availability of FFPE archived blocks 203 cases were selected for tissue micro array (TMA) construction. The TMA sections were subjected to immunohistochemistry (IHC) (ER, PR, HER2, p53, and MDM2). Expression of p53 and MDM2 were related to grade and molecular subtypes.
The age ranged from 17 to 92 years (mean = 49.34 ± 13.74). Most of the cases were high grade; grade II (34.9%) and grade III (55.7%). Fifty-four percent of the cases were triple negative. Invasive ductal carcinoma no special type was the commonest histotype (87.1%). Thirty-six percent (36%) of the cases expressed p53. Significant associations were found between p53 overexpression and histological grade (p = 0.034), triple negative (p = 0.0333) and luminal B (p<0.01) tumors. Most cases (93.1%) were negative for MDM2 expression. Significant association was found between MDM2 and HER2 over-expression as well as Ki-67. There was no significant positive correlation between MDM2 and p53 co-expression (p>0.05).
The elevated level of p53 expression in the aggressive breast cancer phenotypes (high histological grade and triple negative) in our cohort suggest that P53 elevation may be a poor prognostic marker in our setting. High expression of MDM2 in our cohort with high Ki67; also in cases with Her2/neu overexpression known with predictable poor prognosis in the absence of target therapy suggest MDM2 may be associated with aggressive biological behaviour in our breast cancer cases. The non-significant association of p53 and MDM2 expression in the same cases as also documented by previous studies suggest independent genetic pathway in tumourigenesis.
The study of protein–protein interactions is of great interest. Several early studies focused on the murine double minute 2 (Mdm2)–tumor suppressor protein p53 interactions. However, the effect of plasma treatment on Mdm2 and p53 is still absent from the literature. This study investigated the structural changes in Mdm2, p53, and the Mdm2–p53 complex before and after possible plasma oxidation through molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. MD calculation revealed that the oxidized Mdm2 bounded or unbounded showed high flexibility that might increase the availability of tumor suppressor protein p53 in plasma-treated cells. This study provides insight into Mdm2 and p53 for a better understanding of plasma oncology.