Our study explores whether BMSC-exosomes overexpressing miR-141 can regulate Wnt signal to inhibit the malignant biological behavior of glioma cells. Thirty healthy mice were selected to construct a glioma mouse model and assigned randomly into the control group, miR-141 NC group, and
miR-141 mimic group followed by analysis of cell proliferation, apoptosis, protein expression and mRNA expression by MTT method, flow cytometry, Western blot and RT-PCR methods. Compared with the other two groups, miR-141 mimic group showed reduced number of cell proliferation at 24 h and
48 h, decreased cell migration and invasion ability, and the increased cell apoptosis rate (P < 0.05). In miR-141 mimic group, the protein expression of miR-141 was the highest, while the protein expression of β-catenin, survivin and c-myc was the lowest (P <
0.05). In conclusion, BMSC-exosomes overexpressing miR-141 can inhibit the malignant biological behavior of GC cells possibly by inhibiting the activation of Wnt signaling pathway.
Deregulation of ubiquitin-mediated degradation of oncogene products or tumor suppressors appears to be implicated in the genesis of carcinomas, according to new clinical findings. Conferring to recent research, some members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins (a subfamily of the RING type E3 ubiquitin ligases) act as significant carcinogenesis regulators. Intracellular signaling, development, apoptosis, protein quality control, innate immunity, autophagy, and carcinogenesis are all regulated by TRIM family proteins, the majority of which have E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. The expression of TRIMs in tumors is likely to be related to the formation and/or progression of the disease, and TRIM expression could be used to predict cancer prognosis. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and also the leading cause of death. TRIM family proteins have unique, vital activities, and their dysregulation, such as TRIM 21, promotes breast cancer, according to growing evidence. Many TRIM proteins have been identified as important cancer biomarkers, with decreased or elevated levels of expression. TRIM29 functions as a hypoxia-induced tumor suppressor gene, revealing a new molecular mechanism for ATM-dependent breast cancer suppression. In breast cancer cells, the TRIM28-TWIST1-EMT axis exists, and TRIM28 enhances breast cancer metastasis by stabilizing TWIST1 and thereby increasing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Interestingly, many TRIM proteins are involved in the control of p53, and many TRIM proteins are likewise regulated by p53, according to current research. Furthermore, TRIMs linked to specific tumors may aid in the creation of innovative TRIM-targeted cancer treatments. This review focuses on TRIM proteins that are involved in tumor development, progression, and clinical significance in breast cancer.
Moringa oleifera is nowadays raising as the most preferred medicinal plant, as every part of the moringa plant has potential bioactive compounds which can be used as herbal medicines. Some bioactive compounds of M. oleifera possess potential anti-cancer properties which interact with the apoptosis protein p53 in cancer cell lines of oral squamous cell carcinoma. This research work focuses on the interaction among the selected bioactive compounds derived from M. oleifera with targeted apoptosis protein p53 from the apoptosis pathway to check whether the bioactive compound will induce apoptosis after the mutation in p53. To check the toxicity and drug-likeness of the selected bioactive compound derived from M. oleifera based on Lipinski’s Rule of Five. Detailed analysis of the 3D structure of apoptosis protein p53. To analyze protein’s active site by CASTp 3.0 server. Molecular docking and binding affinity were analyzed between protein p53 with selected bioactive compounds in order to find the most potential inhibitor against the target. This study shows the docking between the potential bioactive compounds with targeted apoptosis protein p53. Quercetin was the most potential bioactive compound whereas kaempferol shows poor affinity towards the targeted p53 protein in the apoptosis pathway. Thus, the objective of this research can provide an insight prediction towards M. oleifera derived bioactive compounds and target apoptosis protein p53 in the structural analysis for compound isolation and in-vivo experiments on the cancer cell line.
AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effect of the combined use of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and oridonin on choroidal melanoma cell lines, and to explore its underlying mechanism.
METHODS: MUM-2B and C918 cells were treated with different concentrations of TRAIL and oridonin, and MTT assay used to evaluate the inhibition rate of the two compounds on cells. Then, the cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry, and changes in apoptosis-related proteins such as death receptor 5 (DR5), a-caspase-3, and x-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) were detected by Western blot. MUM-2B cells were transfected with si-DR5, which interfered with the expression of the DR5 gene. MTT and Western blot assay were used to detect cell activity and apoptosis-related proteins.
RESULTS: When TRAIL and oridonin were simultaneously administered to the MUM-2B cells, the apoptosis rate was significantly higher than that by the two drugs individually. However, the effect of combined use of TRAIL and oridonin on C918 cells was not significantly different from that used alone. Cell cycle analysis showed that TRAIL and oridonin could induce G2/M arrest in MUM-2B cells. The Western blot results showed that the protein expression levels of the DR5, a-caspase-3, and BAX increased, while the expression levels of the anti-apoptosis-related proteins XIAP and BCL-2 were suppressed when TRAIL and oridonin simultaneously administered to MUM-2B cells. Interfering the expression of DR5 gene in MUM-2B cells could reverse the inhibitory effect of oridonin and TRAIL on the proliferation and apoptosis induction of MUM-2B cells.
CONCLUSION: The inhibitory effects of oridonin and TRAIL on MUM-2B cells are significantly enhanced when they were administered as a combined treatment, which may ascribe to up-regulation of DR5.
Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) have been associated with tumor development and progression by affecting apoptosis through cell death signaling pathways. To date, eight IAPs (BIRC1–8) have been identified in mammalian cells. However, the role of IAPs in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) development and progression has not been explored in depth. In this study, we used public datasets and bioinformatics tools to compare the expression, prognostic significance, and function of IAPs in NSCLC and its subtypes. Expression of IAPs in cancer and normal tissues and at different stages of NSCLC was compared with gene expression profiling interactive analysis, and their prognostic significance was analyzed with the Kaplan–Meier Plotter database. The correlations among IAPs were analyzed with the STRING database and SPSS19.0. Functional annotation of IAPs was analyzed by Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment on the basis of the DAVID tool. Among patients with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), the expression level of BIRC5 was higher than that in normal samples, and the expression of BIRC1 and BIRC5 significantly varied in different stages. Moreover, the BIRC1–3 and BIRC5 mRNA levels were associated with overall survival (OS), and the BIRC1–2 and BIRC5–6 mRNA levels were associated with progression-free survival (PFS). Among patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), the expression level of BIRC1 was lower and that of BIRC5 was higher than those in normal tissues, and BIRC5 expression significantly varied in different stages. BIRC1 expression was associated with OS, whereas BIRC2 and BIRC6 expression was associated with PFS. Enrichment analysis showed that most IAPs are associated with ubiquitin- and apoptosis-related pathways. Collectively, this study suggests BIRC5 as a potential diagnostic and staging marker, BIRC1 as a potential marker of OS, and BIRC2 and BIRC6 as potential PFS markers for patients with NSCLC. These highlight new targets for the early detection, treatment, and management of NSCLC.
Myocardial infarction (MI) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality due partly to the limited regenerative capacity of cardiomyocytes to replace cardiomyocyte lost due to apoptosis. Inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis is recognized as an effective therapeutic approach for MI. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs), which regulate target genes at the post-transcriptional level, play a significant role in the regulation of cardiovascular diseases such as MI. MicroRNA-135b (miR-135b) has a protective effect on cardiomyocytes. However, the role of miR-135b in cardiomyocyte apoptosis in infarct myocardium needs further clarification.
We generated α-MHC-miR-135b transgenic mice to investigate the role of miR-135b in myocardial injury after MI. MiR-135b mimic and negative control (NC) were transfected into H2O2-induced cardiomyocytes to evaluate the effect of overexpression of miR-135b on the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis.
Our results showed that overexpression of miR-135b had protective effect on cardiomyocyte injury both in vivo and in vitro. MiR-135b inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis and ROS generation, downregulated proapoptosis proteins (cleaved-caspase-3 and Bax), and increased anti-apoptosis protein (Bcl-2). Moreover, miR-135b showed an inhibitory effect on apoptosis-related protein target transient receptor potential vanilloid-type 4 (TRPV4) cation channel.
MiR-135b might be considered a new molecular target for potential replacement therapy as antiapoptotic cardioprotection in the setting of MI.
AbstractSoft tissue sarcoma (STS) is a predominantly fatal rare malignancy with inadequate treatment options. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) is an emerging target in human malignancies. Its therapeutic relevance in STS is unknown. We analyzed the prognostic impact of GSK-3β gene and protein expression in two independent cohorts of patients with STS. We then treated STS cell lines and mice xenografts with a novel GSK-3 inhibitor 9-ING-41 alone or in combination with chemotherapy. We demonstrated that 9-ING-41 treatment induced significant STS cells apoptosis and was synergistic in vivo when combined with chemotherapy. Mechanistically, 9-ING-41 induces significant apoptosis of STS cells via suppression of NF-κB-mediated X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) expression. These data support the inclusion of patients with STS in clinical studies of 9-ING-41 alone and in combination with chemotherapy.
Purpose: To examine the efficacy of Celastrus orbiculatus extract (COE) on the chemosensitivity of liver cancer (LC) cells and its mechanism of action.Methods: Hep G2/ADM cells in the logarithmic growth phase were assigned to a control group (no treatment for cell culture medium only) and a study group (120 μg/ml COE added to the culture medium). After 48 h of incubation, the biological responses were compared. The study group wasdivided into groups A and B, while control group was divided into groups C and D, with 1 μmol/L XAV939 added in groups A and C. Cell proliferation, cell invasion, cell apoptosis rate, and apoptosis protein in the four groups were evaluated.Results: The study group showed significantly lower values in terms of cell proliferation and cell invasiveness (p < 0.05) and a higher apoptotic rate than the control group (p < 0.05)). The study group also demonstrated an elevated pro-apoptotic protein Bax level and a declined anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 level. In contrast to group B, the proliferation and invasiveness of Hep G2/ADM cells in group A treated with the inhibitor, XAV939, were significantly lower (p < 0.05), while the apoptotic rate exhibited a significant increase (p < 0.05). There was a rise in the level of pro-apoptotic protein, Bax, and a fall in the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 level in group A. Lower levels of β-catenin, c-Myc, and cyclin D1 protein were observed in the study group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Compared with other groups, the multiplication capacity and invasiveness of cells in group A treated with COE and inhibitor XAV939 significantly declined, while the apoptotic rate increased (p < 0.05).Conclusion: COE reverses drug resistance in chemotherapy by inhibiting the expression of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in LC cells. Therefore, COE has potentials for use along with chemotherapeutic agents in the management of liver cancer.