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2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (3) ◽  
pp. pp255-268
Bela Khakhuk ◽  
Natalia Morgunovа ◽  
Lydia Nosenko ◽  
Lyudmila Posokhova ◽  
Еlena Zatsarinnaya

One of the major problems in the relationship between the Global South and the Global North is the the drain of intellectual capital from the economies and education systems of the most developed countries of the Global South, which bothers both developing countries and some European ones. The purpose of the study is to reveal the reasons for the migration of scientists and students from Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China, South Africa (BRICS countries) and identify the consequences of the process through the example of a Russian university by studying the characteristics of personal experience and motivation of students and teachers. The research is devoted to the study of academic activity abroad and the attitude of 360 four- and five-year students and 321 teachers at Novosibirsk State University (Novosibirsk, the Russian Federation) towards the practice. The survey results revealed that a relatively small number of respondents (31.07% of teachers and 9.03% of students) have experience of foreign academic activity; the large majority of participants highly assessed the possibility of studying and working abroad (4.87 and 3.48 on a 5-point Likert scale among teachers and students, respectively). The results of the study are in line with the findings of similar studies on academic migration in other BRICS countries; therefore, they can be extrapolated in a broader context. In particular, according to all respondents, the possibility of repeated or circular migration is extremely low (0.88 and 1.61). The research results can help to manage international research and exchange programs, as well as to regulate university training programs and academic migration. The novelty of the study lies in the analysis of the motivation of scientists and students on academic migrating and their assessment of migration intentions based on an example of a single educational institution and region.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 ◽  
pp. 767-797
Yousef Ali Ahmed Al-Nahdi ◽  
Shuo Zhao

There is an increasing demand in recent years for the study of the Arabic language by foreign learners as a second language, especially Chinese students. There are wide ranges of necessity to Arabic languages, such as commercial, industrial, economic, cultural, political, media, and other fields. Many foreign learners are learning this language to increase demands in all areas of life and use it in non-Arabic-speaking countries. China is one of those earliest countries that took this advantage and offered this program for an academic major. It’s almost 37 universities and institutes where the Arabic language is taught in China. The request for learning this language has increased because of the urgent need for exchange programs with Arab-speaking countries. As result, international experts believe motivations are an important factor in teaching Arabic to non-speakers that can be influential reasons for the foreign learners to practice, argue, push and motivate them to benefit more and overcome the difficulties of the Arabic language. This study examines two facial types of motivations, instrumental and integrative motivations. In this study, all participants are Chinese students currently studying in China. The number of participants was 125 students from both genders, including 4 academic directors of the Arabic language department in five public Chinese Universities. The findings show that Chinese students learning Arabic as a Second Language (ASL) are highly instrumental than integrative to studying Arabic. A lack of experience of the Arabic language in their classrooms and society guides their attitude. The findings also revealed that there is a relationship between the language structure and a classroom environment that decreases their motivation and achievements of learning Arabic.

2022 ◽  
pp. 721-736
Carlo Mari ◽  
Olimpia Meglio

The conventional discourse on corporate social responsibility (CSR) focuses on big companies and tends to neglect small, medium, and family firms. However, scholars state that simply scaling down CSR theories does not capture the variations in CSR choices across companies and contexts. The authors remedy this state of affairs by investigating an Italian family firm in the animal feed industry in light of an integrative framework that combines institutional- and company-level factors explaining the variations in CSR choices. The findings highlight how the company under investigation is committed to ensuring animal welfare by offering healthy and safe animal feed through innovation and certification. In addition, the company is well embedded in the local community and represents a point of reference for the inhabitants. Initiatives ranging from scholarships to university exchange programs to running races contribute to mobilizing human resources and to improving the company's brand awareness.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-23
Lourdes Evangelina Zilberberg Oviedo ◽  
Jan Krimphove

This article presents the results of a study conducted in the Brazilian higher education system aiming at analyzing the contributions of virtual exchange programs to the development of intercultural competence in students. The unprecedented study assists to enrich the limited body of knowledge about virtual exchanges in Brazil. The units of analysis consisted of member institutions of the Brazilian Association for International Education (FAUBAI) that were already running virtual exchange programs in 2020. The study follows an exploratory qualitative research approach based on semi-structured interviews with international office administrators of the institutions analyzed. What stands out among the study’s main findings is the fact that, Brazilian international office administrators consider virtual exchanges as an important tool for Internationalization at Home, and thus, a path toward a more inclusive internationalization model. Even with all the difficulties, such as: major technical issues, low level of language proficiency in faculty and students, lack of commitment and the disadvantages deriving from lack of a deeper and more intense cultural immersion when compared to real-life experiences, there is a consensus that virtual exchanges do contribute toward the development of intercultural competence in students. Therefore, it seems important to promote more Internationalization at Home initiatives to create more circumstances of proximity with other cultures and second-language learning opportunities.  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (3) ◽  
pp. 705-716
Rüya Ehtiyar ◽  
Özlem Güzel ◽  
Hijran Rzazade

The international student mobility, aiming to create and sustain international integration has been an essential part of the education market in the 21st century. However, while such international student exchange programs contribute to the students and the cities hosting them, they bring along some problems. The aim of this study is to identify the main problem areas that international university students are likely to encounter. By applying the qualitative research method, the phenomenological research design was used in the study since it aims to reveal the problems of students based on their individual experiences. In-depth interviews were conducted with the Azerbaijani students studying at Akdeniz University selected as the research sample, which were then descriptively analyzed. The main problems were identified as “economic problems, inability to understand the local language, problems with accommodation, feeling cheated and intimidated, being inexperienced, lack of knowledge about the formal procedures, cultural diversity, lack of support, and exclusion”. The problems regarding finance and accommodation emerged as the most frequently mentioned problems. The main strategies to overcome these problems are also discussed.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Linsey Ann Belisle ◽  
Elia Del Carmen Solano-Patricio

Purpose As prison drug use continues to be a concern worldwide, harm reduction practices serve as an alternative approach to traditional abstinence-only or punishment-oriented methods to address substance use behind bars. The purpose of this study is to present a summary of research surrounding prison-based harm reduction programs. Design/methodology/approach This narrative review of the international literature summarizes the harms associated with prison drug use followed by an overview of the literature surrounding three prison-based harm reduction practices: opioid agonist therapy, syringe exchange programs and naloxone distribution. Findings A collection of international research has found that these three harm reduction programs are safe and feasible to implement in carceral settings. Additionally, these services can effectively reduce some of the harms associated with prison drug use (e.g. risky injection practices, needle sharing, fatal overdoses, etc.). However, these practices are underused in correctional settings in comparison to their use in the community. Originality/value Various policy recommendations are made based on the available literature, including addressing ethical concerns surrounding prison populations’ rights to the same standard of health care and services available in the community. By taking a public health approach to prison drug use, harm reduction practices can provide a marginalized, high-risk population of incarcerated individuals with life-saving services rather than punitive, punishment-oriented measures.

2021 ◽  
pp. 79-88
Chieh Yun Yang ◽  
Dengming Xie ◽  
Jose Weng Chou Wong

This article highlights an increasingly popular form of experiential learning, namely overseas exchange programs. Experiential learning is regarded as a valuable way to link up theoretical knowledge and practical skills in hospitality and tourism education. Although some studies have addressed the importance of experiential learning, the factors influencing students’ choice of overseas exchange programs, and the challenges and benefits of students’ experiential learning are still unclear, especially on the overseas exchange programs. The purpose of this study is to reveal the whole picture of overseas exchange programs by utilizing experiential learning cycle theory, and further understand students’ perception of overseas experiential learning. By employing quantitative and qualitative methods, including questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews with students who have participated in the overseas exchange programs and content analysis of program information, this study analyzes the differences of factors considered by males and females in choosing overseas exchange programs, and displays the four-stage learning process of experiential learning in overseas exchange programs and identifies two themes of challenges (living challenges and learning challenges) and five themes of benefits (cognitive development, behavioural change, multiple skill development, social bonding development, academic competitiveness & employability enhancement) for experiential learning for students majoring in Hospitality and Tourism. The study enriches our understandings of the experiential learning cycle theory and provides insights to educators in the design of future overseas exchange programs.  

2021 ◽  

The interdisciplinary collection contains 16 essays by scholars from literary and cultural studies, by sociologists, historians, musicologists, art historians and media experts. Following the introduction to the key issues in cultural politics and propaganda and a synopsis of the essays, an article surveys the reciprocal perception of Austria and the USA from the 18th century onwards. The following essays analyze various historical phases in the complex relationship between Austria (and Central Europe) and the USA. Several essays survey the strategies used to promote Austrian tourism and contrast them with advertisements for American sights, and document the implementation of aid programs for the impoverished societies in Austria in the aftermath of World War One. There follow articles that discuss the role of exiled Austrians in the dissemination of a positive image of Austria and a favorable view of the USA, while two contributions are devoted to the misrepresentation of significant individuals active in Austria in the interwar years. Special attention is then paid to the role of the Marshall Plan in economic reconstruction in Austria and Western Europe, and to the promotion of liberal democracy in the media during the Cold War. The impact of transatlantic exchange programs for scholars and scientists in the countries of Europe under Soviet influence is also considered. The wide range of essays concludes with critical perspectives on political phenomena, such as the apparently exaggerated role of Austrian resistance fighters in the liberation of the country from the Nazi tyranny in 1945, and on the controversy over Dr. Kurt Waldheim as reflected in popular music in the 1980s. The transfer of new concepts of contemporary art in museums and of contrasted cinematic genres resulting in a merger is illustrated in the final two essays.

2021 ◽  
pp. 104365962110579
Sevil Guner ◽  
Sibel Ocak Akturk ◽  
Semra Oner Aydın ◽  
Birsen Karaca Saydam

Introduction: As women experience cultural practices during their lifespan, midwives’ displaying a culture-specific approach from the school years is of great importance for the quality of care. This study was conducted to determine the intercultural sensitivity and ethnocentrism levels of midwife candidates in Turkey. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,616 midwifery students who studied in seven different regions of Turkey in the 2018–2019 academic year. Data were collected through a questionnaire, Intercultural Sensitivity Scale, and Ethnocentrism Scale. Results: It was determined that the variables such as the region where the midwife candidates grew up and location of the university, their years at school, and having friends from different cultures were effective on their intercultural sensitivity and ethnocentrism levels ( p < .05). Discussion: Consequently, it is concluded that international student exchange programs and culture-sensitive-based care approaches during midwifery education will increase the intercultural sensitivity levels of students and contribute to reducing ethnocentrism levels.

Ekaterini Nikolarea

In this study the author will present how Human Intelligence (HI – nous), in co-operation with Artificial Intelligence (AI) – Internet can communicate his/her knowledge and interdisciplinary research to an international context (i.e., Erasmus exchange programs and/or international conferences). Having over a twenty-year experience of teaching ESP/EAP at a non-English University and over a twenty-five-year experience of editing research papers in English, the writer will present how a nous/student/researcher and an academic can use to his/her advantage IT tools, such as electronic dictionaries and forums. Finally, the author of this study will propose: (a) a couple of methods, which can be applied through AI (i.e., Google or any other search engines) so that the non-English nous/student/researcher/academic (a nous) will be certain that s/he communicates "correctly" and "appropriately" his/her research in an international context whose primary language of communication is English; and (b) a specific bilingual (or multilingual) knowledge management tool (i.e. an electronic TDB: Terminological Data Bank).

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