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Prakash Sharma

Abstract: This paper presents a relative study among two Ring oscillators architecture (CMOS, NMOS) and current-starved Voltage-controlled oscillator (CS-VCO) on the basis of different parameters like power dissipation ,phase noise etc. All the design has been done in 45- nm CMOS technology node and 2.3 GHz Centre frequency have been taken for the comparison because of their applications in AV Devices and Radio control. An inherent idea of the given performance parameters has been realize by thecomparative study. The comparative data shows that NMOS based Ring oscillator is good option in terms of the phase noise performance. In this study NMOS Ring Oscillator have attain a phase noise -97.94 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset frequency from 2.3 GHz center frequency. The related data also shows that CMOS Ring oscillator is the best option in terms of power consumption. In this work CMOS Ring oscillator evacuatea power of 1.73 mW which is quite low. Keywords: Voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), phase noise, power consumption, Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), Current Starved Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (CS- VCO), Pull up network (PUN), Pull down network (PDN)

Micromachines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 123
Junzhe Shen ◽  
Tian Qiang ◽  
Minjia Gao ◽  
Yangchuan Ma ◽  
Junge Liang ◽  

In this paper, a bandpass filter (BPF) was developed utilizing GaAs-based integrated passive device technology which comprises an asymmetrical spiral inductor and an interleaved array capacitor, possessing two tuning modes: coarse-tuning and fine-tuning. By altering the number of layers and radius of the GaAs substrate metal spheres, capacitance variation from 0.071 to 0.106 pF for coarse-tuning, and of 0.0015 pF for fine-tuning, can be achieved. Five air bridges were employed in the asymmetrical spiral inductor to save space, contributing to a compact chip area of 0.015λ0 × 0.018λ0. The BPF chip was installed on the printed circuit board artwork with Au bonding wire and attached to a die sink. Measured results demonstrate an insertion loss of 0.38 dB and a return loss of 21.5 dB at the center frequency of 2.147 GHz. Furthermore, under coarse-tuning mode, variation in the center frequency from 1.956 to 2.147 GHz and transmission zero frequency from 4.721 to 5.225 GHz can be achieved. Under fine-tuning mode, the minimum tuning value and the average tuning value of the proposed BPF can be accurate to 1.0 MHz and 4.7 MHz for the center frequency and 1.0 MHz and 12.8 MHz for the transmission zero frequency, respectively.

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 219
Tae-Hyeon Lee ◽  
Ki-Cheol Yoon ◽  
Kwang Gi Kim

A stepped impedance resonator (SIR) is suitable for designing a dual-band bandpass filter (BPF) that can be adjusted to reject spurious bands. A BPF is proposed using an SIR T-shaped meander line and folded structure. The BPF mainly comprises a meander line, a folded structure, and a T-shaped line. A novel BPF is used for the T-shaped line, which operates as a band-stop filter connecting to the center of the BPF. As a result, the complete BPF enables dual-band operation. The insertion and return losses of the first frequency passband (f01) are 0.024 and 17.3 dB, respectively, with a bandwidth of 46% at a center frequency of 2.801 GHz (2.2–3.48 GHz). The insertion and return losses of the second frequency passband (f02) are 0.026 and 17.2 dB, respectively, with a bandwidth of 10% at a center frequency of 4.351 GHz (4.13–4.55 GHz). The proposed BPF provides low loss, a simple structure, and a small size of only 4.29 × 4.08 mm, and it can be integrated into mobile communications systems.

Soumik Dey ◽  
Sukomal Dey

Abstract This paper presents a broadband miniaturized Fabry–Perot cavity resonator antenna (CRA) made of novel electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) superstrate as partially reflecting surface (PRS) and reactive impedance surface (RIS) backed rectangular patch antenna. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the proposed EBG exhibits the highest stopband bandwidth (BW) with a bandgap existing between 7.37 and 12.4 GHz (50.9%). Frequency-selective property of the EBG is utilized under plane wave incidence to demonstrate it as PRS superstrate in CRA antenna. The cavity is excited with a rectangular microstrip antenna which is made of two dielectric substrates with an additional RIS layer sandwiched between them. The RIS provides wideband impedance matching of the primary feed antenna. A 7 × 7 array of the EBG superstrate is loaded over the patch antenna having an overall lateral dimension of only 45 × 45 mm2 or 1.62 λ0 × 1.62 λ0 where λ0 is the free space wavelength at the center frequency of 10.8 GHz. The proposed Fabry–Perot CRA (FP-CRA) achieves gain enhancement of 6.59 dB as compared with the reference antenna and has a 10 dB return loss BW of 23.79% from 10.07 to 12.79 GHz. A prototype of the FP-CRA is fabricated and experimentally tested with single and dual layers of EBG superstrate. Measured results show BWs of 21.5 and 24.8% for the two cases with peak realized gain of 12.05 and 14.3 dBi, respectively. Later a four-element antenna array with corporate feeding is designed as the primary feed of the CRA. The simulation result shows a flat gain of >13 dBi with gain variation <1.2 dB over the impedance BW of 13.2%.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Wei Xu ◽  
Jingchang Nan ◽  
Mingming Gao

A compact circularly polarized (CP) antenna is proposed for low-profile and wideband operation based on characteristic mode analysis (CMA). A ring patch with a gap and two arc-shaped metallic stubs as the radiator is analyzed and optimized by CMA to figure out the orthogonal modes and operating frequency band for potential good axial ratio (AR) performance. The studies of these CP modes provide a physical insight into the property of broadband circular polarization. Such an in-depth understanding paves the way for the proposal of novel CP antenna with separation between the design of radiator and feeding network. A 50-Ω coplanar waveguide (CPW) is introduced and placed appropriately to excite the desired modes based on the information from CMA, which employs two asymmetric ground planes to improve the performance in terms of AR and impedance matching. The antenna with a compact size of 0.71λ0 × 0.76λ0 × 0.038λ0 (λ0 is the free-space wavelength at the center frequency of the 3-dB AR bandwidth) is fabricated and measured for validation. The realized gain varies from 1.6 to 3.1 dBic over the operating bandwidth characterized by the measured 10-dB impedance bandwidth of 83.8% (3.98–9.72 GHz) and 3-dB AR bandwidth of 70.3% (4.59–9.57 GHz), respectively.

Bilgin Metin ◽  
Yasin Basaran ◽  
Norbert Herencsar ◽  
Mohammad Faseehuddin ◽  
Oguzhan Cicekoglu

Micromachines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 99
Ziyuan Wang ◽  
Changde He ◽  
Wendong Zhang ◽  
Yifan Li ◽  
Pengfei Gao ◽  

Capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUTs) have broad application prospects in medical imaging, flow monitoring, and nondestructive testing. CMUT arrays are limited by their fabrication process, which seriously restricts their further development and application. In this paper, a vacuum-sealed device for medical applications is introduced, which has the advantages of simple manufacturing process, no static friction, repeatability, and high reliability. The CMUT array suitable for medical imaging frequency band was fabricated by a silicon wafer bonding technology, and the adjacent array devices were isolated by an isolation slot, which was cut through the silicon film. The CMUT device fabricated following this process is a 4 × 16 array with a single element size of 1 mm × 1 mm. Device performance tests were conducted, where the center frequency of the transducer was 3.8 MHz, and the 6 dB fractional bandwidth was 110%. The static capacitance (29.4 pF) and center frequency (3.78 MHz) of each element of the array were tested, and the results revealed that the array has good consistency. Moreover, the transmitting and receiving performance of the transducer was evaluated by acoustic tests, and the receiving sensitivity was −211 dB @ 3 MHz, −213 dB @ 4 MHz. Finally, reflection imaging was performed using the array, which provides certain technical support for the research of two-dimensional CMUT arrays in the field of 3D ultrasound imaging.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Jinxing Li ◽  
Guohui Yang ◽  
Yueyi Yuan ◽  
Qun Wu ◽  
Kuang Zhang

The metasurface-based superoscillatory lens has been demonstrated to be effective in finely tailoring the wavefront of light to generate focal spots beyond the diffraction limit in the far-field that is capable of improving the resolution of the imaging system. In this paper, an ultra-thin (0.055 λ0) metasurface-based superoscillatory lens (SOL) that can generate a sub-diffraction optical needle with a long focal depth is proposed, which is constructed by ultra-thin chiral unit cells containing two metal split-ring resonators (SRR) with a 90° twisted angle difference cladded on both sides of a 1.5 mm-thick dielectric substrate, with a high linear cross-polarized transmission coefficient around 0.9 and full phase control capability at 11 GHz. Full-wave simulation shows that SOL generates a sub-diffraction optical needle within 10.5–11.5 GHz. At the center frequency, the focal depth is 281 mm (10.3 λ0) within 105–386 mm, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) is 18.5 mm (0.68 λ0), about 0.7 times the diffraction limit, generally consistent with the theoretical result. The proposed ultra-thin chiral metasurface-based SOL holds great potential in integrating into practical imaging applications for its simple fabrication, high efficiency, and low-profile advantages.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Yuxing Li ◽  
Feiyue Ning ◽  
Xinru Jiang ◽  
Yingmin Yi

The analysis of ship radiation signals to identify ships is an important research content of underwater acoustic signal processing. The traditional fast Fourier transform (FFT) is not suitable for analyzing non-stationary, non-Gaussian, and nonlinear signal processing. In order to realize the feature extraction and accurate classification of ship radiation signals with higher accuracy, a feature extraction method of ship radiation signals based on wavelet packet decomposition and energy entropy is proposed in this paper. According to wavelet packet decomposition, the ship radiation signal is decomposed into different frequency bands, and its energy entropy feature is extracted. As for comparisons, the center frequency and permutation entropy are also used as features to be extracted, then the k-nearest neighbor is applied to classify and recognize the extracted results. Based on the comparisons of wavelet packet decomposition, the center frequency, permutation entropy, and the k-nearest neighbor are used for classification and recognition. The experimental results present that, when comparing with center frequency and permutation entropy, the method based on energy entropy has the best availability, with the highest average recognition rate for four types of ship radiation signals, up to 98%.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (2) ◽  
pp. 140
Teguh Praludi ◽  
Yana Taryana ◽  
Ken Paramayudha ◽  
Budi Prawara ◽  
Yusnita Rahayu ◽  

This paper presents the design, simulation, realization and analysis of flexible microstrip patch antenna for S-band applications. The proposed design also adopts the conformal structure by utilizing flexible substrate. Conformal or flexible structure allows the antenna to fit with any specified shape as desired. The antenna patch dimensions is 43 mm × 25 mm without SMA connector. The patch is etched on the flexible dielectric substrate, pyralux FR 9111, with a relative dielectric constant of εr = 3 and the thickness of substrate, h = 0.025 mm. The antenna is designed to resonate at 3.2 GHz. The return loss (RL) of the simulation is -35.80 dB at the center frequency of 3.2 GHz. The fabricated antenna prototype was measured at different bending angles scenarios including 0º, 30º, 60º, and 90º. The measurement of antenna prototype shows that the center frequency is shifted to the higher frequency of 3.29 GHz, compared to the simulation result. Among these scenarios, measurement at bending angle of 90º gives the best performance with RL = - 31.38 dB at 3.29 GHz, the bandwidth is 80 MHz, and the impedance ZA = 48.36 + j2.04 Ω. Despite a slight differences from simulation results, the designed antenna still performs well as expected.

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