muscle protein synthesis
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2022 ◽  
Patrice Francis-Emmanuel ◽  
Michael Boyne ◽  
Alice Ryan ◽  
Charlene Hafer-Macko ◽  
Richard Macko ◽  

Abstract Context and Objectives: Ischaemic stroke (IS) causes disability and uses massive public health resources. Cumulative disability from recurrence may be reduced with cardiometabolic risk reduction strategies e.g., lowering blood pressure (BP). We hypothesized that intensive exercise plus best available care in adults with recent IS improves fitness, glucose metabolism, muscle protein synthesis in paretic limbs compared to controls. BP changes were compared between intervention (INT) and controls (CON). Research Design and Setting: A randomised, interventional clinical trial conducted in Jamaican adults subjects: We investigate 103 adults with recent IS and residual weakness. Forty-nine subjects (24 women: mean age 61.5; 25 men: mean age 63.8) received task-oriented exercise training (TEXT) plus best available care. Fifty-four subjects (23 women: mean age 60.2; 31 men: mean age 61.3) received best care, including exercise advice. Measurements: We measured baseline, 3-month and 6-month BP. Results: After recent IS, TEXT plus best available care reduced systolic BP by 21 mmHg and diastolic by 12 mmHg compared to controls, independent of medication adherence, body composition; stroke severity. Men in the TEXT group had increased lean mass (P < 0.007), VO2 max (P = 0.03); 6-minute walk distance (P = 0.003). Leg press on paretic (P = 0.004) and non-paretic (P < 0.001) increased with TEXT vs CON over 6 months, in both sexes (P-values for sex difference > 0.2). Time-to-chair-rise decreased in both sexes who received intervention vs controls (P <0.04) Conclusions: TEXT results in significant blood pressure reduction in adults with recent ischaemic stroke and residual weakness when compared with best available medical care only.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  

There is a direct relationship between COVID-19 and smoking. This relationship has detrimental consequences for smoking and COVID-19 on body physiology. Smoking causes disc herniation, lungs diseases, heart illness, lipid profile changes, muscle protein synthesis declines, head, neck, and gastric cancers, cerebral inflammation, weight loss and obesity. The smoking habit of pregnant women leads to miscarriage, poor foetal growth, and low lipid and protein levels in breast milk. In males, it also reduces semen ejaculation and seminal vesicle volume. The treatment is based on quitting the smoking. Preventive measures such as a healthy diet and regular exercise can help to mitigate the negative consequences of smoking. In addition, smoking has been recognised as a major factor in COVID-19 transmission. Tobacco smokers are at increased risk of serious COVID-19 infection due to poor lung function, cross-infection, and vulnerable hygiene behaviors. People who have smoked in the past are thought to be more susceptible than non-smokers to have more severe COVID-19 illness symptoms. COVID-19 is more common among smokers than nonsmokers. Current smokers are five times more likely to have influenza infection than non-smokers. Smoking has been identified as one of the risk factors linked to infection and death.

2021 ◽  
Brittany Franch ◽  

Cancer cachexia is defined as the unintentional loss of skeletal muscle mass with or without fat loss that cannot be reversed by conventional nutritional support. Cachexia occurs in ~20% of cancer patients. More specifically, 50% of lung cancer patients, the most common cancer worldwide, develop cachexia. Cachexia occurs most often in lung and gastrointestinal cancers, whereas breast and prostate have the lowest rate of cachexia. Cancer-induced cachexia disrupts skeletal muscle protein turnover (decreasing protein synthesis and increasing protein degradation). Skeletal muscle’s capacity for protein synthesis is highly sensitive to local and systemic stimuli that are controlled by mTORC1 and AMPK signaling. During cachexia, altered protein turnover is thought to occur through suppressed anabolic signaling via mTORC1, coinciding with the chronic activation of AMPK. While progress has been made in understanding some of the mechanisms underlying the suppressed anabolic signaling in cachectic muscle, gaps still remain in our understanding of muscle’s ability to respond to anabolic stimulus prior to cachexia development. The purpose of this study was to determine if cachexia progression disrupts the feeding regulation of AMPK signaling and if gp130 signaling and muscle contraction could regulate this process. Specific aim 1 examined the feeding regulation of skeletal muscle protein synthesis in pre-cachectic tumor bearing mice. Feeding increased muscle protein synthesis, while lowering AMPK signaling in pre-cachectic tumor bearing mice. Importantly, pre-cachectic tumor bearing mice have overall suppressed muscle protein synthesis independent of the fast or fed condition. Muscle specific AMPK loss was sufficient to improve the fasting suppression of muscle mTORC1 and protein synthesis in pre-cachectic tumor bearing mice. Specific aim 2 examined if muscle gp130 signaling regulates the feeding regulation of AMPK during cancer cachexia progression. Muscle gp130 loss lowered the fasting induction of AMPK in pre-cachectic tumor bearing mice without improving protein synthesis. Muscle gp130 loss did not alter the feeding regulation of muscle Akt/mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis. Specific Aim 3 examined if an acute bout of muscle contractions could improve the muscle protein synthesis response to feeding during the progression of cachexia. Pre-cachectic tumor bearing mice exhibit suppressed protein synthesis in response low frequency electrical stimulation, and the inability to synergistically induce protein synthesis in response to feeding and contraction. In summary, pre-cachectic tumor bearing mice have lowered Akt/mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis. Feeding can induce Akt/mTORC1 and protein synthesis and AMPK regulates the fasting suppression of protein synthesis in pre-cachectic tumor bearing mice. While gp130 loss reduces AMPK it is not sufficient to improve protein synthesis in pre-cachectic tumor bearing mice. The added protein synthesis response to feeding and contraction is blunted in pre-cachectic tumor bearing mice. These findings provide novel insight into the regulation of Akt/mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis in response to feeding. Additionally, these studies highlight gp130’s regulation of AMPK prior to cachexia development, and the blunted anabolic muscle response to feeding and contraction in pre-cachectic tumor bearing mice. By understanding these intracellular signaling processes and perturbations prior to cachexia development, we will be able to elucidate potential therapeutic targets and treatment options to manipulate and prevent cancer cachexia.

2021 ◽  
Ryan Middleton ◽  
Mario Fournier ◽  
Russell Rogers ◽  
Brandon Grimes ◽  
Xuan Xu ◽  

Abstract BackgroundPulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) is a progressive cardiopulmonary disease and is characterized by occlusive remodeling of pulmonary arterioles and increased pulmonary vascular resistance. With the onset of PAH, the right ventricle (RV) of the heart adapts to the increased afterload pressure by undergoing adaptive hypertrophic remodeling to maintain adequate blood flow. However, for unknown reasons, maladaptive influences ensue, resulting in impaired RV function with progressive decompensation and right heart failure. Using a rodent model of PAH, we evaluated key signaling pathways mediating cardiac muscle protein synthesis in the RV during the adaptive hypertrophy phase, with preserved right heart function, and the decompensated maladaptive phase, in which right heart failure (RHF) was clinically present.MethodsMale Sprague-Dawley rats were injected subcutaneously with 60mg/kg Monocrotaline (MCT) and RV function was assessed by echocardiography during PAH disease progression. RV tissue was collected during the adaptive and maladaptive phases of PAH and cell signaling pathways involved in survival, hypertrophy, and autophagy, as well as fibrosis and vascularization, were probed using qPCR, Western blotting and histology. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA to compare differences between the independent groups and Student-Newman-Keuls test was used to compare differences within independent groups.ResultsAnalysis of protein and gene expression changes in PAH animals identified three key signaling pathways involved in the shift toward maladaptive right heart failure: i) PI3K/Akt/mTOR; ii) GSK-3; iii) MAPK/ERK, as well as IGF-1 regulation. During adaptive hypertrophy, significant increments of phosphorylated proteins in the three signaling pathways were observed with increases in RV fibrosis and decreased capillarity found. In the maladaptive phase, mTORC1 and its downstream effector p-70S6K were significantly activated, contributing to the decreased LC3-I/II ratio, a marker of autophagy inhibition. Additionally, p27, a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, which has been recently implicated in regulating mTOR activity to inhibit autophagy and promote heart failure was significantly downregulated. ConclusionWe propose that autophagy inhibition in conjunction with other maladaptive processes reported in the decompensated RV muscle contributes to the genesis of overt RHF in PAH and that a continuum of changes characterizes the adaptive and maladaptive phases in the RV muscle.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-28
Imre W.K. Kouw ◽  
Philippe J.M. Pinckaers ◽  
Cindy Le Bourgot ◽  
Janneau M.X. van Kranenburg ◽  
Antoine H. Zorenc ◽  

Abstract Plant-based proteins are considered to be less effective in their capacity to stimulate muscle protein synthesis when compared with animal-based protein sources, likely due to differences in amino acid contents. We compared the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response following the ingestion of a lysine-enriched plant-based protein product with an isonitrogenous amount of chicken. Twenty-four men (age: 24±5 y; BMI: 22.9±2.6 kg·m−2) participated in this parallel, double-blind, randomised controlled trial and consumed 40 g protein as a lysine-enriched wheat and chickpea protein product (Plant, n=12) or chicken breast fillet (Chicken, n=12). Primed, continuous intravenous L-[ring-13C6]-phenylalanine infusions were applied while repeated blood and muscle samples were collected over a 5h postprandial period to assess plasma amino acid responses, muscle protein synthesis rates, and muscle anabolic signalling responses. Postprandial plasma leucine and essential amino acid concentrations were higher following Chicken (P<0.001), while plasma lysine concentrations were higher throughout in Plant (P<0.001). Total plasma amino acid concentrations did not differ between interventions (P=0.181). Ingestion of both Plant and Chicken increased muscle protein synthesis rates from post-absorptive: 0.031±0.011 and 0.031±0.013 to postprandial: 0.046±0.010 and 0.055±0.015%∙h−1, respectively (P-time<0.001), with no differences between Plant and Chicken (P-interaction=0.068). Ingestion of 40 g protein in the form of a lysine-enriched plant-based protein product increases muscle protein synthesis rates to a similar extent as an isonitrogenous amount of chicken in healthy, young men. Plant-based protein products sold as meat replacers may be as effective as animal-based protein sources to stimulate postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates in healthy, young individuals.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (11) ◽  
pp. 3985
Roger A. Fielding ◽  
Donato Rivas ◽  
Gregory J. Grosicki ◽  
Yassine Ezzyat ◽  
Lisa Ceglia ◽  

The primary objective of this study was to investigate the potential synergy between low doses of L-carnitine tartrate and creatine monohydrate to induce muscle protein synthesis and anabolic pathway activation in primary human myoblasts. In addition, the effects of Lipid multi-particulates (LMP) formulation on creatine stability and bioavailability were assessed in rodents and healthy human subjects. When used individually, L-carnitine tartrate at 50 µM and creatine monohydrate at 0.5 µM did not affect myoblast protein synthesis and signaling. However, when combined, they led to a significant increase in protein synthesis. Increased AKT and RPS6 phosphorylation were observed with 50 µM L-carnitine tartrate 5 µM creatine in combination in primary human myoblasts. When Wistar rats were administered creatine with LMP formulation at either 21 or 51 mg/kg, bioavailability was increased by 27% based on the increase in the area under the curve (AUC) at a 51 mg/kg dose compared to without LMP formulation. Tmax and Cmax were unchanged. Finally, in human subjects, a combination of LMP formulated L-carnitine at 500 mg (from L-carnitine tartrate) with LMP formulated creatine at 100, 200, or 500 mg revealed a significant and dose-dependent increase in plasma creatine concentrations. Serum total L-carnitine levels rose in a similar manner in the three combinations. These results suggest that a combination of low doses of L-carnitine tartrate and creatine monohydrate may lead to a significant and synergistic enhancement of muscle protein synthesis and activation of anabolic signaling. In addition, the LMP formulation of creatine improved its bioavailability. L-carnitine at 500 mg and LMP-formulated creatine at 200 or 500 mg may be useful for future clinical trials to evaluate the effects on muscle protein synthesis.

Physiologia ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 22-33
Shelby C. Osburn ◽  
Christopher G. Vann ◽  
David D. Church ◽  
Arny A. Ferrando ◽  
Michael D. Roberts

Muscle protein synthesis and proteolysis are tightly coupled processes. Given that muscle growth is promoted by increases in net protein balance, it stands to reason that bolstering protein synthesis through amino acids while reducing or inhibiting proteolysis could be a synergistic strategy in enhancing anabolism. However, there is contradictory evidence suggesting that the proper functioning of proteolytic systems in muscle is required for homeostasis. To add clarity to this issue, we sought to determine if inhibiting different proteolytic systems in C2C12 myotubes in conjunction with acute and chronic leucine treatments affected markers of anabolism. In Experiment 1, myotubes underwent 1-h, 6-h, and 24-h treatments with serum and leucine-free DMEM containing the following compounds (n = 6 wells per treatment): (i) DMSO vehicle (CTL), (ii) 2 mM leucine + vehicle (Leu-only), (iii) 2 mM leucine + 40 μM MG132 (20S proteasome inhibitor) (Leu + MG132), (iv) 2 mM leucine + 50 μM calpeptin (calpain inhibitor) (Leu + CALP), and (v) 2 mM leucine + 1 μM 3-methyladenine (autophagy inhibitor) (Leu + 3MA). Protein synthesis levels significantly increased (p < 0.05) in the Leu-only and Leu + 3MA 6-h treatments compared to CTL, and levels were significantly lower in Leu + MG132 and Leu + CALP versus Leu-only and CTL. With 24-h treatments, total protein yield was significantly lower in Leu + MG132 cells versus other treatments. Additionally, the intracellular essential amino acid (EAA) pool was significantly greater in 24-h Leu + MG132 treatments versus other treatments. In a follow-up experiment, myotubes were treated for 48 h with CTL, Leu-only, and Leu + MG132 for morphological assessments. Results indicated Leu + MG132 yielded significantly smaller myotubes compared to CTL and Leu-only. Our data are limited in scope due to the utilization of select proteolysis inhibitors. However, this is the first evidence to suggest proteasome and calpain inhibition with MG132 and CALP, respectively, abrogate leucine-induced protein synthesis in myotubes. Additionally, longer-term Leu + MG132 treatments translated to an atrophy phenotype. Whether or not proteasome inhibition in vivo reduces leucine- or EAA-induced anabolism remains to be determined.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Junya Takegaki ◽  
Kohei Sase ◽  
Yusuke Kono ◽  
Daiki Nakano ◽  
Takuya Fujita ◽  

AbstractSkeletal muscle mass is critical for good quality of life. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells distributed across various tissues. They are characterized by the capacity to secrete growth factors and differentiate into skeletal muscle cells. These capabilities suggest that MSCs might be beneficial for muscle growth. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the effects on muscle protein anabolic and catabolic systems of intramuscular injection of MSCs into skeletal muscle. Therefore, in the present study, we measured changes in mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, the ubiquitin–proteasome system, and autophagy-lysosome system-related factors after a single intramuscular injection of MSCs with green fluorescence protein (GFP) into mouse muscles. The intramuscularly-injected MSCs were retained in the gastrocnemius muscle for 7 days after the injection, indicated by detection of GFP and expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha. The injection of MSCs increased the expression of satellite cell-related genes, activated mTORC1 signaling and muscle protein synthesis, and increased protein ubiquitination and autophagosome formation (indicated by the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II). These results suggest that the intramuscular injection of MSCs activated muscle anabolic and catabolic systems and accelerated muscle protein turnover.

Bin Guo ◽  
Devasier Bennet ◽  
Daniel J. Belcher ◽  
Hyo-Gun Kim ◽  
Gustavo A. Nader

Chemotherapeutic agents (CAs) are first-line antineoplastic treatments in a wide variety of cancers. These agents can induce oxidative stress and promote muscle loss. CAs trigger local and systemic oxidative stress by increasing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thereby stimulate protein breakdown. However, whether CAs can directly impact muscle protein synthesis independent of ROS production is currently unknown. To address this problem, first, we identified the mechanism by which oxidative stress impairs myotube protein synthesis. Transient elevations in ROS production resulted in protein synthesis deficits, reduced ribosomal (r)RNA levels and increased rRNA oxidation. We then investigated the effects of CAs on protein synthesis in the absence of detectable elevations in ROS levels (sub-ROS). Paclitaxel (PTX), Doxorubicin (DXR) and Marizomib (Mzb) diminished protein synthesis and ribosomal capacity, and also impaired transcription of the rRNA genes (rDNA). These results indicate that while oxidative stress disrupted protein synthesis by compromising ribosome quantity and quality, CAs at sub-ROS doses also impaired protein synthesis and ribosomal capacity by reducing rDNA transcription. Therefore, CAs can negatively modulate myotube protein synthesis in a ROS-independent manner by altering the capacity for protein synthesis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Konstantinos Prokopidis ◽  
Edward Chambers ◽  
Mary Ni Lochlainn ◽  
Oliver C. Witard

Aging is associated with a decline in skeletal muscle mass and function—termed sarcopenia—as mediated, in part, by muscle anabolic resistance. This metabolic phenomenon describes the impaired response of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) to the provision of dietary amino acids and practice of resistance-based exercise. Recent observations highlight the gut-muscle axis as a physiological target for combatting anabolic resistance and reducing risk of sarcopenia. Experimental studies, primarily conducted in animal models of aging, suggest a mechanistic link between the gut microbiota and muscle atrophy, mediated via the modulation of systemic amino acid availability and low-grade inflammation that are both physiological factors known to underpin anabolic resistance. Moreover, in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate the action of specific gut bacteria (Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) to increase systemic amino acid availability and elicit an anti-inflammatory response in the intestinal lumen. Prospective lifestyle approaches that target the gut-muscle axis have recently been examined in the context of mitigating sarcopenia risk. These approaches include increasing dietary fiber intake that promotes the growth and development of gut bacteria, thus enhancing the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) (acetate, propionate, and butyrate). Prebiotic/probiotic/symbiotic supplementation also generates SCFA and may mitigate low-grade inflammation in older adults via modulation of the gut microbiota. Preliminary evidence also highlights the role of exercise in increasing the production of SCFA. Accordingly, lifestyle approaches that combine diets rich in fiber and probiotic supplementation with exercise training may serve to produce SCFA and increase microbial diversity, and thus may target the gut-muscle axis in mitigating anabolic resistance in older adults. Future mechanistic studies are warranted to establish the direct physiological action of distinct gut microbiota phenotypes on amino acid utilization and the postprandial stimulation of muscle protein synthesis in older adults.

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