AJP Cell Physiology
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Published By American Physiological Society

1522-1563, 0363-6143

Steven Foltz ◽  
Fang Wu ◽  
Nasab Ghazal ◽  
Jennifer Kwong ◽  
H. Criss Hartzell ◽  

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy R12 (LGMD-R12) is caused by recessive mutations in the Anoctamin-5 gene (ANO5, TMEM16E). Although ANO5 myopathy is not X-chromosome linked, we performed a meta-analysis of the research literature and found that three-quarters of LGMD-R12 patients are males. Females are less likely to present with moderate to severe skeletal muscle and/or cardiac pathology. Because these sex differences could be explained in several ways, we compared males and females in a mouse model of LGMD-R12. This model recapitulates the sex differences in human LGMD-R12. Only male Ano5-/- mice had elevated serum creatine kinase after exercise and exhibited defective membrane repair after laser injury. In contrast, by these measures, female Ano5-/- mice were indistinguishable from wild type. Despite these differences, both male and female Ano5-/- mice exhibited exercise intolerance. While exercise intolerance of male mice can be explained by skeletal muscle dysfunction, echocardiography revealed that Ano5-/- female mice had features of cardiomyopathy that may be responsible for their exercise intolerance. These findings heighten concerns that mutations of ANO5 in humans may be linked to cardiac disease.

Satoru Ato ◽  
So-ichiro Fukada ◽  
Hiroki Kokubo ◽  
Riki Ogasawara

Angiogenesis and muscle satellite cell (SC)-mediated myonuclear accretion are considered essential for the robust response of contraction-induced muscle hypertrophy. Moreover, both myonucleus and SCs are physically adjacent to capillaries and are the major sites for the expression of proangiogenic factors, such as VEGF, in the skeletal muscle. Thus, events involving the addition of new myonuclei via activation of SCs may play an important role in angiogenesis during muscle hypertrophy. However, the relevance among myonuclei number, capillary density, and angiogenesis factor is not demonstrated. The Notch effector HeyL is specifically expressed in SCs in skeletal muscle and is crucial for SC proliferation by inhibiting MyoD in overload-induced muscle hypertrophy. Here, we tested whether the addition of new myonuclei by SC in overloaded muscle is associated with angiogenic adaptation by reanalyzing skeletal muscle from HeyL knockout (KO) mice, which show blunted responses of SC proliferation, myonucleus addition, and overload-induced muscle hypertrophy. Reanalysis confirmed blunted SC proliferation and myonuclear accretion in the plantaris muscle of HeyL-KO mice 9 weeks after synergist ablation. Interestingly, the increase in capillary-fiber ratio observed in WT mice was impaired in HeyL-KO mice. In both WT and HeyL-KO mice, the expression of VEGFA and VEGFB was similarly increased in response to overload. In addition, the expression pattern of TSP-1, a negative regulator of angiogenesis, was also not changed between WT and HeyL-KO mice. Collectively, these results suggest that SCs activation-myonuclear accretion plays a crucial role in angiogenesis during overload-induced muscle hypertrophy via independent of angiogenesis regulators.

Xiao-Yu Liu ◽  
Li-Fei Zheng ◽  
Yan-Yan Fan ◽  
Qian-Ying Shen ◽  
Yao Qi ◽  

In vivo administration dopamine (DA) receptor (DR)-related drugs modulates gastric pepsinogen secretion. However, DRs on gastric pepsinogen-secreting chief cells and DA D2 receptor (D2R) on somatostatin-secreting D cells were subsequently acquired. In this study, we aimed to further investigate the local effect of DA on gastric pepsinogen secretion through DRs expressed on chief cells or potential D2Rs expressed on D cells. To elucidate the modulation of DRs in gastric pepsinogen secretion, immunofluorescence staining, ex vivo incubation of gastric mucosa isolated from normal and D2R-/- mice were conducted, accompanied by measurements of pepsinogen or somatostatin levels using biochemical assays or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. D1R, D2R, and D5R-immunoreactivity (IR) were observed on chief cells in mouse gastric mucosa. D2R-IR was widely distributed on D cells from the corpus to the antrum. Ex vivo incubation results showed that DA and the D1-like receptor agonist SKF38393 increased pepsinogen secretion, which was blocked by the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH23390. However, D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole also significantly increased pepsinogen secretion, and D2-like receptor antagonist sulpiride blocked the promotion of DA. Besides, D2-like receptors exerted an inhibitory effect on somatostatin secretion, in contrast to their effect on pepsinogen secretion. Furthermore, D2R-/- mice showed much lower basal pepsinogen secretion but significantly increased somatostatin release and an increased number of D cells in gastric mucosa. Only SKF38393, not quinpirole, increased pepsinogen secretion in D2R-/- mice. DA promotes gastric pepsinogen secretion directly through D1-like receptors on chief cells and indirectly through D2R-mediated suppression of somatostatin release.

Ravi Vats ◽  
Zimming Li ◽  
Eun-Mi Ju ◽  
Rikesh K Dubey ◽  
Tomasz W Kaminski ◽  

Aging is the most significant risk factor for the majority of chronic diseases, including liver disease. The cellular, molecular, and pathophysiological mechanisms that promote age-induced hepatovascular changes are unknown due to our inability to visualize changes in liver pathophysiology in live mice over time. We performed quantitative liver intravital microscopy (qLIM) in live C57BL/6J mice to investigate the impact of aging on the hepatovascular system over a 24-month period. qLIM revealed that age-related hepatic alterations include reduced liver sinusoidal blood flow, increased sinusoidal vessel diameter and loss of small hepatic vessels. The ductular cell structure deteriorates with age, resulting in altered expression of hepatic junctional proteins. Furthermore, qLIM imaging revealed increased inflammation in the aged liver, which was linked to increased expression of proinflammatory macrophages, hepatic neutrophils, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, and procoagulants. Finally, we detected elevated NF-κB pathway activity in aged livers. Overall, these findings emphasize the importance of inflammation in age-related hepatic vasculo-epithelial alterations and highlight the utility of qLIM in studying age-related effects in organ pathophysiology.

Rekha Balakrishnan ◽  
Satvik Mareedu ◽  
Gopal J. Babu

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited muscle wasting disease. Metabolic impairments and oxidative stress are major secondary mechanisms that severely worsen muscle function in DMD. Here, we sought to determine whether germline reduction or ablation of sarcolipin (SLN), an inhibitor of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) improves muscle metabolism and ameliorates muscle pathology in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests show that glucose clearance rate and insulin sensitivity were improved in the SLN haploinsufficient mdx (mdx:sln+/-) and SLN deficient mdx (mdx:sln-/-) mice. The histopathological analysis shows that fibrosis and necrosis were significantly reduced in muscles of mdx:sln+/- and mdx:sln-/- mice. SR Ca2+ uptake, mitochondrial complex protein levels, complex activities, mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and release, and mitochondrial metabolism were significantly improved and, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation were reduced in the muscles of mdx:sln+/- and mdx:sln-/- mice. These data demonstrate that reduction or ablation of SLN expression can improve muscle metabolism, reduce oxidative stress, decrease muscle pathology, and protects the mdx mice from glucose intolerance.

Amy K. Loya ◽  
Sarah K. Van Houten ◽  
Bernadette M. Glasheen ◽  
Douglas M. Swank

A muscle undergoing cyclical contractions requires fast and efficient muscle activation and relaxation to generate high power with relatively low energetic cost. To enhance activation and increase force levels during shortening, some muscle types have evolved stretch activation (SA), a delayed increased in force following rapid muscle lengthening. SA's complementary phenomenon is shortening deactivation (SD), a delayed decrease in force following muscle shortening. SD increases muscle relaxation, which decreases resistance to subsequent muscle lengthening. While it might be just as important to cyclical power output, SD has received less investigation than SA. To enable mechanistic investigations into SD and quantitatively compare it to SA, we developed a protocol to elicit SA and SD from Drosophila and Lethocerus indirect flight muscles (IFM) and Drosophila jump muscle. When normalized to isometric tension, Drosophila IFM exhibited a 118% SD tension decrease, Lethocerus IFM dropped by 97%, and Drosophila jump muscle decreased by 37%. The same order was found for normalized SA tension: Drosophila IFM increased by 233%, Lethocerus IFM by 76%, and Drosophila jump muscle by only 11%. SD occurred slightly earlier than SA, relative to the respective length change, for both IFMs; but SD was exceedingly earlier than SA for jump muscle. Our results suggest SA and SD evolved to enable highly efficient IFM cyclical power generation and may be caused by the same mechanism. However, jump muscle SA and SD mechanisms are likely different, and may have evolved for a role other than to increase the power output of cyclical contractions.

Rachel Y. Diao ◽  
Asa B Gustafsson

Selective autophagy of the mitochondria, known as mitophagy, is a major mitochondrial quality control pathway in the heart that is involved in removing unwanted or dysfunctional mitochondria from the cell. Baseline mitophagy is critical for maintaining the fitness of the mitochondrial population by continuous turnover of aged and less functional mitochondria. Mitophagy is also critical in adapting to stress associated with mitochondrial damage or dysfunction. The removal of damaged mitochondria prevents ROS-mediated damaged to proteins and DNA and suppresses activation of inflammation and cell death. Impairments in mitophagy are associated with the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancers, inflammatory diseases, neurodegeneration, and cardiovascular disease. Mitophagy is a highly regulated and complex process that requires the coordination of labeling dysfunctional mitochondria for degradation while simultaneously promoting de novo autophagosome biogenesis adjacent to the cargo. In this review, we provide an update on our current understanding of these steps in mitophagy induction and discuss the physiological and pathophysiological consequences of altered mitophagy in the heart.

Jing Zhang ◽  
Lijia Zhao ◽  
Yating Li ◽  
Hao Dong ◽  
Haisen Zhang ◽  

Autophagy of granulosa cells (GCs) is involved in follicular atresia, which occurs repeatedly during the ovarian development cycle. Several circadian clock genes are rhythmically expressed in both rodent ovarian tissues and GCs. Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group D member 1 (NR1D1), an important component of the circadian clock system, is involved in the autophagy process through the regulation of autophagy-related genes. However, there are no reports illustrating the role of the circadian clock system in mouse GC autophagy. In the present study, we found that core circadian clock genes (Bmal1, Per2, Nr1d1, and Dbp) and an autophagy-related gene (Atg5) exhibited rhythmic expression patterns across 24 h in mouse ovaries and primary GCs. Treatment with SR9009, an agonist of NR1D1, significantly reduced the expression of Bmal1, Per2, and Dbp in mouse GCs. ATG5 expression was significantly attenuated by SR9009 treatment in mouse GCs. Conversely, Nr1d1 knockdown increased ATG5 expression in mouse GCs. Decreased NR1D1 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels was detected in the ovaries of Bmal1-/- mice, along with elevated expression of ATG5. Dual-luciferase reporter assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that NR1D1 inhibited Atg5 transcription by binding to two putative retinoic acid-related orphan receptor response elements within the promoter. In addition, rapamycin-induced autophagy and ATG5 expression were partially reversed by SR9009 treatment in mouse GCs. Taken together, our current data demonstrated that the circadian clock regulates GC autophagy through NR1D1-mediated inhibition of ATG5 expression, and thus, plays a role in maintaining autophagy homeostasis in GCs.

Cristina A Nadalutti ◽  
Sylvette Ayala-Peña ◽  
Janine H. Santos

Mitochondria are primarily involved in energy production through the process of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Increasing evidence has shown that mitochondrial function impacts a plethora of different cellular activities, including metabolism, epigenetics and innate immunity. Like the nucleus, mitochondria own their genetic material, which is maternally inherited. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes 37 genes that are solely involved in OXPHOS. Maintenance of mtDNA, through replication and repair, requires the import of nuclear DNA encoded proteins. Thus, mitochondria completely rely on the nucleus to prevent mitochondrial genetic alterations. As every cell contains hundreds to thousands of mitochondria, it follows that the shear number of organelles allow for the buffering of dysfunction - at least to some extent - before tissue homeostasis becomes impaired. Only red blood cells lack mitochondria entirely. Impaired mitochondrial function is a hallmark of aging and is involved in a number of different disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, cancer, and autoimmunity. While alterations in mitochondrial processes unrelated to OXPHOS, such as fusion and fission, contribute to aging and disease, maintenance of mtDNA integrity is critical for proper organellar function. Here, we focus on how mtDNA damage contributes to cellular dysfunction and health outcomes.

Hye Kyoung Sung ◽  
Patricia L. Mitchell ◽  
Sean Gross ◽  
Andre Marette ◽  
Gary Sweeney

Adiponectin is well established to mediate many beneficial metabolic effects, and this has stimulated great interest in development and validation of adiponectin receptor agonists as pharmaceutical tools. This study investigated the effects of ALY688, a peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist, in rat L6 skeletal muscle cells. ALY688 significantly increased phosphorylation of several adiponectin downstream effectors, including AMPK, ACC and p38MAPK, assessed by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Temporal analysis using cells expressing an Akt biosensor demonstrated that ALY688 enhanced insulin sensitivity. This effect was associated with increased insulin-stimulated Akt and IRS-1 phosphorylation. The functional metabolic significance of these signaling effects was examined by measuring glucose uptake in myoblasts stably overexpressing the glucose transporter GLUT4. ALY688 treatment both increased glucose uptake itself and enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In the model of high glucose/high insulin (HGHI)-induced insulin resistant cells, both temporal studies using the Akt biosensor as well as immunoblotting assessing Akt and IRS-1 phosphorylation indicated that ALY688 significantly reduced insulin resistance. Importantly, we observed that ALY688 administration to high-fat high sucrose fed mice also improve glucose handling, validating its efficacy in vivo. In summary, these data indicate that ALY688 activates adiponectin signaling pathways in skeletal muscle, leading to improved insulin sensitivity and beneficial metabolic effects.

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