ABSTRACT: This research evaluated farmers’ decisions to adopt organic farming. It was first introduced by developed countries to minimize environmental impacts originated by intensive use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides to enhance production yield. Although, organic farming offers environmentally sound methodologies for crop production, but Asian farmers are reluctant to adopt organic farming. In this study, a survival analysis (SA) was employed to determine the reasons for and the time is taken by farmers to adopt organic agriculture. This research studied the farmers’ goals, agricultural policies, and attitude towards risk, as covariates in the survival analysis. A multiple criteria decision-making method based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process was used to evaluate the farmers’ goals. Data were collected from agricultural farms located in three districts in Punjab, Pakistan. A questionnaire was used to collect empirical evidence. This study reported that the farmers’ goals were crucial to their acceptance of organic farming; furthermore, young farmers and farmers with risk-inclined attitudes were more prone to adopting organic farming. The study also determined that change in policy and introduce special package for organic agriculture can encouraged the adoption of organic methods.
Banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) is the most devastating pest of banana and plantain worldwide, yet current control measures are neither effective, sustainable, nor environmentally sound, and no resistant farmer-preferred cultivars are known to date. In this paper, we examined the ability to induce RNA interference (RNAi) in the banana weevil via feeding. We first developed an agar- and banana corm (rhizome) flour-based artificial diet in a multi-well plate setup that allowed the banana weevils to complete their life cycle from egg through the larval instars to the pupal stage in an average period of 53 days. Adults emerged about 20 days later. The artificial diet allowed the tunneling and burrowing habits of the larvae and successful metamorphosis up to adult eclosion. Adding dsRNA for laccase2 to the artificial diet resulted in albino phenotypes, confirming gene-silencing. Finally, C. sordidus was fed with dsRNA against a selection of essential target genes: snf7, rps13, mad1, vha-a, vha-d, and lgl for a period of 45 days. 100% mortality within 9–16 days was realized with dssnf7, dsrps13, and dsmad1 at 200 ng/mL artificial diet, and this corresponded to a strong reduction in gene expression. Feeding the dsRNA targeting the two vha genes resulted in 100% mortality after about 3–4 weeks, while treatment with dslgl resulted in no mortality above the dsgfp-control and the water-control. Our results have implications for the development of RNAi approaches for managing important crop pests, in that banana weevils can be controlled based on the silencing of essential target genes as snf7, rps13, and mad1. They also highlight the need for research into the development of RNAi for banana protection, eventually the engineering of host-induced gene-silencing (HIGS) cultivars, given the high RNAi efficacy and its species-specific mode of action, adding the RNAi approach to the armory of integrated pest management (IPM).
The interest in re-implementing agroforestry (AF) in European agriculture due to its environmental benefits has been growing exponentially. We reviewed the historical background and the current state (extent, farmers’ perception, legislative support, and barriers) to evaluate the future perspectives of AF in Czechia by identifying the key factors hampering further extension. Our results confirmed that AF almost disappeared after the middle of the 19th century due to agricultural intensification and collectivization. Currently, AF is not defined in the Czech legislation and no modern AF has been encountered by this study. Areas falling into AF definition recently comprise only traditional AF (less than 1% of agricultural area remaining) represented only by silvopastoral AF. The results of a farmers’ survey indicated that despite relatively high interest in AF, excessive bureaucratization, high costs of establishment and uncertain profitability are severe concerns among farmers. We therefore conclude that there is a lack of legal recognition and marginalization of AF as the key obstacles of low adoption rates. We suggest that systematic support beyond subsidies should include raising awareness, research, policy, legislation changes, training, and advisory service, as a cornerstone for progressive development of AF and thus conservation and creation of economically and environmentally sound landscapes throughout Czechia.
AbstractThis chapter presents a brief overview of the policy design and theoretical environmental economic principles that underpin the concept of emissions trading systems (ETS) as a policy approach to address climate change. It discusses basic environmental economic principles pertinent to the development of market-based solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) and co-pollutants. The chapter serves as the technical basis for the broader discussion that this book as a whole presents on the launch of the pilot phase of the Mexican ETS on January 1, 2020. Understanding international program design experiences, theoretical principles, and implementing best practices is key to ensuring Mexico’s success in the transition from the pilot or learning phase to an operational ETS compliance system. This will ensure Mexico fulfills its national climate policy goals and nationally determined contributions (NDC) under the Paris Agreement in a cost-effective manner, while also providing compliance flexibility to the industrial sectors covered under the program. A well-designed ETS ultimately provides the right incentives for industrial carbon emission reductions to drive cost-effective abatement and clean innovation. Secondly, this chapter presents a more in-depth review of policy developments focusing specifically on key implementation lessons from the two most advanced ETS systems in operation to date: (1) the European Union ETS and (2) California’s cap-and-trade program. In short, this chapter outlines a set of key policy lessons and design parameters to support the transition from the pilot Mexican ETS to an operational compliance phase in a socially just, environmentally sound, and cost-effective manner.
Monitoring of indirect and industrial dischargers, respectively, makes an important contribution to the safe and environmentally sound operation of wastewater systems. As a result of local framework conditions, there is a wide range of monitoring practices across Germany. In a benchmarking project, ten sewerage operators and monitoring bodies representing large German cities have collected data on their work and discussed their practices. The results show that the extent of monitoring is between 244 and 1,457 monitoring points per sewer network (given as 15th and 85th percentile). The median value of the specific expense is 689 EUR per monitoring point and year. In relation to the total wastewater fee volume, the median expense is 0.71%. The sub-process ‘sampling’ was examined more closely. By means of detailed process mapping and regression analyses, it can be shown that on-site activities and tours have the largest share of working time (total of 72%) and thus the greatest leverage in optimisation measures. Various examples are given.
The main objective of this study was to select potential solid waste landfill areas suitable for Bonga Town that are environmentally sound. The key data were LANDSAT 8 and SPOT-6 satellite images with a spatial resolution of 15 and 1.5 m, respectively; a digital elevation model with a spatial resolution of 30 m; and a ground control point, which was collected through a ground point survey and a topographic map of the study area. Each parameter was subjected to a peer review according to the analytical hierarchy process. Once the weights were established, the weighted overlap analysis was determined, which combined these criteria and classified them into high, medium, less suitable and inappropriate regions of the study area. The results show that 75.65% of the study area is not suitable for the solid waste landfill, 18.86% less suitable, 5.17% moderately adequate and 0.3% very adequate. Therefore, the ability to use inaccessible geological information framework and detection innovations for mandatory discrimination evidence for a reasonably robust waste dump will minimise opportunities and natural human well-being problems.
Purpose of Review
Carriages are an integral component of cable yarding systems that are used to harvest timber on steep terrain. They provide the mobility component by allowing a payload to be pulled along a skyline that spans a harvest setting, as opposed to a brute force pulling a load along a slope. While yarder machinery and cable yarding systems are extensively studied and reported, this paper provides a first detailed review of recent developments in carriage technology.
There has been significant development in carriage technology in the last decade. In addition to step changes in functionality, they are now also used as technology platforms. This includes integration of geospatial and camera technology to provide for higher levels of automation. There are clear regional drivers that have differentiated carriage development. The need for low mass, versatility, and energy efficiency has generated a demand for electric carriages in the central European market. A focus on safety has driven New Zealand designers to work almost exclusively grapple carriages that no longer need choker setters on the ground being exposed to danger. North American developments include carriages capable of larger payloads to increase productivity and off-set high operation cost.
Carriages have developed over time to become complex systems and provide additional capabilities instead of just providing a mobility and transfer mechanism within the yarding systems. By integrating new technologies that provide for greater efficiency and/or automation, carriage developments will help cable yarding systems remain cost-competitive, with high safety standard and environmentally sound.
ABSTRACTCity growth that continues to occur is unavoidable and affects the environment, so an ecological approach is needed to overcome it. One of the city concepts that has developed along with the historical perspective of urban ecology is the ecological city (ecocity). In the development of ecocity in several countries that carry the theme of sustainability city, both practice and concept do not explain the "process" to achieve the city's environmental sustainability goals. The purpose of this paper is to examine the theoretical position of the ecological city concept within the framework of urban ecology and sustainable cities. The method used is a literature review based on the development of the concept of ecocity, urban ecology and sustainable city. Based on the results of the study, it shows that in the urban ecology approach, ecocity can be concluded as a concept that balances the city's metabolism (ecology of cities) through the independence of the structure and function of the ecosystem where humans play a role in determining the process of adaptation and urban development. In the concept of a sustainable city along with the development of eco-form which represents ecological considerations in urban and community spaces, it shows that urban form is one of the elements that can be intervened in achieving sustainable city goals. Ecocity as an eco-form is in the challenge of conflict between aspects of the social environment where the conflict that occurs has shifted from development conflict to green conflict in a sustainable prism. The results of the study show that in the process of managing an environmentally sound city environment (ecocity) it is necessary to consider the integration of humans as social aspects in interaction with ecosystems (social-ecology) in city metabolism as the basis for providing ecosystem services and urban green infrastructure. Keywords: ecological city, city ecology, sustainable city, city metabolism ABSTRAKPertumbuhan kota yang terus terjadi tidak dapat dihindari dan berpengaruh terhadap lingkungan, sehingga dibutuhkan pendekatan ekologi untuk mengatasinya. Salah satu konsep kota yang berkembang seiring dengan perspektif sejarah ekologi kota (urban ecology) adalah ecological city (ecocity). Pada perkembangan ecocity di beberapa negara yang mengusung tema kota keberlanjutan baik praktek maupun konsep tidak menjelaskan “proses” untuk mencapai tujuan keberlanjutan lingkungan kota tersebut. Tujuan makalah ini adalah mengkaji kedudukan secara teoritis konsep ecological city dalam kerangka ekologi kota (urban ecology) dan kota berkelanjutan (sustainability city). Metode yang digunakan adalah review literatur berdasarkan perkembangan konsep ecocity, urban ecology dan sustainable city. Berdasarkan hasil kajian menunjukkan dalam pendekatan urban ecology, ecocity dapat disimpulkan sebagai konsep yang menyeimbangkan metabolisme kota (ecology of cities) melalui kemandirian struktur dan fungsi ekosistem dimana manusia berperan di dalam menentukan proses adaptasi dan perkembangan kota. Dalam konsep kota berkelanjutan seiring dengan perkembangan eco-form yang merepresentasikan pertimbangan ekologi di dalam ruang kota dan komunitas menunjukkan bentuk kota (urban form) merupakan salah satu unsur yang dapat diintervensi di dalam mencapai tujuan kota yang berkelanjutan. Ecocity sebagai eco-form berada di dalam tantangan konflik antara aspek lingkungan sosial dimana konflik yang terjadi mengalami pergeseran dari development conflict ke arah green conflict di dalam prisma berkelanjutan. Hasil kajian menunjukkan di dalam proses pengelolaan lingkungan kota yang berwawasan lingkungan (ecocity) perlu mempertimbangkan integrasi manusia sebagai aspek sosial dalam interaksi dengan ekosistem (sosial-ekologi) di dalam metabolisme kota sebagai dasar di dalam penyediaan ecosystem services dan infrastruktur hijau perkotaan.Kata Kunci : ecological city, ekologi kota, kota berkelanjutan, metabolisme kota
In this study, a life cycle oriented planning of buildings is proposed to support future building developers and planners in making environmentally sound decisions on the basis of comprehensive information. The study, in which the building certification BNB (Bewertungssystem Nachhaltiges Bauen, or “Assessment System for Sustainable Building”) is carried out on the example of an office building, is applicable to German-speaking countries. In addition to meeting the requirements of the 2020 German Energy Act for Buildings (GebäudeEnergieGesetz, GEG), the aim is to optimize the building with regard to sustainability criteria of the BNB by revising and expanding the existing planning so that the “gold” quality label can eventually be achieved. The biggest influence on this optimization process is, among other things, the life cycle costs, the adaptability of the building, the primary energy demand as well as the technical quality. Based on these findings, this research paper details the further development of the energy performance certificate, before in a final step the building assessment can be graphically presented with regard to both aspects – energy efficiency (final energy) and sustainability (in terms of ecological, economic, socio-cultural, functional and technical quality, process quality and location characteristics) – from the production phase through the usage phase up to the disposal phase.