ship detection
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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Ying Yu ◽  
Jun Qian ◽  
Qinglong Wu

This article proposes a bottom-up visual saliency model that uses the wavelet transform to conduct multiscale analysis and computation in the frequency domain. First, we compute the multiscale magnitude spectra by performing a wavelet transform to decompose the magnitude spectrum of the discrete cosine coefficients of an input image. Next, we obtain multiple saliency maps of different spatial scales through an inverse transformation from the frequency domain to the spatial domain, which utilizes the discrete cosine magnitude spectra after multiscale wavelet decomposition. Then, we employ an evaluation function to automatically select the two best multiscale saliency maps. A final saliency map is generated via an adaptive integration of the two selected multiscale saliency maps. The proposed model is fast, efficient, and can simultaneously detect salient regions or objects of different sizes. It outperforms state-of-the-art bottom-up saliency approaches in the experiments of psychophysical consistency, eye fixation prediction, and saliency detection for natural images. In addition, the proposed model is applied to automatic ship detection in optical satellite images. Ship detection tests on satellite data of visual optical spectrum not only demonstrate our saliency model's effectiveness in detecting small and large salient targets but also verify its robustness against various sea background disturbances.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 31
Jimin Yu ◽  
Guangyu Zhou ◽  
Shangbo Zhou ◽  
Maowei Qin

It is very difficult to detect multi-scale synthetic aperture radar (SAR) ships, especially under complex backgrounds. Traditional constant false alarm rate methods are cumbersome in manual design and weak in migration capabilities. Based on deep learning, researchers have introduced methods that have shown good performance in order to get better detection results. However, the majority of these methods have a huge network structure and many parameters which greatly restrict the application and promotion. In this paper, a fast and lightweight detection network, namely FASC-Net, is proposed for multi-scale SAR ship detection under complex backgrounds. The proposed FASC-Net is mainly composed of ASIR-Block, Focus-Block, SPP-Block, and CAPE-Block. Specifically, without losing information, Focus-Block is placed at the forefront of FASC-Net for the first down-sampling of input SAR images at first. Then, ASIR-Block continues to down-sample the feature maps and use a small number of parameters for feature extraction. After that, the receptive field of the feature maps is increased by SPP-Block, and then CAPE-Block is used to perform feature fusion and predict targets of different scales on different feature maps. Based on this, a novel loss function is designed in the present paper in order to train the FASC-Net. The detection performance and generalization ability of FASC-Net have been demonstrated by a series of comparative experiments on the SSDD dataset, SAR-Ship-Dataset, and HRSID dataset, from which it is obvious that FASC-Net has outstanding detection performance on the three datasets and is superior to the existing excellent ship detection methods.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (24) ◽  
pp. 8478
Yuxin Hu ◽  
Yini Li ◽  
Zongxu Pan

With the development of imaging and space-borne satellite technology, a growing number of multipolarized SAR imageries have been implemented for object detection. However, most of the existing public SAR ship datasets are grayscale images under single polarization mode. To make full use of the polarization characteristics of multipolarized SAR, a dual-polarimetric SAR dataset specifically used for ship detection is presented in this paper (DSSDD). For construction, 50 dual-polarimetric Sentinel-1 SAR images were cropped into 1236 image slices with the size of 256 × 256 pixels. The variances and covariance of both VV and VH polarization were fused into R,G,B channels of the pseudo-color image. Each ship was labeled with both a rotatable bounding box (RBox) and a horizontal bounding box (BBox). Apart from 8-bit pseudo-color images, DSSDD also provides 16-bit complex data for readers. Two prevalent object detectors R3Det and Yolo-v4 were implemented on DSSDD to establish the baselines of the detectors with the RBox and BBox respectively. Furthermore, we proposed a weakly supervised ship detection method based on anomaly detection via advanced memory-augmented autoencoder (MemAE), which can significantly remove false alarms generated by the two-parameter CFAR algorithm applied upon our dual-polarimetric dataset. The proposed advanced MemAE method has the advantages of a lower annotation workload, high efficiency, good performance even compared with supervised methods, making it a promising direction for ship detection in dual-polarimetric SAR images. The dataset is available on github.

Ruochen Wu

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an active type of microwave remote sensing. Using the microwave imaging system, remote sensing monitoring of the land and global ocean can be done in any weather conditions around the clock. Detection of SAR image targets is one of the main needs of radar image interpretation applications. In this paper, an improved two-parameter CFAR algorithm based on Rayleigh distribution and morphological processing is proposed to perform ship detection and recognition in high resolution SAR images. Through simulation experiments, comprehensive study of the two algorithms for high resolution SAR image target detection is achieved. Finally, the results of ship detection experiments are compared and analyzed, and the effects of detection are evaluated according to the Rayleigh distribution model and algorithms.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 5104
Songlin Lei ◽  
Dongdong Lu ◽  
Xiaolan Qiu ◽  
Chibiao Ding

Deep learning has been widely used in the field of SAR ship detection. However, current SAR ship detection still faces many challenges, such as complex scenes, multiple scales, and small targets. In order to promote the solution to the above problems, this article releases a high-resolution SAR ship detection dataset which can be used for rotating frame target detection. The dataset contains six categories of ships. In total, 30 panoramic SAR tiles of the Chinese Gaofen-3 of port areas with a 1-m resolution were cropped to slices, each with 1024 × 1024 pixels. In addition, most of the images in the dataset contain nearshore areas with complex background interference. Eight state-of-the-art rotated detectors and a CFAR-based method were used to evaluate the dataset. Experimental results revealed that the complex background will have a great impact on the performance of detectors.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 1408
Liqian Wang ◽  
Shuzhen Fan ◽  
Yunxia Liu ◽  
Yongfu Li ◽  
Cheng Fei ◽  

The ocean connects all continents and is an important space for human activities. Ship detection with electro-optical images has shown great potential due to the abundant imaging spectrum and, hence, strongly supports human activities in the ocean. A suitable imaging spectrum can obtain effective images in complex marine environments, which is the premise of ship detection. This paper provides an overview of ship detection methods with electro-optical images in marine environments. Ship detection methods with sea–sky backgrounds include traditional and deep learning methods. Traditional ship detection methods comprise the following steps: preprocessing, sea–sky line (SSL) detection, region of interest (ROI) extraction, and identification. The use of deep learning is promising in ship detection; however, it requires a large amount of labeled data to build a robust model, and its targeted optimization for ship detection in marine environments is not sufficient.

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