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2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-07
Abbaraju Krishna Sailaja ◽  
Amand Alekhya

The term “Antiviral agents” has been defined in very wide terms as substances other than a virus or virus containing vaccine or specific antibody which can build either a protective or therapeutic effect to the direct measurable advantage of the virus infected host. Viruses are simple in form which are very tiny germs. They comprise of genetic material inside of a protein coating. Viruses cause amicable infectious diseases like common cold, flu and warts. They also cause severe diseases such as HIV/AIDS, Ebola, avian influenzas, dengue virus and COVID-19. Viral diseases are very complex and are easily spread. Herbs and herbal medicines were the foremost in treating infections from centuries over the world in every civilization. Modern science has narrowed the importance of herbal medicine in the past two centuries. But, the side effects and new varieties of diseases creating challenges to modern science. So, usage of herbal medicines is again attaining interests these days. Herbal products for different treatments have achieved a lot of popularity in the last couple of decades. Thus, discovering novel antiviral drugs is of extremely important and natural products are an excellent source for such discoveries. There are many herbs which are excellent sources for the antiviral properties to treat viral infections. This review provides the verified data on the herbal substances with antiviral activity, and some of the herbal marketed antiviral agents like CORONIL TABLETS from Patanjali and different companies had made an attempt to treat viral infections in this pandemic situation. Therefore, herbal plants proved to be a major resort for the treatment of diseases and sickness by traditional healers in many societies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 354 (11-12) ◽  
pp. 109-113
A. T. Sadikov

The most important factor in the intensification and rise of the production of the cotton industry in Tajikistan is the selection of new varieties characterized by high yield and its quality. The increase in the production of the cotton industry can be achieved not by expansion of acreage, since this possibility is very limited in a mountainous country, but by breeding new varieties of cotton and spreading them into production. The use of photosynthetic test characteristics in breeding contributes to the process of creating new varieties that meet the demand of agricultural production and the textile industry, i.e. varieties with a complex of economically useful features — precocity, high productivity, resistance to diseases and pests, optimal adaptive properties, characterized by high fiber yield and its technological quality. By methods of hybridization and selection by offspring on the basis of photosynthetic test characteristics from domestic and foreign variety samples, 28 introgressive genotypes were created that are characterized by complex of economically useful traits. It was found that out of the 28 genotypes of medium-fiber cotton studied by us, according to the main indicators of productivity — the number of full-fledged boxes per plant, the mass of raw cotton of one box and the yield — 6 genotypes were notable. The number of boxes per plant in the most productive was 12–15 pieces, the mass of raw cotton of one box is up to 6.6 g, and the yield of raw cotton is from 71.5 to 93.0 g/plant, which is significantly higher than in the standard Hisor variety.

2022 ◽  
pp. 37-40
М.Г. Ибрагимбеков ◽  
О.Р. Давлетбаева ◽  
А.Н. Ховрин

Новые сорта и гибриды лука репчатого должны обладать необходимыми рынку хозяйственно ценными признаками, поэтому приоритетно направление по созданию гетерозисных гибридов этой культуры, проявляющих повышенную жизнеспособность, высокую и стабильную урожайность и выравненность, общую устойчивость к патогенам и хорошую лежкость. Цель исследований: изучение новых гибридных комбинаций лука репчатого по основным хозяйственно ценным признакам. Исследование проводили в 2019–2020 годах в отделе селекции и семеноводства ВНИИО – филиале ФГБНУ «Федеральный научный центр овощеводства» с постановкой опытов в открытом и хранилище с регулируемыми температурно-влажностными характеристиками (Раменский район Московской области). В опыте участвовало семь новых гибридных комбинаций лука репчатого, в качестве стандарта использовали гибрид F1 Премито (Monsanto) и отечественный сорт Форвард (совместной селекции агрофирмы «Поиск» и ВНИИО – филиала ФГБНУ ФНЦО). Посев проводили в III декаде апреля, из расчета 0,8 млн шт/га. В течение вегетационного периода вели фенологические учеты, биометрические измерения и проводили морфологическое описание согласно общепринятым методическим указаниям. Мероприятия по уходу за растениями проводили в соответствии с рекомендациями для зоны возделывания. Изучение морфологических признаков и биометрических показателей проводили по малой выборке (10 растений) каждого образца. Число зачатков определяли на поперечном разрезе луковицы. Интенсивность воскового налета на образцах оценивали визуально. Лук закладывали в хранилище с оборудованными холодильными установками, автоматически регулирующими температуру, влажность и циркуляцию воздуха. Для лучшей сохранности этой культуры поддерживали температуру в хранилище около 1–2 °C и относительную влажность воздуха – в пределах 75–80%. Результаты оценки новых образцов лука репчатого в условиях Московской области позволили выделить гибридную комбинацию 652/15 F1 (Шет × Ливингстон I3) с высокой урожайностью (59,5 т/га) и сохранностью в зимний период (84,7%), которая соответствует параметрам разработанной модели для условий региона и обладает конкурентными преимуществами. New varieties and hybrids of onion should have economically valuable characteristics necessary for the market, therefore, the priority is to create heterotic hybrids of this crop, showing increased viability, high and stable yield and alignment, general resistance to pathogens and good keeping quality. The purpose of the research: to study new hybrid combinations of onions according to the main economically valuable characteristics. The study was carried out in 2019–2020 in the Department of breeding and seed production of ARRIVG – branch of FSBSI FSVC with the staging of experiments in open ground and storage with adjustable temperature and humidity characteristics (Ramensky district of the Moscow region). Seven new hybrid combinations of onions participated in the experiment, the hybrid F1 Premito (Monsanto) and the domestic variety Forward (joint selection of the Poisk Agro Firm and ARRIVG – branch of FSBSI FSVC) were used as a standard. Sowing was carried out in the third decade of April, at the rate of 0.8 million pcs/ha. During the growing season, phenological records, biometric measurements were carried out and morphological description was carried out according to generally accepted methodological guidelines. Plant care measures were carried out in accordance with the recommendations for the cultivation zone. The study of morphological features and biometric indicators was carried out on a small sample (10 plants) of each sample. The number of rudiments was determined on a cross section of the bulb. The intensity of wax plaque on the samples was assessed visually. Onions were placed in storage with equipped refrigeration units that automatically regulate temperature, humidity and air circulation. For the best preservation of this culture, the temperature in the storage was maintained at about 1–2 °C and the relative humidity in the range of 75–80%. The results of the evaluation of new onion samples in the conditions of the Moscow region allowed us to identify a hybrid combination 652/15 F1 (Shet × Livingston I3) with high yield (59.5 t/ha) and preservation in winter (84.7%), which corresponds to the parameters of the developed model for the conditions of the region and has competitive advantages.

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 164
Van Trang Le ◽  
Me-Sun Kim ◽  
Yu-Jin Jung ◽  
Kwon-Kyoo Kang ◽  
Yong-Gu Cho

Nowadays, rice production faces significant challenges due to population pressure, global climate change, and outbreak of various pests and diseases. Breeding techniques used to improve rice traits include mutant breeding, cross breeding, heterogeneity, transformation, molecular markers, genome-wide association study (GWAS), and so on. Since the recently developed CRISPR/Cas9 technology can directly target a specific part of a desired gene to induce mutation, it can be used as a powerful means to expand genetic diversity of crops and develop new varieties. So far, CRISPR/Cas9 technology has been used for improving rice characteristics such as high yield, good quality, abundant nutrition, pest and disease resistance, herbicide resistance, and biotic and abiotic stress resistance. This review highlights the mechanisms and optimization of the CRISPR system and its application to rice crop, including resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and improved rice quality and yield.

K. S. Makarova ◽  
A. V. Pastukhova ◽  
A. S. Gazizulina ◽  
A. F. Petrov ◽  
A. A. Zenkova ◽  

   The authors presented the results of the influence of stress factors on the yield of garden strawberry remontant large-fruited. Phenological and morphological observations, recording and evaluating the quality of the obtained fruits were carried out during the research. Varieties of remontant strawberries with a complex of economically beneficial features were identified. There were features as high yield, winter hardiness, resistance to major diseases and pests were presented. The obtained data confirmed that the highest productivity per bush showed varieties bearing fruit during the entire growing season: Selva - 376.06g, Vima Rina - 411.27g, Remontant large-fruited (hybrid) - 425.42g.

N.V. Matsishina ◽  
P.V. Fisenko ◽  
M.V.Ermak . ◽  
O.A. Sobko ◽  
D.I. Volkov ◽  

Background: Henosepilachna vigintioctomaculata is a polytrophic pest, causing the greatest damage to plants from the nightshade family. The study aimed to research the resistance of potato cultivars that are promising for breeding to damage by a potato ladybug in laboratory and field experiments. Methods: In laboratory experiments, the indicators of fertility, mortality and duration of development, morphological anomalies and the effect of potato varieties on the composition of Epilakhna’s hemolymph were studied. The sample consisted of 50 individuals with a slight predominance of females. The experiment used 13 varieties of potatoes. Result: A specific dependence of the frequency of phytophage anomalies on the variety was revealed. The influence of nutrition on survival and the timing of ontogenesis has been established. The results obtained indicate the high breeding value of the material when recommending it for cultivation in regions with a high number of pests, as well as when creating new varieties.

Discover Food ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
Min Huang ◽  
Zhengwu Xiao ◽  
Liqin Hu ◽  
Jiana Chen ◽  
Fangbo Cao

AbstractThe amylose content of newly-released rice varieties has steadily decreased in rice-growing regions in the middle reach of the Yangtze River during 2006–2021, to parallel increasing consumption of soft-textured rice with low amylose content. We estimated the glycemic index of these newly-released rice varieties and reveal a significantly increasing trend, showing a 0.3 annual increase in estimated glycemic index of new rice varieties released each year. These results highlight the need to assess the potential health risks associated with the development of soft-textured rice with low amylose rice.

2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
María Isabel López-Martínez ◽  
Alejandrina Robledo-Paz ◽  
Luis Antonio Flores-Hernández ◽  
Tarsicio Corona-Torres ◽  

Developing new varieties of anthurium by hybridization can take 8-10 years; therefore, induced mutagenesis can be an alternative strategy to hybridization. The objective of this work was to induce mutations in A. andreanum by exposing explants obtained from vitroplants to colchicine. Explants of leaves, nodes and roots obtained from vitroplants were exposed to 0.1 % colchicine for 0, 2, 3 and 4 h. The mean lethal dose (LD50), survival, number of explants that generated callus, number of explants that formed shoots and the number of shoots per explant were evaluated. The karyotype of the presumed mutated regenerated plants was determined by the root apex squash technique. The leaves showed the highest sensitivity to cochicine. The survival of the root explants treated with colchicine was 100 %; 4 % of roots exposed for 2 and 3 h formed adventitious shoots (120 shoots). For nodes, the LD50 was found at 3.98 h; 76 and 56 % of the nodes cultivated for 2 and 3 h with colchicine formed adventitious shoots (4.4 and 3.6 shoots). The plants regenerated from the explants exposed to colchicine showed morphological changes. The chromosomal number of the regenerated vitroplants from the explants exposed for 2 and 3 h to colchicine was 2n = 29, while that of those obtained from the explants that remained on the colchicine for 4 h was 2n = 31. The sensitivity to colchicine was a function of the type of explant and the dose used. Colchicine caused the loss (monosomy) or gain of chromosomes (trisomy).

2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 40-43
Mangi Lal Jat ◽  
D. K. Jaiswal ◽  
Y.S. Saharawat

Wheat is an important source of nutrition in our staple diet. Although farmers in northernIndia are growing wheat for a long time many farmers are lacking good knowledge of wheatand its new varieties production practices. The study was conducted to know the extentof knowledge and adoption of recommended wheat production practices among wheatcultivating farmers of the Malwa region. Nine farmers (3 big, 3 medium and 3 small farmers)were selected randomly from each (thirty-six) selected village of nine blocks of Hosangabad,Hadra and Sehore districts making a total of 324 wheat growers. Among the practicewiselevel of knowledge regarding recommended wheat production technology;method of storage(mean score- 2.30) was ranked first and selection and preparation of land (mean score-2.25) was ranked second. On the whole, the highest number of the wheat growers (46.29%)had a medium knowledge level of recommended wheat production practices while 41.66%had a medium level of adoption on thebasis of their level of adoption of recommendedtechnological practices of wheat crop cultivation.

2022 ◽  
pp. 273-289
Sunil Jayant Kulkarni

Modern day agriculture focuses on the crop yield, cost, and space. Most of the investigations in the agricultural sector are aimed at rendering environmental friendliness to the application method and synthesizing new varieties of crops that are resistant to the attacks of microorganisms. Also, new fertilizers and pesticides are being developed. Plants such as grapes, raspberries, and strawberries are considered cash crops. Many useful compounds are synthesized from them. Pharmaceutical intermediates and products are synthesized from plants which have medicinal properties. Climatic conditions and soil properties are manipulated for confined and safe cultivation of these plants. It results in reduction in temperature and change in humidity, which in turn causes growth of undesirable species and diseases in the plants. The most common among these species is the fungi Botrytis cinerea. Many crops are affected adversely due to Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea). In this chapter, a review on studies and investigations on gray mold for its effects on plants and control is carried with focus on Botrytis cinerea.

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