Significant Magnitude
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2022 ◽  
Vol 258 (1) ◽  
pp. 15
S. Everett ◽  
B. Yanny ◽  
N. Kuropatkin ◽  
E. M. Huff ◽  
Y. Zhang ◽  

Abstract We describe an updated calibration and diagnostic framework, Balrog, used to directly sample the selection and photometric biases of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 3 (Y3) data set. We systematically inject onto the single-epoch images of a random 20% subset of the DES footprint an ensemble of nearly 30 million realistic galaxy models derived from DES Deep Field observations. These augmented images are analyzed in parallel with the original data to automatically inherit measurement systematics that are often too difficult to capture with generative models. The resulting object catalog is a Monte Carlo sampling of the DES transfer function and is used as a powerful diagnostic and calibration tool for a variety of DES Y3 science, particularly for the calibration of the photometric redshifts of distant “source” galaxies and magnification biases of nearer “lens” galaxies. The recovered Balrog injections are shown to closely match the photometric property distributions of the Y3 GOLD catalog, particularly in color, and capture the number density fluctuations from observing conditions of the real data within 1% for a typical galaxy sample. We find that Y3 colors are extremely well calibrated, typically within ∼1–8 mmag, but for a small subset of objects, we detect significant magnitude biases correlated with large overestimates of the injected object size due to proximity effects and blending. We discuss approaches to extend the current methodology to capture more aspects of the transfer function and reach full coverage of the survey footprint for future analyses.

Paul Romanowich

AbstractSocial discounting researchers have repeatedly shown that individuals discount sharing the amount of a monetary reward as a function of social distance, and that increasing the available monetary reward decreases sharing. However, no previous study has tested whether sharing nonmonetary commodities are discounted as a function of social distance. The current study tested whether sharing personal information would be discounted similarly to monetary rewards, as well as whether a magnitude effect occurred at a relatively small magnitude difference with 96 university students. A within-participant procedure showed that sharing personal information was discounted as a function of social distance, albeit with a steeper discounting rate relative to both monetary reward magnitudes. However, there was no significant association between personal information discounting rates and monetary discounting rates at either magnitude, suggesting that participants treated each commodity differently (i.e., commodity effect). Replicating previous non-U.S. samples, discounting rates for both monetary reward magnitudes were significantly positively associated with each other and showed a significant magnitude effect, with participants showing significantly steeper discounting rates for the relatively larger monetary rewards. The results for sharing personal information are important because many scams now target personal information in addition to money. Future research should examine what type of personal information is most likely to be shared as a function of social distance, and whether those participants who choose to share more personal information also are at greater risk for scams targeting personal information.

2021 ◽  
Vol 39 (2) ◽  
pp. 25-49
Abdul-Rashid Abdul-Aziz ◽  
Suhaila Ali

The lengthy, uncertain and onerous planning approval process in various countries around the world has prompted frustrated housing developers to seek influence by paying off approving officials. A research was conducted in Malaysia to investigate in greater detail this rent-seeking phenomenon by asking six fundamental questions. Rich data were obtained by interviewing 22 housing developers and consultants who work for them. Developers engage in rent-seeking behaviours to overcome genuine and artificial hurdles when applying for development approval. All approving agencies, though not all their staff, reciprocate to such behaviours. The monetary value of the payoffs depend on the rank of the public actor and project features. The higher the office holder is, the larger is the expected pay-off. Big and complex development projects in urban centres have a higher pay-off tag. Low value items television sets and car repairs serve to support normal lifestyle whereas high value items such as golfing and holiday trips support lavish lifestyle. Establishing good rapport is a prerequisite to the rent seeking and giving exchange. Elements which help foster reciprocity by state actors to housing developers’ rentseeking behaviours include low civil servant salary and high living cost, and weak punitive action. Common ethnicity facilitates nuanced communication by the latter, but common religion may dampen the former’s enthusiasm to accept any payoffs. Eventually house buyers and the general public are the casualties by virtue of higher house prices and substandard infrastructure. Given the combination of inherent features of the planning system and certain elements that impinge on state actors both of which promote rent-seeking practices, a realistic law enforcement solution is to prioritise illicit market-state exchanges involving grossly distorting rent extraction and pecuniary rewards of significant magnitude rather than total eradication of the practice.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Tewodros Tamire ◽  
Temesgen Eticha ◽  
Temesgen Bati Gelgelu

Background. In healthcare facilities, a gradual increase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections has been seen over the past 2 decades. Similarly, it has been responsible for the most frequent and invasive pathogens associated with admitted patient infection. Currently, it is considered an urgent threat to public health and classified as one of the top-priority antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. This study aimed to determine the magnitude and associated risk factors of MRSA infection among admitted patients. Methods. A facility-based cross-sectional examination was led on 413 patients admitted to Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital from January 2018 to January 2019. A convenient sampling technique was used. Clinical specimens of pus and blood were collected from admitted patients who developed the infection after 48 hours of admission. Gram stain, culture media preparations, and biochemical tests were conducted to identify and isolate the causative agent. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were identified as MRSA strains after having a zone of inhibition less than or equal to 21 mm to the cefoxitin (30 ug) disc. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were computed. The odds ratio, along with 95% CI, was estimated to identify associated risk factors for MRSA infection. Results. Out of 413 collected specimens, 38.7% had coagulase-positive S. aureus of which 35.6% (95% CI: 28.2%–43.0%) were MRSA. Being within the age group of 19–29 years and 30–39 years with AOR = 5.02 and 95% CI: 1.24–20.35 and AOR = 6.65 and 95% CI: 1.78–24.78, respectively, admitting in the hematology ward and the pediatric ward with AOR = 7.80 and 95% CI: 1.82–33.49 and AOR = 10.54 and 95% CI: 1.78–62.42, respectively, and experiencing poor prognosis with AOR = 10.97 and 95% CI: 4.57–26.36 were significantly associated with MRSA infection. Conclusion and Recommendation. The significant magnitude of MRSA was found among patients admitted to this hospital. Therefore, identified risk factors should be considered when executing hospital-acquired infection prevention programs. We also suggest that healthcare providers should consider the identified risk factors while prescribing the antibiotic.

2021 ◽  
Vol 40 (4) ◽  
pp. 751-761
A.O. Eruola ◽  
A.A. Makinde ◽  
G.A. Eruola ◽  
K.O. Ayoola

This study assessed rainfall extremes for agricultural overview in Nigeria using trend analysis and probability of exceedance expressed as normal for an average at 50% exceedance, wet for greater than average 20% exceedance and dry for lower than average 80% exceedance. The annual rainfall trend indicated variability in the six geopolitical regions with North-East having the lowest range and South-South area with highest. The average monthly rainfall exceedance showed that all part of the Nigeria experienced rainfall more than 100 mm at all levels of probability. The rainfall exceedance time series indicated extremes as well as critical values of 20% and 80% exceedance conditions at many stations during the study period. The critical values of exceedances in dry occurrences are in short-time scales in Northern region while, wet exceedances occurrences for long time scales in South-East, South-West, North-Central and North-West. The study revealed periods of extreme rainfall of significant magnitude susceptible to crop failure in the different regions if reliable cropping management plans is not put in place.

Geosciences ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 422
Davide Tiranti ◽  
Roberto Cremonini ◽  
Daniele Sanmartino

Rarely, a close correlation between wildfires and the occurrence of channelized debris flows has been observed in the Western Italian Alps. Only two cases in history have been reported, after brief and localized rainfall events of moderate intensity in Italy's Piemonte region (NW Italy) caused debris flows, on 18 July 2005, in Verbania province (Pallanzeno municipality), and on June 2018 in Turin province (Bussoleno municipality). These phenomena occurred after a large portion of the catchments were affected by wide wildfires in the preceding months. Debris flow deposits showed an unusually large number of fine-grained particles, forming dark-brown mud-rich deposits associated with burnt wood deposits. Rainfall analysis related to the period between the wildfires' occurrence and the debris flow events, using both raingauge and weather radar data, pointed out that the debris flows triggered in July 2005 and June 2018 were characterized by greater magnitude but associated with less precipitation intensity rates as compared with previous mud flows occurring just after wildfires. These behaviors can be explained by the presence of burned organic material and fine-grained sediment, generated from the soil's thermal reworking, which formed a thick layer, centimeters deep, covering a large percentage of catchments and slopes. Most of this layer, generated by wildfires’ action were winnowed by rainfall events that had occurred in the months before the debris flow events, of significant magnitude, exhuming a discontinuous hydrophobic soil surface that changed the slopes’ permeability characteristics. In such conditions, runoff increased, corrivation time shortened, and, consequently, discharge along the two catchments’ channels-network increased as well. Consequently, the rainfall effects associated with rainfall events in July 2005 and June 2019 were more effective in mobilizing coarse sediments in channel beds than was typical for those catchments.

Jhainieiry Cordeiro Famelli Ferret ◽  
Braulio Henrique Magnani Branco ◽  
Letícia Pereira Gonzaga dos Santos ◽  
Filipe Rocco ◽  
Marcelo Picinin Bernuci

The acknowledgment of social media as a strategy in health education is essential, providing benefits to health promotion and the prevention and treatment of comorbidities. This study assessed the contribution of WhatsApp use on the prognosis of medical conditions and its impact on enhancing the quality of life. The review protocol used PubMed and Web of Science as databases, followed PRISMA-E 2012 guidelines, was registered in PROSPERO (Nº2021232688), and its risk of bias was analyzed Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias. Thirteen impact studies (n = 1653 participants) were selected and showed evidence on metabolic parameters such as reducing blood pressure (7.6%); body mass index-BMI (7.6%); glycated haemoglobin-HbA1c (15.4%); resting heart rate (7.6%); increase in static balance increase on balance (7.6%) and reduced body weight (7.6%). Furthermore, specific findings on each intervention were demonstrated, such as diminished rates of relapse in substance users (7.6%); increased populational knowledge on chronic diseases (23%) associated with a decrease in the potential complications (7.6%), and a rise on treatment adhesion (7.6%); impact on the follow-up of pregnant patients (7.6%) and progress on oral hygiene (15.4%). Therefore, it was concluded that this intervention strategy demonstrated significant magnitude in reducing the progression and complication of the assessed disorders.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (17) ◽  
pp. 7949
Luis San Andrés ◽  
Jing Yang ◽  
Andrew Devitt

Having come of age, gas film bearings enable high-speed oil-free (micro) rotating machinery with gains in efficiency and reliability, longer maintenance intervals, and a reduction in contaminants released to the atmosphere. Among gas bearing types, porous surface gas bearings (PGBs) have proven successful for 50+ years and presently are off-the-shelf mechanical elements. This paper reviews the literature on PGBs since the 1970s and reproduces an exact solution for the performance of cylindrical PGBs. Both the analytical model and an accompanying finite-element (FE) model predict the performance for two PGBs, a commercially available 76 mm diameter bearing and a smaller 25 mm diameter laboratory unit whose experimental performance is available. As expected, the FE model results reproduce the analytical predictions obtained in a minuscule computing time. For a set external supply pressure, as the radial clearance increases, the flow rate through the bearing grows until reaching a peak magnitude. The PGB load capacity is a fraction of the product of the set pressure difference (pS − pa) and the bearing projected area with a significantly large centering static stiffness evolving over a narrow region of clearances. Operation with shaft speed enhances the bearing load capacity; however, at sufficiently high speeds, significant magnitude cross-coupled forces limit the stable operation of a PGB. At constant operating shaft speed, as the whirl frequency grows, the bearing effective stiffness (Keff) increases, while the effective damping (Ceff) becomes positive for whirl frequencies greater than 50% shaft speed. Similar to a plain hydrodynamic journal bearing, the PGB is prone to a half-frequency whirl, albeit the system natural frequency can be high, mainly depending on the external supply pressure. In essence, for the cases considered, PGBs are linear mechanical elements whose load capacity is proportional to the journal eccentricity.

IUCrJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
Sylwia Pawlędzio ◽  
Maura Malinska ◽  
Magdalena Woińska ◽  
Jakub Wojciechowski ◽  
Lorraine Andrade Malaspina ◽  

The main goal of this study is the validation of relativistic Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) as implemented in Tonto for high-resolution X-ray diffraction datasets of an organo-gold(I) compound. The influence of the relativistic effects on statistical parameters, geometries and electron density properties was analyzed and compared with the influence of electron correlation and anharmonic atomic motions. Recent work in this field has indicated the importance of relativistic effects in the static electron density distribution of organo-mercury compounds. This study confirms that differences in electron density due to relativistic effects are also of significant magnitude for organo-gold compounds. Relativistic effects dominate not only the core region of the gold atom, but also influence the electron density in the valence and bonding region, which has measurable consequences for the HAR refinement model parameters. To study the effects of anharmonic motion on the electron density distribution, dynamic electron density difference maps were constructed. Unlike relativistic and electron correlation effects, the effects of anharmonic nuclear motion are mostly observed in the core area of the gold atom.

Ch. Santhi Priya ◽  
D. Ratna Babu

Background: The yield levels in mung bean reached a plateau, which emphasizes breeding for varieties with improved productivity. The basic requirements of any breeding include the understanding of different genetic parameters of various yield related traits along with the knowledge with regards to interrelationships and cause and effect of those relations among the quantitative traits.Methods: In the present investigation, sixty germplasm lines were evaluated using Augmented Randomized Complete Block Design in respect of eleven quantitative traits for three years i.e., during kharif seasons of 2017-18, 2018-19 and 2019-20 to understand the genetic architecture of different genetic parameters along with associations and their cause and effects of different traits on grain yield.Result: The pooled analysis revealed significant variability for majority of traits. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was observed in case of pods per plant, clusters per plant, plant height, test weight, seeds per pod, pods per cluster and grain yield indicating probable operation of additive gene action in inheritance of these traits. Clusters per plant and pods per plant which registered high GCV, high heritability and high genetic advance as percent of mean. The association studies revealed significant associations of pods per plant, clusters per plant, pods per cluster, branches per plant, days to maturity, pod length with grain yield per plant at both phenotypic and genotypic levels in desirable direction. Further, it was found that all these six traits which had significant association with yield also established significant magnitude of direct effects in desirable direction which contributed to the significant associations hence, can be considered simultaneously during selection.

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