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Hypertension ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 78 (Suppl_1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Liang Xie ◽  
Rikeish R Muralitharan ◽  
Evany Dinakis ◽  
Michael E Nakai ◽  
Hamdi Jama ◽  
...  

High fibre (HF) diet protects against hypertension via the production of acidic metabolites, e.g. short-chain fatty acids, by the gut microbiota. While these metabolites have a direct role in blood pressure (BP) regulation, their acidic nature may activate proton-sensing receptors, which have anti-inflammatory functions. G-protein coupled receptor 65 (GPR65) is a proton-sensing receptor activated around pH 6.5 and is critical for gut homeostasis. We hypothesized that GPR65 is involved in the cardiovascular protection by dietary fibre. We first measured cecal pH of C57BL/6 (WT) mice after a 7-day dietary intervention with either HF or low fibre (LF) diets (n=6/group). HF diet lowered cecal pH to a level where GPR65 is highly activated, compared to the LF diet (6.5±0.1 vs 7.6±0.1, P<0.001). The impact of pH and GPR65 on T cell production of IFNγ, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, in vitro was measured by flow cytometry. Acidic pH inhibited the production of IFNγ by CD8+ T cells (pH 6.5 vs pH 7.5, P<0.001). Cells lacking GPR65 had higher IFNγ at both pH (P<0.001). To determine if GPR65 is involved in BP regulation by dietary fibre, WT and GPR65 knockout ( Gpr65 -/- ) mice were implanted with minipumps containing angiotensin II (Ang II, 0.5mg/kg/day, 28 days, n=8-9/group) and fed with HF diet. BP, cardiorenal function and immune cell infiltration were measured. Gpr65 -/- mice had higher BP compared to WT mice after 2 weeks (mean arterial pressure ± SEM; WT 79.8±2.4 vs Gpr65 -/- 95.8±1.6mmHg, P<0.001) and 4 weeks of Ang II infusion (WT 92.3±2.4 vs Gpr65 -/- 99.5±1.3, P=0.062). Gpr65 -/- mice developed cardiac (P=0.035) and renal (P=0.025) hypertrophy, and impaired renal natriuretic (P=0.054) and diuretic (P=0.056) function compared to WT mice. This was accompanied by higher macrophage (P=0.009) and γδ T cell (P=0.014) infiltration in the kidneys. In conclusion, our data suggest that pH-sensing by GPR65 contributes to the protection against hypertension by dietary fibre via inflammatory mechanisms. This is a novel mechanism that contributes to BP regulation via the gut microbiota.


Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (8) ◽  
pp. 1862
Author(s):  
Tumisang Ben Matshogo ◽  
Caven Mguvane Mnisi ◽  
Victor Mlambo

The use of seaweeds as nutraceuticals in chicken diets is limited by high fibre levels and low protein digestibility. Therefore, we tested the effect of pre-treating dietary seaweed (Ulva sp.) with a combination of protease and fibrolytic enzymes on physiological and meat quality parameters of Cobb 500 broilers. Five dietary treatments were formulated by including untreated (T1); fibrolytic (12 g/kg) enzyme-treated (T2); fibrolytic (12 g/kg) and protease (5 g/kg) enzyme-treated (T3); fibrolytic (12 g/kg) and protease (10 g/kg) enzyme-treated (T4); fibrolytic (12 g/kg) and protease (15 g/kg) enzyme-treated (T5) seaweed (35 g/kg) in a standard broiler diet. Three hundred, two-week-old chicks (239.3 ± 8.57 g live weight) were evenly distributed to 30 replicate pens to which the diets were then randomly allocated. Birds fed diet T1 had the highest feed intake (1144.5 g/bird). Neither linear nor quadratic trends were recorded for growth performance and carcass traits in response to protease pre-treatment levels. Gizzard weight linearly increased, while symmetric dimethylarginine, calcium, meat pH24, and hue angle24 quadratically responded to protease levels. Diet T1 promoted the lowest serum phosphorus levels (3.37 mmol/L). In conclusion, pre-treatment of seaweed with a combination of protease and fibrolytic enzymes did not improve diet utilization, physiological parameters, and meat quality in broilers.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-10
Author(s):  
Noraiham Mohamad ◽  
Anisah Abd Latiff ◽  
Jeefferie Abd Razak ◽  
Hairul Effendy Ab Maulod ◽  
Pay Jun Liew ◽  
...  

The polypropylene (PP) reinforced with recycled carbon fibres (rCF) was successfully produced using a Haake internal mixer via melt compounding. The compounding was performed at 180°C, rotor speed of 50 rpm and compounding period of 10 minutes. The standard samples for the pin on disc testing were prepared using injection moulding. The effect of rCF filler loadings of 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 13, 15 and 20 wt% was studied for the tribological properties. The results were compared with 100% PP. The morphological behaviours for the effect of low and high fibre loadings were observed using scanning electron microscopy analyses. The composites with low carbon fibre loading of up to 3 wt% imposed higher resistance to dry sliding friction. In contrast, the increment of fibre loading at 5 wt% to 20 wt% decreased the wear rate of the composites due to patch film and transfer film formation. The wear mechanism of the composites for different fibre loading was graphically sketched from morphological observation. As the conclusions, the composites showed promising self-lubricating properties, capable of wear reduction with significant physical and mechanical properties.


Author(s):  
I.U. Sheikh ◽  
M.T. Banday ◽  
A.A. Khan ◽  
S. Adil ◽  
I.A. Baba ◽  
...  

Background: Feed is the single largest input which accounts for 60-70% of the total cost of poultry production. Sheep manure is an unconventional feed relatively high in protein and energy levels and can be used in poultry diet to reduce the cost of production. Inclusion of exogenous enzymes will improve its nutritional value as it contains relatively high fibre and utilization by birds. The performance of broiler chicken fed with heat treated sheep manure (HSM) based diets supplement with or without enzyme was studied. Methods: 210 broiler chicks were randomly distributed to five groups viz. T1 (Control), T2: 5% HSM without enzyme, T3: 5% HSM with enzyme, T4: 10% HSM without enzyme and T5: 10% HSM with enzyme containing 42 chicks in each group having three replicates of 14 chicks each. Result: The chemical composition of HSM like Dry matter, Organic matter, Crude protein, Ether extract, Crude fibre, Total ash, NFE, Calcium and Phosphorus were estimated as 90.15±1.85, 71.88±1.62, 15.24±1.23, 4.22±0.86, 17.09±0.92, 28.12±1.32, 35.33±1.28, 1.15±0.08 and 0.48±0.03%. The ME (Kcal/kg) was 1565.33. The final body weight at 6 weeks of age was highest in T3 (1998.25±13.29g) and lowest in T4 (1949.22± 15.14 g). The cumulative feed conversion ratio ranged between 1.79 ± 0.083 in T1 to 1.83 ± 0.078 in T4. The cost of production per kg live weight was highest (Rs. 89.78) in T1 and lowest (Rs. 83.76) in T5 group. The benefit cost ratio was 1.14, 1.17, 1.19, 1.20 and 1.22 for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 groups respectively.


Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (15) ◽  
pp. 4442
Author(s):  
Michela Costantini ◽  
Carmine Summo ◽  
Michele Faccia ◽  
Francesco Caponio ◽  
Antonella Pasqualone

Gluten-free (GF) products, including pasta, are often characterised by nutritional deficiencies, such as scarce dietary fibre and excess of calories. Chickpea flour is increasingly being used by the food industries. Hulls, rich in dietary fibre and bioactive compounds, are discarded after milling. The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality features of short-cut GF fresh pasta added of hull (8% w/w) derived from kabuli (KH) or Apulian black (ABH) chickpeas, in comparison with control GF pasta prepared without hull. The enriched pasta, which could be labelled as “high fibre”, was characterised by a higher level of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity than the control. ABH-enriched pasta showed the highest anthocyanins (33.37 ± 1.20 and 20.59 ± 0.11 mg/kg of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside on dry matter in raw and cooked pasta, respectively). Hull addition increased colour intensity and structural quality of GF pasta: ABH-enriched pasta had the lowest cooking loss and the highest water absorption capacity; KH-enriched pasta showed the highest firmness. No significant differences in sensory liking were found among the samples, except for “aftertaste”. Chickpea hull can be used as an innovative ingredient to produce potentially functional GF pasta, meeting the dietary needs of consumers without affecting quality.


Author(s):  
Rafel MATAMALES-ANDREU ◽  
Francesc X. ROIG-MUNAR ◽  
Oriol OMS ◽  
Àngel GALOBART ◽  
Josep FORTUNY

ABSTRACT Moradisaurine captorhinid eureptiles were a successful group of high-fibre herbivores that lived in the arid low latitudes of Pangaea during the Permian. Here we describe a palaeoassemblage from the Permian of Menorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean), consisting of ichnites of small captorhinomorph eureptiles, probably moradisaurines (Hyloidichnus), and parareptiles (cf. Erpetopus), and bones of two different taxa of moradisaurines. The smallest of the two is not diagnostic beyond Moradisaurinae incertae sedis. The largest one, on the other hand, shows characters that are not present in any other known species of moradisaurine (densely ornamented maxillar teeth), and it is therefore described as Balearosaurus bombardensis gen. et sp. nov. Other remains found in the same outcrop are identified as cf. Balearosaurus bombardensis gen. et sp. nov., as they could also belong to the newly described taxon. This species is sister to the moradisaurine from the lower Permian of the neighbouring island of Mallorca, and is also closely related to the North American genus Rothianiscus. This makes it possible to suggest the hypothesis that the Variscan mountains, which separated North America from southern Europe during the Permian, were not a very important palaeobiogeographical barrier to the dispersion of moradisaurines. In fact, mapping all moradisaurine occurrences known so far, it is shown that their distribution area encompassed both sides of the Variscan mountains, essentially being restricted to the arid belt of palaeoequatorial Pangaea, where they probably outcompeted other herbivorous clades until they died out in the late Permian.


Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (7) ◽  
pp. 1639
Author(s):  
Emma Neylon ◽  
Elke K. Arendt ◽  
Emanuele Zannini ◽  
Aylin W. Sahin

Recycling of by-products from the food industry has become a central part of research to help create a more sustainable future. Brewers’ spent grain is one of the main side-streams of the brewing industry, rich in protein and fibre. Its inclusion in bread, however, has been challenging and requires additional processing. Fermentation represents a promising tool to elevate ingredient functionality and improve bread quality. Wheat bread was fortified with spray-dried brewers’ spent grain (BSG) and fermented brewers’ spent grain (FBSG) at two addition levels to achieve “source of fibre” and “high in fibre” claims according to EU regulations. The impact of BSG and FBSG on bread dough, final bread quality and nutritional value was investigated and compared to baker’s flour (BF) and wholemeal flour (WMF) breads. The inclusion of BSG and FBSG resulted in a stronger and faster gluten development; reduced starch pasting capacity; and increased dough resistance/stiffness. However, fermentation improved bread characteristics resulting in increased specific volume, reduced crumb hardness and restricted microbial growth rate over time. Additionally, the inclusion of FBSG slowed the release in reducing sugars over time during in vitro starch digestion. Thus, fermentation of BSG can ameliorate bread techno-functional properties and improve nutritional quality of breads.


BMC Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Chee Kin Then ◽  
Salome Paillas ◽  
Xuedan Wang ◽  
Alix Hampson ◽  
Anne E. Kiltie

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Agnieszka Beata Malczewski ◽  
Natkunam Ketheesan ◽  
Jermaine I. G. Coward ◽  
Severine Navarro

Host immunity plays a central role in the regulation of anti-tumour responses during checkpoint inhibitor therapy (CIT). The mechanisms involved in long lasting remission remain unclear. Animal studies have revealed that the microbiome influences the host immune response. This is supported by human studies linking a higher microbial richness and diversity with enhanced responses to CIT. This review focuses on the role of diet, the microbiome and the microbiome-derived metabolome in enhancing responses to current CIT in solid tissue cancers. The Western diet has been associated with dysbiosis, inflammation and numerous metabolic disorders. There is preliminary evidence that lifestyle factors including a high fibre diet are associated with improved responses to CIT via a potential effect on the microbiota. The mechanisms through which the microbiota may regulate long-term immunotherapy responses have yet to be determined, although bacterial-metabolites including short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are recognized to have an impact on T cell differentiation, and may affect T effector/regulatory T cell balance. SCFAs were also shown to enhance the memory potential of activated CD8 T cells. Many therapeutic approaches including dietary manipulation and fecal transplantation are currently being explored in order to enhance immunotherapy responses. The microbiome-derived metabolome may be one means through which bacterial metabolic products can be monitored from the start of treatment and could be used to identify patients at risk of poor immunotherapy responses. The current review will discuss recent advances and bring together literature from related fields in nutrition, oncology and immunology to discuss possible means of modulating immunity to improve responses to current CIT.


Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (13) ◽  
pp. 3939
Author(s):  
Hanna Kowalska ◽  
Jolanta Kowalska ◽  
Anna Ignaczak ◽  
Ewelina Masiarz ◽  
Ewa Domian ◽  
...  

The aim of this study was to find the effect of kale and dietary fibre (DF) on the physicochemical properties, nutritional value and sensory quality of multigrain bars. A recipe of multigrain bars was prepared with the addition of fresh kale (20% and 30%) and DF preparations (apple, blackcurrant, chokeberry and hibiscus). The bars were baked at 180 °C for 20 min. These snack bars, based on pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, flaxseed and wholegrain oatmeal, are a high-calorie product (302–367 kcal/100 g). However, the composition of the bars encourages consumption. In addition to the ability to quickly satisfy hunger, such bars are rich in many natural ingredients that are considered pro-health (high fibre content (9.1–11.6 g/100 g), protein (11.2–14.3 g/100 g), fat (17.0–21.1 g/100 g, including unsaturated fatty acids), carbohydrates (20.5–24.0 g/100 g), as well as vitamins, minerals and a large number of substances from the antioxidant group. The addition of kale caused a significant increase of water content, but reduction in the value of all texture parameters (TPA profiles) as well as calorific values. The content of polyphenols was strongly and positively correlated with the antioxidant activity (r = 0.92). In the bars with 30% addition of kale (422 mg GA/100 g d.m.), the content of polyphenols was significantly higher than based ones (334 mg GA/100 g d.m.). Bars with the addition of the DF were characterized by a higher antioxidant activity, and the content of carotenoids, chlorophyll A and B and polyphenols. High sensory quality was demonstrated for all (from 4.8 to 7.1 on a 10-point scale). The addition of fibre preparations was also related to technological aspects and allows to create attractive bars without additional chemicals.


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