Cardiovascular Outcomes
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Diabetologia ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Simon R. Heller ◽  
Milan S. Geybels ◽  
Ahmed Iqbal ◽  
Lei Liu ◽  
Lily Wagner ◽  
...  

Abstract Aims/hypothesis Hypoglycaemia is a common side effect of insulin and some other antihyperglycaemic agents used to treat diabetes. Severe hypoglycaemia has been associated with adverse cardiovascular events in trials of intensive glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. The relationship between non-severe hypoglycaemic episodes (NSHEs) and severe hypoglycaemia in type 2 diabetes has been documented. However, an association between more frequent NSHEs and cardiovascular events has not been verified. This post hoc analysis of the LEADER (Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results) trial aimed to confirm whether there is an association between NSHEs and severe hypoglycaemic episodes in individuals with type 2 diabetes. In addition, the possible association between NSHEs and major adverse cardiac events (MACE), cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality was investigated. Methods LEADER was a double-blind, multicentre, placebo-controlled trial that found that liraglutide significantly reduced the risk of MACE compared with the placebo. In this post hoc analysis, we explored, in all LEADER participants, whether the annual rate of NSHEs (defined as self-measured plasma glucose <3.1 mmol/l [56 mg/dl]) was associated with time to first severe hypoglycaemic episode (defined as an episode requiring the assistance of another person), time to first MACE, time to cardiovascular death and time to all-cause mortality. Participants with <2 NSHEs per year were used as reference for HR estimates. Cox regression with a time-varying covariate was used. Results We demonstrate that there is an association between NSHEs (2–11 NSHEs per year and ≥12 NSHEs per year) and severe hypoglycaemic episodes (unadjusted HRs 1.98 [95% CI 1.43, 2.75] and 5.01 [95% CI 2.84, 8.84], respectively), which was consistent when baseline characteristics were accounted for. Additionally, while no association was found between participants with 2–11 NSHEs per year and adverse cardiovascular outcomes, higher rates of NSHEs (≥12 episodes per year) were associated with higher risk of MACE (HR 1.50 [95% CI 1.01, 2.23]), cardiovascular death (HR 2.08 [95% CI 1.17, 3.70]) and overall death (HR 1.80 [95% CI 1.11, 2.92]). Conclusions/interpretation The analysis of data from the LEADER trial demonstrated that higher rates of NSHEs were associated with both a higher risk of severe hypoglycaemia and adverse cardiovascular outcomes in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, irrespective of the cause of this association, it is important that individuals with high rates of hypoglycaemia are identified so that the potentially increased risk of cardiovascular events can be managed and steps can be taken to reduce NSHEs. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01179048). Graphical abstract


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jianqing She ◽  
Bowen Lou ◽  
Hui Liu ◽  
Bo Zhou ◽  
Gulinigaer Tuerhong Jiang ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Amanda Jiménez ◽  
Adriana Pané ◽  
Ainitze Ibarzábal ◽  
Ana de Hollanda ◽  
Diana Tundidor ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Author(s):  
Barry O’Callaghan ◽  
Emma Shepherd ◽  
Demetris Taliotis ◽  
James Bentham ◽  
Damien Kenny ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: No established risk prediction tool exists in United Kingdom and Irish Paediatric Cardiology practice for patients undergoing cardiac catheterisation. The Catheterisation RISk score for Paediatrics is used primarily in North American practice to assess risk prior to cardiac catheterisation. Validating the utility and transferability of such a tool in practice provides the opportunity to employ an already established risk assessment tool in everyday practice. Aims: To ascertain whether the Catheterisation RISk score for Paediatrics assessment tool can accurately predict complications within United Kingdom and Irish congenital catheterisation practice. Methods: Clinical and procedural data including National Institute for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research derived outcome data from 1500 patients across five large congenital cardiology centres in the United Kingdom and Ireland were retrospectively collected. Catheterisation RISk score for Paediatrics were then calculated for each case and compared with the observed procedural outcomes. Chi-square analysis was used to determine the relationship between observed and predicted events. Results: Ninety-eight (6.6%) patients in this study experienced a significant complication as qualified by National Institute for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research classification. 4% experienced a moderate complication, 2.3% experienced a major complication and 0.3% experienced a catastrophic complication resulting in death. Calculated Catheterisation RISk score for Paediatrics scores correlated well with all observed adverse events for paediatric patients across all CRISP categories. The association was also transferable to adult congenital heart disease patients in lower Catheterisation RISk score for Paediatrics categories (CRISP 1–3). Conclusion: The Catheterisation RISk score for Paediatrics score accurately predicts significant complications in congenital catheterisation practice in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Our data validated the Catheterisation RISk score for Paediatrics assessment tool in five congenital centres using National Institute for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research-derived outcome data.


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