Infiltration Capacity
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Li-Rong Yang ◽  
Zhu-Ying Lin ◽  
Qing-Gang Hao ◽  
Tian-Tian Li ◽  
Yun Zhu ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are two common malignant disorders in leukemia. Although potent drugs are emerging, CML and AML may still relapse after the drug treatment is stopped. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) and lncRNAs play certain roles in the occurrence and development of tumors, but m6A-modified LncRNAs in ML remain to be further investigated. Methods In this study, we extracted and analyzed the TCGA gene expression profile of 151 ML patients and the clinical data. On this basis, we then evaluated the immune infiltration capacity of ML and LASSO-penalized Cox analysis was applied to construct the prognostic model based on m6A related lncRNAs to verify the prognostic risk in clinical features of ML. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR was used to detect the expression level of LncRNA in in ML cell lines K562, MOLM13 and acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1. Results We found 70 m6A-related lncRNAs that were related to prognosis, and speculated that the content of stromal cells and immune cells would correlate with the survival of patients with ML. Next, Prognostic risk model of m6A-related lncRNAs was validated to have excellent consistency in clinical features of ML. Finally, we verified the expression levels of CRNDE, CHROMR and NARF-IT1 in ML cell lines K562, MOLM13 and acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1, which were significant. Conclusions The research provides clues for the prognosis prediction of ML patients by using the m6A-related lncRNAs model we have created, and clarifies the accuracy and authenticity of it.


2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ana Claudia Pereira Carvalho ◽  
Reinaldo Lorandi ◽  
José Augusto Di Lollo ◽  
Eduardo Goulart Collares ◽  
Luiz Eduardo Moschini

Use of water for several human needs, associated with climate change, indicates the need understand the response of watersheds, in order to provide adequate water resources planning and management. This study was carried out in two pairs of hydrographic watersheds, in the Piracicaba River Basin, southeast of Brazil, analyzing water response, integrating in-situ collected precipitation and flow data, natural environment attributes, and anthropic environmental data. To support the analysis, Surface Runoff Potential Charts (SRPC). The evaluation of the physical characteristics of the sub watersheds (SW(A) and SW(B)) shows that these areas present very low to low potential, indicating greater infiltration capacity. The use and coverage of the soil partially justifies the flow changes in pair 1, since SW(A) has a larger extent of agricultural areas that can use irrigation. SW(B), even with a greater variety of crops, has a smaller cultivated area and tends to demand less water. At pair 2, the low runoff potential is mainly due to the predominance of flat relief in the sub-basins. The soils that compose them present a higher fraction of silt and clay, with thicknesses > 5m in SW(C) and varying from 0.5m, reaching depths above 5m in SW(D), however, the physical properties of these soils do not provide a low flow rate, but associated with the low slope of the land, the geological characteristics and low drainage density are configured in regions where the flow flows more slowly, contributing to the evaporation and infiltration process. The use and coverage of the soil also partially justifies the flow oscillations, due to anthropic activities in SW(C) and SW(D), such as irrigation and spraying of citrus, fertirrigation of sugarcane, irrigation of seedling nurseries, directly interfering with the availability of surface water.


2022 ◽  
Vol 951 (1) ◽  
pp. 012111
Author(s):  
H Basri ◽  
S Syakur ◽  
A Azmeri ◽  
E Fatimah

Abstract The phenomenon of flooding that occurs in almost all regions of the earth causes loss of property and damage to public facilities and causes the loss of many human lives. There are many reports related to the causes of flooding with various solutions offered to overcome the flood problem. However, it seems that these efforts have not been able to eliminate the flood problem. Hydrologists have widely reported various factors that are the cause of flooding with an extensive scope. Therefore, this paper is limited to discussing flooding and its problems, specifically the river flood, from the perspective of land use and soil types. Changes in land use in a watershed can cause an increase in the runoff coefficient. Likewise, different types of soil have different abilities in passing water into the ground. Open land (without land cover) tends to be prone to erosion, reducing the soil’s infiltration capacity and increased surface runoff. Increasing the runoff coefficient will increase the peak discharge in a watershed. The decrease in the river capacity due to sediment can cause a river flood. To support this argument, a rainfall-runoff model, particularly the tank model, is also discussed, taking into account the various uses and types of soil in a watershed. Efforts to anticipate the river flood are also considered for formulating flood disaster control policies in a watershed.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 13-19
Author(s):  
Dina Ananda Harfia ◽  
Sugeng Prijono

The uneven distribution and intensity of rain cause a shortage and excess of water in dry land farming. It appears that the problem of soil conservation in principle is the regulation of the relationship between rainfall intensity, infiltration capacity, and runoff adjustment. To improve the physical properties of the soil, and the hydrological function of the land use it cannot only be stressed on the coffee plant. Other factors such as soil surface management, such as providing organic matter, covering the soil surface with understory plants, making absorption holes, terraces, waterways and so on, can improve the hydrological function of the land. Rainwater management can be carried out through controlling surface runoff, harvesting rainwater, increasing soil infiltration capacity, managing soil, controlling evaporation and seepage, lining waterways. The use of silt pit parallel is considered quite effective because it is able to produce the lowest surface runoff and sufficient water storage. Silt pit parallel can produce 0.6% of rainfall into surface runoff and also can store water as much as 62.35% of the rainfall that enters the plot. The functions of a silt pit are to increase water infiltration into the soil. On dry land, silt pit functions as a place for harvesting rainwater and surface runoff. Based on the correlation regression test, the amount of surface runoff is closely influenced by the intensity of rain or rainfall.


Author(s):  
B. Prabhu Dass Batvari ◽  
K. Nagamani

Precipitation is the primary source of fresh water in the world. Surface runoff will happen when the amount of rainfall is greater than the soil’s infiltration capacity. In most water resource applications, runoff is the most important hydrological variable. Aside from these rainfall characteristics, there are a number of catchment-specific elements that have a direct impact on runoff amount and volume. This research focuses on estimating surface runoff over the lower Vellar basin, a river basin in the southern part of India, by integrating Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number (SCS-CN) method with GIS. This technique is one of the most common methods used by hydrologists for estimating surface runoff. Curve Number (CN) is an index established by the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) to denote the potential for stormwater runoff. The nature of the watershed is explored first by creating land use and land cover pattern followed by the preparation of slope, drainage, and location maps. The area taken for this study is the lower Vellar basin situated in the Cuddalore District of Tamil Nadu, India. The curve number is analyzed using the rainfall data of 15 years (2001-2015) and the runoff is being calculated. The watershed pattern of the study area is also explored being analyzed and executed. Preservation of the runoff water is also discussed.


Author(s):  
Aifaa Balqis Kamarul Zaman ◽  
Zahiraniza Mustaffa ◽  
Bashar S. Mohammed ◽  
Cheng Yee Ng

Author(s):  
Swarnima Pandey ◽  
Vikas Srivastava

Multifunctional organ of the human body is the skin and it has less porousness across the layer corneum and this layer is the hindrance for dynamic specialists. To expand the penetrability of dynamic specialists, novel vesicular transporter invasomes are presented. Invasomes give different preferences including upgrading patient consistence, improving the medication adequacy and increment the pervasion of hydrophilic medications. This is a vesicular transporter that improves the Transdermal infiltration contrasted with ordinary liposomes. Invasomes comprise of phospholipid, terpenes, ethanol, and water. These constituents assume a significant part in improving its infiltration capacity. In this review paper, a wide presentation of TDDS (transdermal medication conveyance framework) is clarified and different segments, strategies for arrangement, segments, benefits, and faults of invasomes are featured.


Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1716
Author(s):  
Sergio Esteban Lozano-Baez ◽  
Yamileth Domínguez-Haydar ◽  
Bob W. Zwartendijk ◽  
Miguel Cooper ◽  
Conrado Tobón ◽  
...  

Governments are increasingly committing to significant ecological restoration. However, the impacts of forest restoration on local hydrological services are surprisingly poorly understood. Particularly, limited information is available about the impacts of tree planting on soil infiltration processes and runoff pathways. Thus, we investigated the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and preferential flow pathways in three land-cover types: (i) Active Restoration, (ii) Degraded Land, and (iii) Reference Forest, with contrasting differences in soil profile and land use history in the municipality of La Jagua de Ibirico, César department, Colombia. We conducted soil sampling, using the Beerkan method to determine Ks values. We also measured vegetation attributes (i.e., canopy cover, vegetation height, diameter at breast height, and total number of trees) and carried out three dye tracer experiments for each study site. The blue dye experiments revealed that near surface matrix infiltration was dominant for Degraded Land, while at the Active Restoration and Reference Forest, this only occurred at local surface depressions. The general infiltration pattern at the three land uses is indicated as being macropore flow with mixed interaction with the matrix and highly affected by the presence of rock fragments. The deeper infiltration patterns occur by preferential flow due to the presence of roots and rock fragments. The mean Ks for the Active Restoration (240 mm h−1) was much higher than the Ks at Degraded Land (40 mm h−1) but still considerably lower than the Reference Forest (324 mm h−1). These results indicate that top soil infiltration capacity and soil physical parameters not only directly regulate the amount of infiltration but also infiltration patterns and runoff processes, leading to lower infiltration and increased excess overland flow for Degraded Land than for other land uses.


Author(s):  
He Sun ◽  
Fengge Su ◽  
Tandong Yao ◽  
Zhihua He ◽  
Guoqiang Tang ◽  
...  

Abstract Precipitation is one of the most important input to hydrological models, although obtaining sufficient precipitation observations and accurate precipitation estimates in High Mountain Asia (HMA) is challenging. ERA5 precipitation is the latest generation of reanalysis dataset that is attracting huge attention from various fields but it has not been evaluated in hydrological simulations in HMA. To remedy this gap, we first statistically evaluated ERA5 precipitation with observations from 584 gauges in HMA, and then investigated its potential in hydrological simulation in 11 HMA basins using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model. The ERA5 precipitation generally captures the seasonal variations of gauge observations, and the broad spatial distributions of precipitation in both magnitude and trends in HMA. The ERA5 exhibits a reasonable flow simulation (RB of 5%–10%) at the Besham hydrological station of the UI basin when the contribution from glacier runoff is added to the simulated total runoff. But it overestimates the observations in other HMA basins by 33%–106% without considering glacier runoff, mostly due to the overestimates in the ERA5 precipitation inputs. Therefore, a bias correction is definitely needed before ERA5 precipitation is used for hydrological simulations in HMA basins.


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