gene and protein expression
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Fuxin Zhao ◽  
Wei Chen ◽  
Hui Zhou ◽  
Peter S. Reinach ◽  
Yuhan Wang ◽  

Myopia is the most common cause of refractive error worldwide. High myopia is a severe type of myopia, which usually accompanies pathological changes in the fundus. To identify high myopia susceptibility genes, DNA-pooling based genome-wide association analysis was used to search for a correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms and high myopia in a Han Chinese cohort (cases vs. controls in discovery stage: 507 vs. 294; replication stage 1: 991 vs. 1,025; replication stage 2: 1,021 vs. 52,708). Three variants (rs10889602T/G, rs2193015T/C, rs9676191A/C) were identified as being significantly associated with high myopia in the discovery, and replication stage. rs10889602T/G is located at the third intron of phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B), whose functional assays were performed by comparing the effects of rs10889602T/T deletion of this risk allele on PDE4B and COL1A1 gene and protein expression levels in the rs10889602T/Tdel/del, rs10889602T/Tdel/wt, and normal control A549 cell lines. The declines in the PDE4B and COL1A1 gene expression levels were larger in the rs10889602T/T deleted A549 cells than in the normal control A549 cells (one-way ANOVA, p < 0.001). The knockdown of PDE4B by siRNA in human scleral fibroblasts led to downregulation of COL1A1. This correspondence between the declines in rs10889602 of the PDE4B gene, PDE4B knockdown, and COL1A1 protein expression levels suggest that PDE4B may be a novel high myopia susceptibility gene, which regulates myopia progression through controlling scleral collagen I expression levels. More studies are needed to determine if there is a correlation between PDE4B and high myopia in other larger sample sized cohorts.

Francesca Cuomo ◽  
Carmela Dell’Aversana ◽  
Teresa Chioccarelli ◽  
Veronica Porreca ◽  
Francesco Manfrevola ◽  

Maintenance of energy balance between intake and expenditure is a prerequisite of human health, disrupted in severe metabolic diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), mainly due to accumulation of white adipose tissue (WAT). WAT undergoes a morphological and energetic remodelling toward brown adipose tissue (BAT) and the BAT activation has anti-obesity potential. The mechanisms or the regulatory factors able to activate BAT thermogenesis have been only partially deciphered. Identifying novel regulators of BAT induction is a question of great importance for fighting obesity and T2D. Here, we evaluated the role of Hif3α in murine pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 cell line, a versatile and well characterized biological model of adipogenesis, by gain- and loss-of function approaches and in thermogenesis-induced model in vivo. HIF3A is regulated by inflammation, it modulates lypolysis in adipose tissue of obese adults, but its role in energy metabolism has not previously been investigated. We characterized gene and protein expression patterns of adipogenesis and metabolic activity in vitro and mechanistically in vivo. Overexpression of Hif3α in differentiating adipocytes increases white fat cells, whereas silencing of Hif3α promotes “browning” of white cells, activating thermogenesis through upregulation of Ucp1, Elovl3, Prdm16, Dio2 and Ppargc1a genes. Investigating cell metabolism, Seahorse Real-Time Cell Metabolism Analysis showed that silencing of Hif3α resulted in a significant increase of mitochondrial uncoupling with a concomitant increase in acetyl-CoA metabolism and Sirt1 and Sirt3 expression. The causal Hif3α/Ucp1 inverse relation has been validated in Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) knockout, a thermogenesis-induced model in vivo. Our data indicate that Hif3α inhibition triggers “browning” of white adipocytes activating the beneficial thermogenesis rewiring energy metabolism in vitro and in vivo. HIF3A is a novel player that controls the energy metabolism with potential applications in developing therapy to fight metabolic disorders, as obesity, T2D and ultimately cancer.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-18
Jessica L. Dennison ◽  
Claude-Henry Volmar ◽  
Danbing Ke ◽  
James Wang ◽  
Emilie Gravel ◽  

Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has minimally effective treatments currently. High concentrations of resveratrol, a polyphenol antioxidant found in plants, have been reported to affect several AD-related and neuroprotective genes. To address the low bioavailability of resveratrol, we investigated a novel oral formulation of resveratrol, JOTROLTM, that has shown increased pharmacokinetic properties compared to non-formulated resveratrol in animals and in humans. Objective: We hypothesized that equivalent doses of JOTROL, compared to non-formulated resveratrol, would result in greater brain exposure to resveratrol, and more efficacious responses on AD biomarkers. Methods: For sub-chronic reversal studies, 15-month-old male triple transgenic (APPSW/PS1M146V/TauP301L; 3xTg-AD) AD mice were treated orally with vehicle or 50 mg/kg JOTROL for 36 days. For prophylactic studies, male and female 3xTg-AD mice were similarly administered vehicle, 50 mg/kg JOTROL, or 50 mg/kg resveratrol for 9 months starting at 4 months of age. A behavioral battery was run, and mRNA and protein from brain and blood were analyzed for changes in AD-related gene and protein expression. Results: JOTROL displays significantly increased bioavailability over non-formulated resveratrol. Treatment with JOTROL resulted in AD-related gene expression changes (Adam10, Bace1, Bdnf, Psen1) some of which were brain region-dependent and sex-specific, as well as changes in inflammatory gene and cytokine levels. Conclusion: JOTROL may be effective as a prophylaxis and/or treatment for AD through increased expression and/or activation of neuroprotective genes, suppression of pro-inflammatory genes, and regulation of central and peripheral cytokine levels.

Philip Barrett ◽  
Tom J. Quick ◽  
Vivek Mudera ◽  
Darren J. Player

Muscle spindles are sensory organs that detect and mediate both static and dynamic muscle stretch and monitor muscle position, through a specialised cell population, termed intrafusal fibres. It is these fibres that provide a key contribution to proprioception and muscle spindle dysfunction is associated with multiple neuromuscular diseases, aging and nerve injuries. To date, there are few publications focussed on de novo generation and characterisation of intrafusal muscle fibres in vitro. To this end, current models of skeletal muscle focus on extrafusal fibres and lack an appreciation for the afferent functions of the muscle spindle. The goal of this study was to produce and define intrafusal bag and chain myotubes from differentiated C2C12 myoblasts, utilising the addition of the developmentally associated protein, Neuregulin 1 (Nrg-1). Intrafusal bag myotubes have a fusiform shape and were assigned using statistical morphological parameters. The model was further validated using immunofluorescent microscopy and western blot analysis, directed against an extensive list of putative intrafusal specific markers, as identified in vivo. The addition of Nrg-1 treatment resulted in a 5-fold increase in intrafusal bag myotubes (as assessed by morphology) and increased protein and gene expression of the intrafusal specific transcription factor, Egr3. Surprisingly, Nrg-1 treated myotubes had significantly reduced gene and protein expression of many intrafusal specific markers and showed no specificity towards intrafusal bag morphology. Another novel finding highlights a proliferative effect for Nrg-1 during the serum starvation-initiated differentiation phase, leading to increased nuclei counts, paired with less myotube area per myonuclei. Therefore, despite no clear collective evidence for specific intrafusal development, Nrg-1 treated myotubes share two inherent characteristics of intrafusal fibres, which contain increased satellite cell numbers and smaller myonuclear domains compared with their extrafusal neighbours. This research represents a minimalistic, monocellular C2C12 model for progression towards de novo intrafusal skeletal muscle generation, with the most extensive characterisation to date. Integration of intrafusal myotubes, characteristic of native, in vivo intrafusal skeletal muscle into future biomimetic tissue engineered models could provide platforms for developmental or disease state studies, pre-clinical screening, or clinical applications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Anna E. Karagianni ◽  
Dominic Kurian ◽  
Eugenio Cillán-Garcia ◽  
Samantha L. Eaton ◽  
Thomas M. Wishart ◽  

AbstractNeutrophilic airway inflammation is highly prevalent in racehorses in training, with the term mild to moderate equine asthma (MMEA) being applied to the majority of such cases. Our proposed study is largely derived from the strong association between MMEA in racehorses and their entry into a race training program. The objectives of this study are to characterise the effect of training on the local pulmonary immune system by defining the gene and protein expression of tracheal wash (TW) derived samples from Thoroughbred racehorses prior to and following commencement of race training. Multiomics analysis detected 2138 differentially expressed genes and 260 proteins during the training period. Gene and protein sets were enriched for biological processes related to acute phase response, oxidative stress, haemopoietic processes, as well as to immune response and inflammation. This study demonstrated TW samples to represent a rich source of airway cells, protein and RNA to study airway immunity in the horse and highlighted the benefits of a multiomics methodological approach to studying the dynamics of equine airway immunity. Findings likely reflect the known associations between race-training and both airway inflammation and bleeding, offering further insight into the potential mechanisms which underpin training associated airway inflammation.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 269
Mouna Tabebi ◽  
Małgorzata Łysiak ◽  
Ravi Kumar Dutta ◽  
Sandra Lomazzi ◽  
Maria V. Turkina ◽  

Background: Somatic mutations, copy-number variations, and genome instability of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been reported in different types of cancers and are suggested to play important roles in cancer development and metastasis. However, there is scarce information about pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PCCs/PGLs) formation. Material: To determine the potential roles of mtDNA alterations in sporadic PCCs/PGLs, we analyzed a panel of 26 nuclear susceptibility genes and the entire mtDNA sequence of seventy-seven human tumors, using next-generation sequencing, and compared the results with normal adrenal medulla tissues. We also performed an analysis of copy-number alterations, large mtDNA deletion, and gene and protein expression. Results: Our results revealed that 53.2% of the tumors harbor a mutation in at least one of the targeted susceptibility genes, and 16.9% harbor complementary mitochondrial mutations. More than 50% of the mitochondrial mutations were novel and predicted pathogenic, affecting mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Large deletions were found in 26% of tumors, and depletion of mtDNA occurred in more than 87% of PCCs/PGLs. The reduction of the mitochondrial number was accompanied by a reduced expression of the regulators that promote mitochondrial biogenesis (PCG1α, NRF1, and TFAM). Further, P62 and LC3a gene expression suggested increased mitophagy, which is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Conclusion: The pathogenic role of these finding remains to be shown, but we suggest a complementarity and a potential contributing role in PCCs/PGLs tumorigenesis.

2022 ◽  
Gi-hun Lee ◽  
Stephanie A Huang ◽  
Wen Yih Aw ◽  
Mitesh Rathod ◽  
Crescentia Cho ◽  

Abstract Efficient delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues requires an intricate balance of blood, lymphatic, and interstitial fluid pressures, and gradients in fluid pressure drive the flow of blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid through tissues. While specific fluid mechanical stimuli, such as wall shear stress, have been shown to modulate cellular signaling pathways along with gene and protein expression patterns, an understanding of the key signals imparted by flowing fluid and how these signals are integrated across multiple cells and cell types in native tissues is incomplete due to limitations with current assays. Here, we introduce a multi-layer microfluidic platform (MLTI-Flow) that enables the culture of engineered blood and lymphatic microvessels and independent control of blood, lymphatic, and interstitial fluid pressures. Using optical microscopy methods to measure fluid velocity for applied input pressures, we demonstrate varying rates of interstitial fluid flow as a function of blood, lymphatic, and interstitial pressure, consistent with computational fluid dynamics models. The resulting microfluidic and computational platforms will provide for analysis of key fluid mechanical parameters and cellular mechanisms that contribute to diseases in which fluid imbalances play a role in progression, including lymphedema and solid cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Tarek Mohamed Kamal Motawi ◽  
Nermin Abdel Hamid Sadik ◽  
Dina Sabry ◽  
Sally Atef Fahim ◽  
Nancy Nabil Shahin

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a universal health problem that is particularly alarming in Egypt. The major risk factor for HCC is hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection which is a main burden in Egypt. The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a stem cell marker involved in the tumorigenesis and progression of many malignancies, including HCC. We investigated the association of -935 C/G single nucleotide polymorphism in EpCAM promoter region (rs62139665) with HCC risk, EpCAM expression and overall survival in Egyptians. A total of 266 patients (128 HCV and 138 HCC cases) and 117 age- and sex-matched controls participated in this study. Genotyping, performed using allelic discrimination and confirmed by sequencing, revealed a significant association between EpCAM rs62139665 and HCC susceptibility, with higher GG genotype and G allele distribution in HCC patients than in non-HCC subjects. Such association was not detected in HCV patients compared to controls. EpCAM gene expression levels, determined in blood by RT-qPCR, and its serum protein expression levels, determined by ELISA, were significantly higher in GG relative to GC+CC genotype carriers in HCV and HCC patients in a recessive model. ROC analysis of EpCAM protein levels revealed significant discriminatory power between HCC patients and non-HCC subjects, with improved diagnostic accuracy when combining α-fetoprotein and EpCAM compared to that of α-fetoprotein alone. Altogether, EpCAM rs62139665 polymorphism is significantly associated with HCC and with EpCAM gene and protein expression levels in the Egyptian population. Moreover, serum EpCAM levels may hold promise for HCC diagnosis and for improving the diagnostic accuracy of α-fetoprotein.

2022 ◽  
Lulu Yan ◽  
Jieyun Guo ◽  
Chao Zhao ◽  
Yong Liu ◽  
Pengfei Wang ◽  

Abstract Tuna are commercially important fish throughout the world, and they are renowned for their endothermy, which allows them to maintain elevated temperatures in the oxidative locomotor muscles, viscera, brain, and eyes while occupying cold, productive, high-latitude waters. The endothermic mechanism is supported by a high heart rate and cardiac output, but the genes and proteins that participate in this cardiac function are poorly known. In this study, we combined label-free quantitative proteomics and transcriptomics to investigate the changes in the heart of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) before and after they developed endothermy. We identified 515,428 transcripts and 3355 protein groups in the hearts of two development stages of yellowfin tuna. Twenty-eight differentially expressed proteins were correlated with differentially expressed genes. The proteins that accelerate energy production were more highly expressed in the hearts of the large yellowfin tuna compared with the small specimens. Moreover, the proteins in the Z-disk, which protect against mechanical damage, were only detected in the hearts of large fish. These results indicate that as yellowfin tuna grow, the heart develops a self-protection strategy to cope with high metabolic rates and high mechanical forces. The differentially expressed proteins related to cardiac function, which are closely associated with striated muscle differentiation, glycosylation, and cardiac myocytes motility, were highly expressed in the larger (endothermic) tuna than that in the smaller (poikilothermic) tuna. Therefore, we suggest that the heart function of yellowfin tuna changes and improves during the transition from poikilothermic tuna (small size, 126 mm < fork length (FL) < 152 mm, 30 g < body weight < 46 g) to endothermic tuna (large size, 207 mm < FL < 235 mm, 170 g < body weight < 200 g). This is the first report of how gene and protein expression levels explain the strong heart function of yellowfin tuna.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Fernanda C. B. Oliveira ◽  
Eduarda J. Bauer ◽  
Carolina M. Ribeiro ◽  
Sidney A. Pereira ◽  
Bruna T. S. Beserra ◽  

AimsLiraglutide is a long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist used as an anti-hyperglycemic agent in type 2 diabetes treatment and recently approved for obesity management. Weight loss is attributed to appetite suppression, but therapy may also increase energy expenditure. To further investigate the effect of GLP-1 signaling in thermogenic fat, we assessed adipose tissue oxygen consumption and type 2 deiodinase (D2) activity in mice treated with liraglutide, both basally and after β3-adrenergic treatment.MethodsMale C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to receive liraglutide (400 μg/kg, n=12) or vehicle (n=12). After 16 days, mice in each group were co-treated with the selective β3-adrenergic agonist CL316,243 (1 mg/kg, n=6) or vehicle (n=6) for 5 days. Adipose tissue depots were assessed for gene and protein expression, oxygen consumption, and D2 activity.ResultsLiraglutide increased interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) oxygen consumption and enhanced β3-adrenergic-induced oxygen consumption in iBAT and inguinal white adipose tissue (ingWAT). These effects were accompanied by upregulation of UCP-1 protein levels in iBAT and ingWAT. Notably, liraglutide increased D2 activity without significantly upregulating its mRNA levels in iBAT and exhibited additive effects to β3-adrenergic stimulation in inducing D2 activity in ingWAT.ConclusionsLiraglutide exhibits additive effects to those of β3-adrenergic stimulation in thermogenic fat and increases D2 activity in BAT, implying that it may activate this adipose tissue depot by increasing intracellular thyroid activation, adding to the currently known mechanisms of GLP-1A-induced weight loss.

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