tracking error
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Sina Ameli ◽  
Olugbenga Anubi

Abstract This paper solves the problem of regulating the rotor speed tracking error for wind turbines in the full-load region by an effective robust-adaptive control strategy. The developed controller compensates for the uncertainty in the control input effectiveness caused by a pitch actuator fault, unmeasurable wind disturbance, and nonlinearity in the model. Wind turbines have multi-layer structures such that the high-level structure is nonlinearly coupled through an aggregation of the low-level control authorities. Hence, the control design is divided into two stages. First, an ℒ2 controller is designed to attenuate the influence of wind disturbance fluctuations on the rotor speed. Then, in the low-level layer, a controller is designed using a proposed adaptation mechanism to compensate for actuator faults. The theoretical results show that the closed-loop equilibrium point of the regulated rotor speed tracking error dynamics in the high level is finite-gain ℒ2 stable, and the closed-loop error dynamics in the low level is globally asymptotically stable. Simulation results show that the developed controller significantly reduces the root-mean- square of the rotor speed error compared to some well-known works, despite the largely fluctuating wind disturbance, and the time-varying uncertainty in the control input effectiveness.

Hongbin Luo

The pedestrian recognition in public environment is influenced by the pedestrian environment and the dynamic characteristic boundary factors, so it is easy to produce the tracking error. In order to improve the ability of pedestrian re-identification in public environment, we need to carry out feature fusion and metric learning, and propose pedestrian re-identification based on feature fusion and metric learning. The geometric grid area model of pedestrian recognition in public environment is constructed, the method of fuzzy dynamic feature segmentation is used to reconstruct the dynamic boundary feature point of pedestrian recognition in public environment, the method of bottom-up modeling is used to design the dynamic area grid model of pedestrian recognition in public environment, the design of dynamic area grid model is three-dimensional grid area, the grayscale pixel set of pedestrian recognition dynamic constraint under public environment is extracted, the boundary feature fusion is carried out according to the distribution intensity of grayscale, the image fusion and enhancement information processing of pedestrian recognition under public environment, and the method of 3D dynamic constraint is used to realize the local motion planning of pedestrian recognition under public environment, and the recognition feature fusion and learning of pedestrian recognition under public environment is realized according to the result of contour segmentation. The simulation results show that the method is used for pedestrian recognition again in public environment, and the fuzzy judgment ability of pedestrian dynamic edge features is strong, which makes the error controlled below 10 mm, and the fluctuation of pedestrian recognition again is more stable, the recognition accuracy is higher and the robustness is better.

2022 ◽  
pp. 0309524X2110653
Philippe Giguère ◽  
John R Wagner

A total of 27 test profiles from the IEC 61400-1 design load cases were tested using a 7.5-MW wind turbine drivetrain test bench and two multi-megawatt wind turbine drivetrains. Each test profile consisted of simultaneous vertical, lateral, and longitudinal forces, yawing and nodding bending moment, and rotational speed. These test-bench inputs were compared with the forces, bending moments, and speed that were applied to the wind turbine drivetrains to quantify the test-bench tracking error. This tracking error was quantified for a range of ramp-rate limits of the yawing and nodding bending moments. The experimental results were compared with predictions from an evaluation method for the capability of wind turbine drivetrain test benches to replicate dynamic loads. The method’s predictive capability was found to be sufficient for the goal of early screening and its formulation is applicable to any wind turbine drivetrain test bench and drivetrain design.

2022 ◽  
Yang Yang ◽  
Yuwei Zhang

Abstract A fixed-time active disturbance rejection control (FTADRC) consensus tracking strategy is proposed for a class of non-affine nonlinear multi-agent systems with an event-trigger-based communication. Non-affine followers are transformed into affine ones by combining the implicit function theorem with the mean value theorem. A distributed event-triggered estimator is introduced based on its neighbor output information. It is for estimation of a leader’s signal for parts of followers, who are not able to access the leader signal in a direct manner. A distributed FTADRC control strategy is then developed via an event-triggered communication in the framework of backstepping technology. With the help of the fixed-time control, the settling time of an MAS is assignable and independent on initial conditions. Extended state observers and tracking differentiators are employed to compensate unknown dynamics of each follower in real time and estimate derivatives of virtual control laws, respectively. It is proven theoretically that the MAS achieves input-to-state practically stability and the consensus tracking error converges to a neighborhood around the origin in a fixed time. Also, Zeno behavior is excluded. Finally, two examples are performed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

Tian Xu ◽  
Yuxiang Wu ◽  
Haoran Fang ◽  
Fuxi Wan

This paper investigates the adaptive finite-time tracking control problem for a class of nonlinear full state constrained systems with time-varying delays and input saturation. Compared with the previously published work, the considered system involves unknown time-varying delays, asymmetric input saturation, and time-varying asymmetric full state constraints. To ensure the state constraint satisfaction, the appropriate time-varying asymmetric Barrier Lyapunov Functions and the backstepping technique are utilized. Meanwhile, the finite covering lemma and the radial basis function neural networks are employed to solve the unknown time-varying delays. The assumption that the time derivative of time-varying delay functions is required to be less than one in traditional Lyapunov–Krasovskii functionals is removed by the proposed method. Moreover, the asymmetric input saturation is handled by an auxiliary design system. Taking the norm of the neural network weight vector as an adaptive parameter, a novel adaptive finite-time tracking controller with minimal learning parameters is constructed. It is proved that the proposed controller can guarantee that all signals in the closed-loop system are bounded, all states are constrained within the predefined sets, and the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of the origin in a finite time. Finally, a comparison study simulation is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed strategy. The simulation results show that our proposed strategy has good advantages of high tracking precision and disturbance rejection.

Vestnik IGEU ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 45-53
A.A. Alekseev ◽  
V.V. Tyutikov

The electric feed drive used in metal-cutting machines like any high-precision electric drive requires high accuracy of reference processing and robustness against perturbations. For this purpose, feedforwards are added to the position controller to improve set point processing time and to compensate for disturbances. Feedforwards are usually tuned manually when the machine is setup, either by applying a series of tests on the motor or by calculation. The calculation requires some information about the magnitudes of disturbances that can be compensated by appropriate feedforwards, but this information is not always available a priori. In this paper, we propose tuning the feedforward coefficients based on the results of the parametric identification of the values of the torques acting on the electric drive, as well as the apparent moment of inertia. For parametric identification the methods of electric drive theory, method of least squares, and digital signal processing method are used; mathematical modeling method is applied to assess the compensation quality. The authors propose the method of tuning the parameters of the control system of electric feed drive based on parametric identification of the values of torques acting on the motor and/or the operating device. The results of control system simulation show both high identification accuracy and significant reduction of dynamic control error when feedforwards are activated. The considered structure of the control system and the proposed algorithm of identification and adjustment of its parameters can be used in electric drives of metal-cutting machine tools. The simulation results have shown that the use of feedforwards, tuned in accordance with the algorithm, enable to reduce the dynamic position tracking error by more than 50 times, which can be critical in contour machining.

Symmetry ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 31
Jichang Ma ◽  
Hui Xie ◽  
Kang Song ◽  
Hao Liu

The path tracking control system is a crucial component for autonomous vehicles; it is challenging to realize accurate tracking control when approaching a wide range of uncertain situations and dynamic environments, particularly when such control must perform as well as, or better than, human drivers. While many methods provide state-of-the-art tracking performance, they tend to emphasize constant PID control parameters, calibrated by human experience, to improve tracking accuracy. A detailed analysis shows that PID controllers inefficiently reduce the lateral error under various conditions, such as complex trajectories and variable speed. In addition, intelligent driving vehicles are highly non-linear objects, and high-fidelity models are unavailable in most autonomous systems. As for the model-based controller (MPC or LQR), the complex modeling process may increase the computational burden. With that in mind, a self-optimizing, path tracking controller structure, based on reinforcement learning, is proposed. For the lateral control of the vehicle, a steering method based on the fusion of the reinforcement learning and traditional PID controllers is designed to adapt to various tracking scenarios. According to the pre-defined path geometry and the real-time status of the vehicle, the interactive learning mechanism, based on an RL framework (actor–critic—a symmetric network structure), can realize the online optimization of PID control parameters in order to better deal with the tracking error under complex trajectories and dynamic changes of vehicle model parameters. The adaptive performance of velocity changes was also considered in the tracking process. The proposed controlling approach was tested in different path tracking scenarios, both the driving simulator platforms and on-site vehicle experiments have verified the effects of our proposed self-optimizing controller. The results show that the approach can adaptively change the weights of PID to maintain a tracking error (simulation: within ±0.071 m; realistic vehicle: within ±0.272 m) and steering wheel vibration standard deviations (simulation: within ±0.04°; realistic vehicle: within ±80.69°); additionally, it can adapt to high-speed simulation scenarios (the maximum speed is above 100 km/h and the average speed through curves is 63–76 km/h).

Sinh Huynh ◽  
Rajesh Krishna Balan ◽  
JeongGil Ko

Gaze tracking is a key building block used in many mobile applications including entertainment, personal productivity, accessibility, medical diagnosis, and visual attention monitoring. In this paper, we present iMon, an appearance-based gaze tracking system that is both designed for use on mobile phones and has significantly greater accuracy compared to prior state-of-the-art solutions. iMon achieves this by comprehensively considering the gaze estimation pipeline and then overcoming three different sources of errors. First, instead of assuming that the user's gaze is fixed to a single 2D coordinate, we construct each gaze label using a probabilistic 2D heatmap gaze representation input to overcome errors caused by microsaccade eye motions that cause the exact gaze point to be uncertain. Second, we design an image enhancement model to refine visual details and remove motion blur effects of input eye images. Finally, we apply a calibration scheme to correct for differences between the perceived and actual gaze points caused by individual Kappa angle differences. With all these improvements, iMon achieves a person-independent per-frame tracking error of 1.49 cm (on smartphones) and 1.94 cm (on tablets) when tested with the GazeCapture dataset and 2.01 cm with the TabletGaze dataset. This outperforms the previous state-of-the-art solutions by ~22% to 28%. By averaging multiple per-frame estimations that belong to the same fixation point and applying personal calibration, the tracking error is further reduced to 1.11 cm (smartphones) and 1.59 cm (tablets). Finally, we built implementations that run on an iPhone 12 Pro and show that our mobile implementation of iMon can run at up to 60 frames per second - thus making gaze-based control of applications possible.

Yanling Bu ◽  
Lei Xie ◽  
Yafeng Yin ◽  
Chuyu Wang ◽  
Jingyi Ning ◽  

Pen-based handwriting has become one of the major human-computer interaction methods. Traditional approaches either require writing on the specific supporting device like the touch screen, or limit the way of using the pen to pure rotation or translation. In this paper, we propose Handwriting-Assistant, to capture the free handwriting of ordinary pens on regular planes with mm-level accuracy. By attaching the inertial measurement unit (IMU) to the pen tail, we can infer the handwriting on the notebook, blackboard or other planes. Particularly, we build a generalized writing model to correlate the rotation and translation of IMU with the tip displacement comprehensively, thereby we can infer the tip trace accurately. Further, to display the effective handwriting during the continuous writing process, we leverage the principal component analysis (PCA) based method to detect the candidate writing plane, and then exploit the distance variation of each segment relative to the plane to distinguish on-plane strokes. Moreover, our solution can apply to other rigid bodies, enabling smart devices embedded with IMUs to act as handwriting tools. Experiment results show that our approach can capture the handwriting with high accuracy, e.g., the average tracking error is 1.84mm for letters with the size of about 2cmx1cm, and the average character recognition rate of recovered single letters achieves 98.2% accuracy of the ground-truth recorded by touch screen.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 70
Kuiwu Wang ◽  
Qin Zhang ◽  
Xiaolong Hu

Gaussian mixture probability hypothesis density (GM-PHD) filtering based on random finite set (RFS) is an effective method to deal with multi-target tracking (MTT). However, the traditional GM-PHD filter cannot form a continuous track in the tracking process, and it is easy to produce a large number of redundant invalid likelihood functions in a dense clutter environment, which reduces the computational efficiency and affects the update result of target probability hypothesis density, resulting in excessive tracking error. Therefore, based on the GM-PHD filter framework, the target state space is extended to a higher dimension. By adding a label set, each Gaussian component is assigned a label, and the label is merged in the pruning and merging step to increase the merging threshold to reduce the Gaussian component generated by dense clutter update, which reduces the computation in the next prediction and update. After pruning and merging, the Gaussian components are further clustered and optimized by threshold separation clustering, thus as to improve the tracking performance of the filter and finally realizing the accurate formation of multi-target tracks in a dense clutter environment. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can form a continuous and reliable track in dense clutter environment and has good tracking performance and computational efficiency.

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