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2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Christoph Ludwig Teske ◽  
Huayna Terraschke ◽  
Sebastian Mangelsen ◽  
Wolfgang Bensch

Abstract The title compounds were prepared by precipitation from acidic solutions of the reactants in acetone/water. Bi(S2CNH2)2Cl (1) crystallizes in the non-centrosymmetric trigonal space group P32 with a = 8.6121(3) and c = 11.1554(4) Å, Z = 3; Bi(S2NH2)2SCN (2) in P21/c (monoclinic) with a = 5.5600(2), b = 14.3679(5), c = 12.8665(4) Å, and β = 90.37(3)°. In the crystal structure of 1 Bi3+ is in a sevenfold coordination of two bidentate and one monodentate S2CHNH2 − anions with an asymmetric coordination pattern of five Bi–S and two Bi–Cl− bonds. The linkage of these polyhedra via common Cl–S edges leads to a 1D polymeric structure with undulated chains propagating in the direction [001]. These chains are linked by strong and medium strong hydrogen bonds forming the 3D crystal structure. In the crystal structure of 2 the Bi3+ cation is in an eightfold coordination. The polyhedron can be described as a significantly distorted tetragonal anti-prism, capped by an additional S atom. Two of these prisms share a common quadrilateral face to form a “prism-double” (Bi2S10N2). These building units are linked by common edges, and the resulting 1D infinite angulated chains propagate along [100]. By contrast to organo-dithiocarbamate compounds, where C–H···X bridges are dominant, the interchain connections in the crystal structures of 1 and 2 are formed exclusively via N–H···S, N–H···Cl, and N–H···N interactions, generating the 3D networks. A significant eccentricity of the Bi3+ cation in the crystal structures of both complexes is observed. Both compounds emit light in the orange range of the electromagnetic spectrum.

2021 ◽  
pp. 7-17
F. U. Ugwuona ◽  
O. E. Agwo ◽  
A. N. Ukom ◽  
B. N. Iguh

The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of extraction solvents on the non-phenolic phytochemical profiles of selected spices (Ocimum viride, Monodora myristica, Monodora tenuifolia and Tetrapleura tetraptera) and spice-treated foods in southern part of Nigeria. The spice samples were processed into powder for antioxidant screening. The spice extracts were obtained from the samples using 5 extracting solvents [distilled water, 95 % methanol, acetone / hexane (1:1 v/v), n-hexane / methanol / acetone (2:1:1, v/v/v) and acetone / water / acetic acid (70:29.5:0.5, v/v/v)]. Water extracts were obtained from beef, pork and fluted pumpkin leaves. The alkaloid, saponin, oxalate and phytate components of the spice extracts and the spice-treated foods were evaluated using standard methods. The laboratory analyses were performed at analytical laboratory, National Centre for Energy Research and Development, University of Nigeria, Nsukka during the 3rd quarter of 2020. The percentage yield of the extracts were low (0.32 - 0.96 %) and varied widely among extracting solvents, spices and spice-treated foods. M. myristica and T. tetrpleura had the highest yield, 0.96, in methanol extracts. Phytochemical contents differed significantly (p < 0.05) among spices, extracts of the same spice and among spice-treated foods. Spices had high contents of oxalate (2.0 – 7.0 mg/100 g), alkaloid (0.8 – 5.76 mg/100 g) and phytate (2.14 – 3.88 mg/100 g) but relatively low content of saponin (0.03 – 0.736 mg/100g). Methanol alone or in combination with other solvents extracted higher amounts of phytochemicals (0.96 %) than other solvent mixtures from the spices. Phytochemical contents of spice-treated foods were in the order: vegetable > rice > pork > beef.

Luciana Dutra ◽  
Mateus Vasconcelos ◽  
Anderson Cazumba ◽  
Maria Clara Scaldaferri ◽  
Márcio Henrique Dos Santos Andrade ◽  

ABSTRACT 1,3-butadiene (1,3-BD) is a building block produced mainly as a byproduct of the ethylene steam cracking process. However, due to the growing interest in sustainable technologies, there is also growing interest in manufacturing 1,3-BD from ethanol. For this reason, taking into account that the ethanol-derived 1,3-BD can contain oxygenated contaminants that are difficult to remove, the present manuscript investigates for the first time how the presence of low concentrations of some oxygenates (acetaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, 3-hydroxybutyraldehyde, acetone, water, ethanol, 1,3-butanodiol, 3-buten2-ol, crotyl alcohol, and 1-butanol) in the 1,3-BD monomer can affect polymerization reactions performed with the neodymium versatate catalyst and modify the characteristics of the obtained polybutadiene products. It is shown that the presence of oxygenated compounds can cause inhibitory effects on the course of the polymerization and modify the molar mass distributions and flow properties of the final products, although all analyzed samples presented the characteristic high-cis character of polybutadienes produced with the neodymium versatate catalyst.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Mohammad Mahdi Doroodmand ◽  
Sina Owji

AbstractA novel electrosynthetic method has been introduced based on alternate layer-by-layered self-assembly of conjugated/unconjugated Salen-based nanowires as a capacitive pseudo-supercapacitor. For this purpose, a three-electrode system consisted of a glassy carbon (GC), Ag/AgCl (Sat’d Cl−) and a Pt rod as working, reference, and counter electrodes, respectively. The electrolyte included the same molar concentration (0.040 mol L−1) of each Salen monomer (as initial precursor), and KCl solution (as supporting electrolyte), besides using KOH solution (0.01 mol L−1, as basic-controlling reagent) inside acetone/water (4:1, V/V) as a solvent. The formation of this self-assembly nanowire was attributed to the control of the electrical conductivity of this polymer during formation of an organometallic complex with K+ as responsible complex forming agent. This novel nanowire then played role as a capacitive pseudo-supercapacitor. Based on the chrono—potentiometry, reproducible charge/discharge process for at least 5000 cycles was observed at a potential between − 2.00 and + 1.75 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The capacity behavior of the polymer was also evidenced using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This synthesized polymeric nanowire was adopted as the acceptable pseudo-supercapacitor with real capacity equals to 3110 ± 6 (n = 3) C g−1. This study was considered as the first report at which the self—assembly of organometallic compounds as an efficient pseudo—supercapacitor was introduced.

2021 ◽  
Ramnaree Kaemkit ◽  
Supawan Vichaphund ◽  
Anukorn Phureungrat ◽  
Methee Promsawat ◽  
Suksawat Sirijarukul ◽  

Abstract A liquid drying agent, i.e. acetone, was employed for allowing the faster drying of Al2O3 tubes fabricated by agar gelcasting than the conventional air drying. The mixture of Al2O3 slurry and agar solution was separately prepared and then mixed prior to molding out of a set of warmed glass tubes. After the mixture transformed into gelled tube, the gelled tube was demolded and then immersed in acetone at different periods of time from 0 to 50 h. The immersed periods of 50 h led to the acetone replacement for water being inside of the gelling tube by 74 wt.% and then shortened the drying period to be 25 min. On the other hand, the conventional air drying spent 420 min drying completely. After drying, the immersed tubes possessed spherical cross section; whereas, no immersed tubes showed the deformation of cross section. The shortened drying was in line with the smaller drying shrinkage (4.7%), broader pore-size distribution and higher porous microstructure, comparing to the conventional air drying. The mechanism of acetone replacement for water was attributed to the acetone-water concentration gradient creating their inter-diffusion.


Objective: To study the effect of decaffeinated tea extract (DTE) and decaffeinated coffee extract (DCE) and their respective fractions viz: chloroform fractions (DTCf and DCCf), ethyl acetate fractions (DTEa and DCEa), diethyl ether fractions (DTDe and DCDe) and acetone-water fractions (DTAw and DCAw) against clonidine-induced hypothermia in mice. Methods: Clonidine (0.1 mg/kg, i. p.) administered to a group of mice pretreated 30 min before with the dose of DTE or DCE or their respective fractions. Rectal temperature was measured at the time of clonidine administration and thereafter at every 30 min up to 2 h test period. Results: DTE 200 DTE 300 has significantly inhibited clonidine-induced hypothermia. Among the fractions tested, DTE fraction-DTEa 100 and 200 and DCE fractions DCDe 200 and DCAw 200 significantly (p<0.0001) reversed clonidine-induced hypothermia; the effect of DTEa was found to be more sustained. Conclusion: Both, the decaffeinated tea and coffee contain ingredients that reverse clonidine-induced hypothermia, but they are required to do so in very large doses which are not achievable with normally administered doses of decaffeinated tea or coffee.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (14) ◽  
pp. 4331
David B. Hobart ◽  
Michael A. G. Berg ◽  
Hannah M. Rogers ◽  
Joseph S. Merola

The reaction of palladium(II) acetate with acyclic amino acids in acetone/water yields square planar bis-chelated palladium amino acid complexes that exhibit interesting non-covalent interactions. In all cases, complexes were examined by multiple spectroscopic techniques, especially HRMS (high resolution mass spectrometry), IR (infrared spectroscopy), and 1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy. In some cases, suitable crystals for single crystal X-ray diffraction were able to be grown and the molecular structure was obtained. The molecular geometries of the products are discussed. Except for the alanine complex, all complexes incorporate water molecules into the extended lattice and exhibit N-H···O and/or O···(HOH)···O hydrogen bonding interactions. The non-covalent interactions are discussed in terms of the extended lattice structures exhibited by the structures.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 26-35
M Arivalagan ◽  
D R Priyanka ◽  
A Rekha

Jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) seed is one of the rich sources of polyphenolic compounds​ ​with antioxidant potential and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. A study was conducted to​ ​optimize the methodology for the extraction of polyphenolic compounds (total phenolic​ ​and flavonoid contents) with antioxidant potential and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity​ ​from Jamun seed powder. The study showed that the nature of solvent and extraction​ ​conditions had a significant effect on total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content​ ​(TFC), antioxidant potential, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The TPC varied between​ ​6.0 (mg/g Jamun seed powder) for the acetone extract to 119.2 (mg/g) for 80% aqueous​ ​acetone extract and TFC varied between 1.06 mg/g for the acetone to 10.81 mg/g for the​ ​80% aqueous methanol. From the study, it was apparent that an aqueous form of acetone​ ​(acetone: water 80:20, v/v) is a better solvent system for extraction of polyphenolic​ ​compounds with high antioxidant potential and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.​ ​Ultrasonication for 60 min increased the efficiency of phenolic extraction.

Biomass ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 11-28
Danielle Munick de Albuquerque Fragoso ◽  
Henrique Fonseca Goulart ◽  
Antonio Euzebio Goulart Santana ◽  
Samuel David Jackson

In this work, a waste-derived lignin with abundant uncondensed linkages, using accessible solvents (acetone/water mixture) and low-cost catalysts showed successful depolymerization for the production of target molecules 4-ethylphenol, 4-propyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol and 4-propyl-2-methoxyphenol. Lignin samples were obtained from sugar-cane bagasse residue by an organosolv process. Four alumina-based catalysts (Pt/Al2O3, Rh/Al2O3, Ni/Al2O3 and Fe/Al2O3) were used to depolymerize the sugar cane lignin (SCL) in an acetone/water mixture 50/50 v/v at 573 K and 20 barg hydrogen. This strategic depolymerisation-hydrogenolysis process resulted in the molecular weight of the SCL being reduced by half while the polydispersity also decreased. Catalysts significantly improved product yield compared to thermolysis. Specific metals directed product distribution and yield, Rh/Al2O3 gave the highest overall yield (13%), but Ni/Al2O3 showed the highest selectivity to a given product (~32% to 4-ethylphenol). Mechanistic routes were proposed either from lignin fragments or from the main polymer. Catalysts showed evidence of carbon laydown that was specific to the lignin rather than the catalyst. These results showed that control over selectivity could be achievable by appropriate combination of catalyst, lignin and solvent mixture.

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