electromagnetic spectrum
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Subhra Swetanisha ◽  
Amiya Ranjan Panda ◽  
Dayal Kumar Behera

<p>An ensemble model has been proposed in this work by combining the extreme gradient boosting classification (XGBoost) model with support vector machine (SVM) for land use and land cover classification (LULCC). We have used the multispectral Landsat-8 operational land imager sensor (OLI) data with six spectral bands in the electromagnetic spectrum (EM). The area of study is the administrative boundary of the twin cities of Odisha. Data collected in 2020 is classified into seven land use classes/labels: river, canal, pond, forest, urban, agricultural land, and sand. Comparative assessments of the results of ten machine learning models are accomplished by computing the overall accuracy, kappa coefficient, producer accuracy and user accuracy. An ensemble classifier model makes the classification more precise than the other state-of-the-art machine learning classifiers.</p>

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Christoph Ludwig Teske ◽  
Huayna Terraschke ◽  
Sebastian Mangelsen ◽  
Wolfgang Bensch

Abstract The title compounds were prepared by precipitation from acidic solutions of the reactants in acetone/water. Bi(S2CNH2)2Cl (1) crystallizes in the non-centrosymmetric trigonal space group P32 with a = 8.6121(3) and c = 11.1554(4) Å, Z = 3; Bi(S2NH2)2SCN (2) in P21/c (monoclinic) with a = 5.5600(2), b = 14.3679(5), c = 12.8665(4) Å, and β = 90.37(3)°. In the crystal structure of 1 Bi3+ is in a sevenfold coordination of two bidentate and one monodentate S2CHNH2 − anions with an asymmetric coordination pattern of five Bi–S and two Bi–Cl− bonds. The linkage of these polyhedra via common Cl–S edges leads to a 1D polymeric structure with undulated chains propagating in the direction [001]. These chains are linked by strong and medium strong hydrogen bonds forming the 3D crystal structure. In the crystal structure of 2 the Bi3+ cation is in an eightfold coordination. The polyhedron can be described as a significantly distorted tetragonal anti-prism, capped by an additional S atom. Two of these prisms share a common quadrilateral face to form a “prism-double” (Bi2S10N2). These building units are linked by common edges, and the resulting 1D infinite angulated chains propagate along [100]. By contrast to organo-dithiocarbamate compounds, where C–H···X bridges are dominant, the interchain connections in the crystal structures of 1 and 2 are formed exclusively via N–H···S, N–H···Cl, and N–H···N interactions, generating the 3D networks. A significant eccentricity of the Bi3+ cation in the crystal structures of both complexes is observed. Both compounds emit light in the orange range of the electromagnetic spectrum.

2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (1) ◽  
pp. 343-350
Oluyamo Sunday Samuel ◽  
Ajanaku Olanrewaju ◽  
Adedayo Kayode David

This study investigates CNT-doped Cu2O thin film deposited by spray pyrolysis technique at a substrate temperature of 100°C. The samples were annealed at temperatures of 200°C and 230°C for 30 minutes. The effect of CNT doping on certain optical properties, such as extinction and absorption coefficients, a refractive index of doped Cu2O thin films were examined. The absorbance of the doped samples increases within the visible range and decreases in the ultraviolet range of the electromagnetic spectrum (EM). Both absorbance and extinction coefficients increased with temperature making the samples a good candidate for use as absorbance layer in device fabrication. In addition, there was an increase in direct bandgap with the increase in CNT concentration of the thin films. The result of the study revealed that CNT doping has a significant effect on the properties of Cu2O.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 601
Olga I. Yablonskaya ◽  
Vladimir L. Voeikov ◽  
Kirill N. Novikov ◽  
Ekaterina V. Buravleva ◽  
Valeriy A. Menshov ◽  

Water vapor absorbs well in the infra-red region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Absorption of radiant energy by water or water droplets leads to formation of exclusion zone water that possesses peculiar physico-chemical properties. In the course of this study, normally functioning and damaged alkaline phosphatase, horseradish peroxidase and catalase were treated with humid air irradiated with infrared light with a wavelength in the range of 1270 nm and referred to as coherent humidity (CoHu). One-minute long treatment with CoHu helped to partially protect enzymes from heat inactivation, mixed function oxidation, and loss of activity due to partial unfolding. Authors suggest that a possible mechanism underlying the observed effects involves altering the physicochemical properties of aqueous media while treatment of the objects with CoHu where CoHu acts as an intermediary.

Richard Osgood ◽  
Yassine Ait-El-Aoud ◽  
Katherine Bullion ◽  
Sean Dinneen ◽  
Richard Kingsborough ◽  

Abstract Understanding scattering of visible and infrared photons from nanomaterials and nanostructured materials is increasingly important for imaging, thermal management, and detection, and has implications for other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum (e.g., x-ray scattering and radar). New, interesting reports of photon scattering as a diagnostic probe, from inelastic x-ray scattering and interference to “nano-FTIR” microscopy using infrared photons, have been published and are under active investigation in laboratories around the world. Here, we report, for the first time to our best knowledge, the experimental discovery of a Fabry-Perot interference pattern that is scattered by the sub-monolayer array of plasmonic Ag nanoparticles, and confirm it analytically and with rigorous numerical FDTD simulations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 70 (1) ◽  
pp. 62-86
Boban Bondžulić ◽  
Boban Pavlović ◽  
Nenad Stojanović ◽  
Vladimir Petrović

Introduction/purpose: The paper presents interesting research related to the performance analysis of the picture-wise just noticeable difference (JND) prediction model and its application in the quality assessment of images with JPEG compression. Methods: The performance analysis of the JND model was conducted in an indirect way by using the publicly available results of subject-rated image datasets with the separation of images into two classes (above and below the threshold of visible differences). In the performance analysis of the JND prediction model and image quality assessment, five image datasets were used, four of which come from the visible wavelength range, and one dataset is intended for remote sensing and surveillance with images from the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Results: The pap 86 er shows that using a picture-wise JND model, subjective image quality assessment scores can be estimated with better accuracy, leading to significant performance improvements of the traditional peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). The gain achieved by introducing the picture-wise JND model in the objective assessment depends on the chosen dataset and the results of the initial simple to compute PSNR measure, and it was obtained on all five datasets. The mean linear correlation coefficient (for five datasets) between subjective and PSNR objective quality estimates increased from 74% (traditional PSNR) to 90% (picture-wise JND PSNR). Conclusion: Further improvement of the JND-based objective measure can be obtained by improving the picture-wise model of JND prediction.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (12) ◽  
pp. 313
Francesca Zuccarello ◽  
Ilaria Ermolli ◽  
Marianna B. Korsós ◽  
Fabrizio Giorgi ◽  
Salvo L. Guglielmino ◽  

Abstract Solar eruptive events, like flares and coronal mass ejections, are characterized by the rapid release of energy that can give rise to emission of radiation across the entire electromagnetic spectrum and to an abrupt significant increase in the kinetic energy of particles. These energetic phenomena can have important effects on the space weather conditions and therefore it is necessary to understand their origin, in particular, what is the eruptive potential of an active region (AR). In these case studies, we compare two distinct methods that were used in previous works to investigate the variations of some characteristic physical parameters during the pre-flare states of flaring ARs. These methods consider: i) the magnetic flux evolution and magnetic helicity accumulation, and ii) the fractal and multi-fractal properties of flux concentrations in ARs. Our comparative analysisis based on time series of photospheric data obtained bythe Solar Dynamics Observatory between March 2011 and June 2013. We selected two distinct samples of ARs: one is distinguished by the occurrence of more energetic M- and X-class flare events, that may have a rapid effect on not just the near-Earth space, but also on the terrestrial environment; the second is characterized by no-flares or having just a few C- and B-class flares. We foundthat the two tested methods complement each other in their ability to assess the eruptive potentials of ARs and could be employed to identify ARs prone to flaring activity. Based on the presented case study, we suggest that using a combination of different methods may aid to identify more reliably the eruptive potentials of ARs and help to better understand the pre-flare states.

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 39
Georgi Georgiev ◽  
Margarita Georgieva ◽  
Stelian Dimitrov ◽  
Martin Iliev ◽  
Vladislav Trenkin ◽  

The Chuprene Reserve was created in 1973 to preserve the natural coniferous forests in the Western Balkan Range in Bulgaria. The first infestations by European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) were registered in Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands in the mid-1980s. The aim of this study is to assess the damages caused by I. typographus in the Chuprene Reserve using remote sensing techniques – unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images, airborne images, and satellite images of European Space Imaging (EUSI), combined with terrestrial verification. High-resolution images in four bands of the electromagnetic spectrum and in a standard RGB channel were taken in 2017 via a multispectral camera ‘Parrot Sequoia’, integrated with a specialized professional UAV system eBee ‘Flying Wing’. The health status of Norway spruce stands in the reserve was assessed with the normalized difference vegetation index, based on the digital mixing of imagery captured in the red and near infrared range. The dynamic of bark beetle attacks was studied in GIS on the basis of maps generated from photographic surveys, airborne images taken in 2011 and 2015, and satellite images from 2020. In the UAV-captured area (314.0 ha), the size of Norway spruce stands attacked by I. typographus increased from 7.6 ha (2.4%) in 2011 to 44.9 ha (14.3%) in 2020. The satellite images showed that on the entire territory of the Chuprene Reserve (1451.9 ha), I. typographus killed spruce trees on 137.4 ha, which is 9.6% of the total area.

Prince Breja

Abstract: The fifth-generation (5G) mobile network system is the next huge thing in the world of mobile communication. With the rapid development of wireless communication network, It is expected that a fifth-generation network system will provide seamlessly higher data transfer speeds and various capabilities. 5G has evolved in such a way that it can be beneficial for each and every individual who is using it by giving them an ultimate experience. In this article we give a brief overview on working of the electromagnetic spectrum of 5G and its various applications and at the end, the overall opportunities arise in the 5G network system on the basis of their applications. Keywords: 5G Communication, Network, working, speed, Application, Evolution, MIMO,3GPP

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