Cooking Water
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2021 ◽  
pp. 27-30
Author(s):  
Наталья Валерьевна Дементьева ◽  
Татьяна Марьяновна Бойцова ◽  
Наталья Викторовна Соколова ◽  
Полина Николаевна Круговая ◽  
Гордей Павлович Шепелев ◽  
...  

Химический состав и свойства морских водорослей позволяют с успехом применять их для профилактических и лечебных целей, для приготовления различных пищевых продуктов. В Японском море найдено более 310 представителей зеленых, бурых и красных водорослей. Из бурых водорослей преобладают многочисленные виды ламинариевых (Laminariaceae), наиболее ценной в промысловом отношении является ламинария японская (Laminaria japonica). Первичная обработка свежих водорослей предусматривает их тщательную мойку и вымачивание, но и после этого ее ткани содержат все еще высокие концентрации минеральных веществ, не позволяющие ее дальнейшее использование без дополнительной обработки. Поэтому при обработке ламинарии предусматривают ее варку, которая позволяет улучшить вкус, запах, цвет и консистенцию, а также повысить усвояемость водоросли организмом. Однако при варке в отвар переходит значительное количество водорастворимых солей и органических веществ. Поэтому выбор правильных режимов первичной обработки водорослей, при которых происходят минимальные потери физиологически ценных компонентов и обеспечиваются высокие органолептические показатели, будет способствовать производству широкого ассортимента пищевой продукции на их основе. Целью научно-исследовательской работы является обоснование способа первичной обработки ламинарии для производства пищевой продукции. Предложен способ обработки ламинарии, включающий в себя предварительную выдержку ламинарии в воде при температуре 10…15 °С в соотношении ламинария:вода - 1:2 в течение 20 мин и двукратную варку при температуре 40…50 °С при соотношении ламинария:вода 1:2 в течение 15-20 мин. Установлено, что внесение органических кислот на первом этапе варки способствует улучшению органолептических показателей водорослей. Исчезают специфические вкус и аромат водорослей, консистенция становится менее жесткой. Определены концентрации органических кислот в составе варочных вод: уксусной кислоты 1-3 %, лимонной кислоты 1-2 %. Полученный полуфабрикат при обработке ламинарии предложенным способом можно использовать при производстве разных видов пищевой продукции (сушеной, кулинарии, пресервов и др.). The chemical composition and properties of seaweed make it possible to successfully use them for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes, for the preparation of various food products. More than 310 representatives of green, brown and red algae have been found in the Sea of Japan. Numerous species of kelp (Laminariceae) prevail among brown algae, the most valuable commercially is Japanese kelp (Laminaria japonica). The primary processing of fresh algae involves their thorough washing and soaking, but even after that, its tissues still contain high concentrations of minerals, which do not allow its further use without additional processing. Therefore, when processing kelp, boil it is provided, which allows you to improve the taste, smell, color and consistency, as well as increase the digestibility of the algae by the body. However, during cooking, a significant amount of water-soluble salts and organic matter passes into the broth. Therefore, the choice of the correct modes of primary processing of algae, in which minimal losses of physiologically valuable components occur and high organoleptic characteristics are provided, will contribute to the production of a wide range of food products based on them. The purpose of the research work is to substantiate the method of primary processing of kelp for the production of food products. A method for processing kelp is proposed, which includes preliminary exposure of kelp in water at a temperature of 10…15 °C in a kelp: water ratio of 1:2 for 20 minutes and double cooking at a temperature of 40…50 °C at a kelp: water ratio of 1:2 within 15-20 minutes. It was found that the introduction of organic acids at the first stage of cooking contributes to the improvement of the organoleptic characteristics of algae. The specific taste and aroma of algae disappears, the consistency becomes less rigid. The concentration of organic acids in the composition of the cooking water has been determined: acetic acid 1-3 %; citric acid 1-2 %. The resulting semi-finished product when processing kelp by the proposed method can be used in the production of various types of food products (dried, cookery, preserves, etc.).


2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Theodore Habiyakare ◽  
Janna M. Schurer ◽  
Barika Poole ◽  
Susan Murcott ◽  
Basile Migabo ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Dental fluorosis is caused by prolonged exposure to excessive fluoride during the period of permanent tooth formation and is characterized by tooth discoloration, pitting, and loss of shape. Communities living near Lake Kivu in Western Rwanda exhibit a high prevalence of dental fluorosis; however, data on prevalence and risk factors are scarce. Methods This cross sectional, quantitative study used a One Health approach to investigate dental fluorosis prevalence among people and livestock and to measure fluoride content in the environment. In 2018, oral health examinations were conducted to assess the prevalence of fluorosis in children (aged 9 to 15 years), cattle and goats residing on Gihaya Island (Rwanda, East Africa). All children and cattle/goats meeting basic eligibility criteria (e.g., island residence) were invited to participate. Presence and severity of dental fluorosis was categorized according to the Dean’s Fluorosis Index. Samples of local foods, water, soil and grass were collected from communal sources and individual households and analyzed for fluoride content using standard laboratory techniques. Descriptive and binomial analyses (Fisher Exact Test) were used to assess this dataset. Results Overall, 186 children and 85 livestock owners (providing data of 125 livestock -23 cattle and 102 goats) participated. Dental fluorosis was recorded in 90.7% of children and 76% of livestock. Moderate to severe fluorosis was observed in 77% children while goats and cattle most often exhibited mild or absent/questionable severity, respectively. Water from Lake Kivu (used primarily for human cooking water and livestock drinking water) contained fluoride levels that were consistently higher than the maximum threshold (1.5 mg/L) recommended by the World Health Organization. Other sources (borehole and rainwater) were within safe limits. All food, soil and grass samples contained fluoride. The highest levels were observed in porridge (0.5 mg/g) and small fishes (1.05 mg/g). Conclusions Altogether, dental fluorosis was highly prevalent among children and goats on Gihaya Island with various food and water sources contributing a cumulative exposure to fluoride. An immediate and coordinated response across human, animal and water professionals is needed to reduce fluoride exposure within safe limits for island residents.


Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2881
Author(s):  
Ran Feng ◽  
Søren K. Lillevang ◽  
Lilia Ahrné

During the manufacturing of mozzarella, cheese curds are heated to the desired stretching temperature traditionally by immersion in water, which influences the curd characteristics before stretching, and consequently the final cheese properties. In this study, cheese curds were immersed in hot water at 60, 70, 80 and 90 °C up to 16 min and the kinetics of mass loss and changes of rheological properties were investigated. The total mass of cooked curds increased up to 10% during the first minute, independent of the temperature, as a consequence of water retention. Fat was the main component lost into the cooking water (<3.5% w/w), while the concentration of protein increased up to 3.4% (w/w) compared to uncooked curds due to the loss of other components. Curds macrostructure during cooking showed that curds fully fuse at 70 °C/4 min; 80 °C/2 min and 90 °C/1 min, while after intensive cooking (>8 min) they lost the ability to fuse as a consequence of protein contraction and fat loss. Storage modulus, representing the curd strength, was dependent on cooking temperature and positively, and linearly, correlated with curd protein content (21.7–24.9%). This work shows the potential to modify curd composition and structure, which will have consequences for further processing and final product properties.


Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2658
Author(s):  
Tao Wang ◽  
Nana She ◽  
Mengnan Wang ◽  
Bo Zhang ◽  
Jiaxing Qin ◽  
...  

The effects of storage temperature on the physicochemical properties and qualities of red brown rice were investigated in this study. The samples were vacuum-packed in nylon/polyethylene pouches and stored at 15 °C, 25 °C and 35 °C for 12 weeks. The moisture content decreased as storage time was prolonged. Rice stored at 15 °C and 25 °C had a lower falling range of water content compared to the samples stored at 35 °C. Free fatty acid values increased fastest when samples were stored at a high temperature, and the rise can be effectively delayed at low temperatures. The pH of residual cooking water and adhesiveness decreased, while the heating water absorption rate and hardness increased during storage for red and brown rice. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance results indicate that water molecules migrated, the binding force of H protons became stronger and the bonds between molecules became closer with increased storage duration. Temperature had an obvious correlation with starch granules and protein structure, characterized by a scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Low temperatures significantly retarded those changes. The results indicate that storage temperature is a vital factor affecting the physicochemical properties and qualities of red brown rice and provided reference and theoretical basis for the actual storage of red brown rice.


2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (10) ◽  
Author(s):  
Dicky Rinaldi

Researchers are looking for sustainable alternative fuels that may be utilized as substitutes for petroleum-based materials due to the problem of dwindling petroleum fuels, rising energy demand, and concerns about rising environmental pollution. The solution to this problem is to produce renewable energy. Bioethanol is a product that has a lot of potential in terms of its utility renewable sources of energy In this project, bioethanol will be generated from household waste, namely starch water (rice boiled water), which includes a significant amount of starch and hence has the potential to be used as a raw material for generating bioethanol, as well as reducing household waste, Better still. Fermentation, hydrolysis, neutralization, and distillation are the processes employed in this study. The starch water is used because it has a significant amount of starch (rice cooking water). Because the starch content is not extracted perfectly during the boiling process, it is compared to typical rice washing water. Bioethanol is the end product, and it is intended to be a sustainable energy that will help to solve the energy issue while also reducing and repurposing household trash.


Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 2433
Author(s):  
Youn Young Shim ◽  
Yue He ◽  
Ji Hye Kim ◽  
Jae Youl Cho ◽  
Venkatesh Meda ◽  
...  

The substitution of animal-based foods (meat, eggs, and milk) with plant-based products can increase the global food supply. Recently, pulse cooking water (a.k.a. aquafaba) was described as a cost-effective alternative to the egg in gluten-free, vegan cooking and baking applications. Aquafaba (AQ) forms stable edible foams and emulsions with functional properties that are like those produced by whole egg and egg white. However, the functional ingredients of AQ are usually discarded during food preparation. In this study, Korean-grown soy (ver. Backtae, Seoritae, and Jwinunikong) and chickpea were used to produce AQ. Two approaches were compared. In the first, seed was cooked at an elevated pressure without presoaking. In the second, seed was soaked, then, the soaking water was discarded, and soaked seed was cooked at an elevated pressure. Both approaches produced a useful emulsifier, but the latter, with presoaking, produced a superior product. This approach could lead to a process that involves a small number of efficient steps to recover an effective oil emulsifier, produces no waste, and is cost-effective. The AQ product from Backtae (yellow soybean) produced emulsions with better properties (90%) than AQ produced from other cultivars and produced more stable food oil emulsions. This study will potentially lead to gluten-free, vegan products for vegetarians and consumers with animal protein allergies. This is the first report of the efficient production of AQ, an egg white substitute derived from cooked soybean of known cultivars.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (5) ◽  
pp. 1216-1220
Author(s):  
Lodry Yano ◽  
Umi Romayati Keswara

ABSTRAK Berdasarkan laporan Kemenkes RItahun 2019 jumlah kasus hipertensi di Indonesia tahun 2014, Hipertensi dengan komplikasi (5,3%) merupakan penyebab kematian nomor 5 (lima) pada semua umur.Hipertensi dapat diatasi dengan tanaman herbal misalnya jus mentimun, daun seledri, dan salah satunya air rebusan daun sirsak. Tujuan setelah penyuluhan dan demonstrasi, diharapkan pemberian air rebusan daun sirsak dapat untuk menurunkan tekanan darah tinggi pada klien hipertensi. Adapun kegiatan yang dilakukan berupa penyuluhan menggunakan leaflet dan demonstrasi pembuatan air rebusan daun sirsak. Terdapat penurunan tekanan darah pada klien hipertensi setelah pemberian air rebusan daun sirsak selama 7 hari di Pesisir Barat Lampung. Dengan demikian, pemberian air rebusan daun sirsak pada klien hipertensi sangat efektif dalam menurunkan tekanan darah. Kata kunci: Hipertensi, Tekanan Darah, Air Rebusan Daun Sirsak  ABSTRACTBased on the Republic of Indonesia's Ministry of Health report in 2019 the number of cases of hypertension in Indonesia in 2014, hypertension with complications (5.3%) is the number 5 cause of death at all ages. Hypertension can be overcome with herbal plants such as cucumber juice, celery leaves, and one of them is soursop leaf boiled water. The aim after counseling and demonstration is expected to give soursop leaf boiled water to reduce high blood pressure in hypertensive clients. The activities were carried out in the form of counseling using leaflets and demonstrations making soursop leaf cooking water. There was a decrease in blood pressure in hypertensive clients after giving soursop boiled water for 7 days in Pesisir Barat Lampung. Thus, giving soursop leaf boiled water to hypertensive clients is very effective in lowering blood pressure. Keywords: Hypertension, Blood Pressure, Soursop Leaf Stew Water.


Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 2287
Author(s):  
Esteban Echeverria-Jaramillo ◽  
Yoon-ha Kim ◽  
Ye-rim Nam ◽  
Yi-fan Zheng ◽  
Jae Youl Cho ◽  
...  

Concerns regarding sustainability have prompted the search of value in the by-products of food manufacturing. Such is the case of the cooking water (CW) of chickpeas, which has shown its potential as a vegan egg white replacement. This study aimed to characterize and compare the CW from three novel legumes (black soybeans, BSB; yellow soybeans, YSB; and small black beans, SBB) obtained from the processing of Korean soybean foods, and the widely used CW from chickpeas (CH), with regard to total polyphenol, total carbohydrate, and protein contents, and further compare their foaming and emulsifying abilities and stabilities. Compositional analysis revealed that all the studied legumes possessed higher values than CH for all parameters. Furthermore, the CW from these legumes exhibited enhanced functional properties, particularly foaming capacity and stability. Taken together, our results suggest that the CW from BSB, YSB, and SBB, sourced from the manufacturing of legume food products, has the potential of being revalorized as a plant-based functional ingredient for vegan product development.


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