scholarly journals Nanoparticles—Attractive Carriers of Antimicrobial Essential Oils

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 108
Arya Nair ◽  
Rashmi Mallya ◽  
Vasanti Suvarna ◽  
Tabassum Asif Khan ◽  
Munira Momin ◽  

Microbial pathogens are the most prevalent cause of chronic infections and fatalities around the world. Antimicrobial agents including antibiotics have been frequently utilized in the treatment of infections due to their exceptional outcomes. However, their widespread use has resulted in the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. Furthermore, due to inherent resistance to antimicrobial drugs and the host defence system, the advent of new infectious diseases, chronic infections, and the occurrence of biofilms pose a tougher challenge to the current treatment line. Essential oils (EOs) and their biologically and structurally diverse constituents provide a distinctive, inexhaustible, and novel source of antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and antiparasitic agents. However, due to their volatile nature, chemical susceptibility, and poor solubility, their development as antimicrobials is limited. Nanoparticles composed of biodegradable polymeric and inorganic materials have been studied extensively to overcome these limitations. Nanoparticles are being investigated as nanocarriers for antimicrobial delivery, antimicrobial coatings for food products, implantable devices, and medicinal materials in dressings and packaging materials due to their intrinsic capacity to overcome microbial resistance. Essential oil-loaded nanoparticles may offer the potential benefits of synergism in antimicrobial activity, high loading capacity, increased solubility, decreased volatility, chemical stability, and enhancement of the bioavailability and shelf life of EOs and their constituents. This review focuses on the potentiation of the antimicrobial activity of essential oils and their constituents in nanoparticulate delivery systems for a wide range of applications, such as food preservation, packaging, and alternative treatments for infectious diseases.

Molecules ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 25 (23) ◽  
pp. 5502
Vlad Tiberiu Alexa ◽  
Camelia Szuhanek ◽  
Antoanela Cozma ◽  
Atena Galuscan ◽  
Florin Borcan ◽  

Since ancient times complementary therapies have been based on the use of medicinal plants, natural preparations and essential oils in the treatment of various diseases. Their use in medical practice is recommended in view of their low toxicity, pharmacological properties and economic impact. This paper aims to test the antimicrobial effect of natural preparation based on clove, orange and bergamot essential oils on a wide range of microorganisms that cause infections in humans including: Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, Candida parapsilosis, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Haemophilus influenza. Three natural preparations such as one-component emulsions: clove (ECEO), bergamote (EBEO), and orange (EOEO), three binary: E(BEO/CEO), E(BEO/OEO), E(CEO/OEO) and a tertiary emulsion E(OEO/BEO/CEO) were obtained, characterized and tested for antimicrobial effects. Also, the synergistic/antagonistic effects, generated by the presence of the main chemical compounds, were studied in order to recommend a preparation with optimal antimicrobial activity. The obtained results underline the fact that the monocomponent emulsion ECEO shows antimicrobial activity, while EOEO and EBEO do not inhibit the development of the analyzed strains. In binary or tertiary emulsions E(BEO/CEO), E(CEO/OEO) and E(OEO/ BEO/CEO) the antimicrobial effect of clove oil is potentiated due to the synergism exerted by the chemical compounds of essential oils.

Dibyajit Lahiri ◽  
Moupriya Nag ◽  
Sayantani Garai ◽  
Rina Rani Ray

: Phytocompounds are long known for their therapeutic uses due to their competence as antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial activity of these bioactive compounds manifests their ability as an antibiofilm agent and is thereby proved to be competent to treat the wide spread of biofilm-associated chronic infections. Rapid development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria has made the treatment of these infections almost impossible by conventional antibiotic therapy, which forced in the switch over to the use of phytocompounds. The present overview deals with the classification of the huge array of phytocompounds according to their chemical nature, detection of their target pathogen, and elucidation of their mode of action.

Molecules ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 25 (6) ◽  
pp. 1303 ◽  
Do N. Dai ◽  
Nguyen T. Chung ◽  
Le T. Huong ◽  
Nguyen H. Hung ◽  
Dao T.M. Chau ◽  

Members of the genus Cinnamomum (Lauraceae) have aromatic volatiles in their leaves and bark and some species are commercially important herbs and spices. In this work, the essential oils from five species of Cinnamomum (C. damhaensis, C. longipetiolatum, C. ovatum, C. polyadelphum and C. tonkinense) growing wild in north central Vietnam were obtained by hydrodistillation, analyzed by gas chromatography and screened for antimicrobial and mosquito larvicidal activity. The leaf essential oil of C. tonkinense, rich in β-phellandrene (23.1%) and linalool (32.2%), showed excellent antimicrobial activity (MIC of 32 μg/mL against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans) and larvicidal activity (24 h LC50 of 17.4 μg/mL on Aedes aegypti and 14.1 μg/mL against Culex quinquefasciatus). Cinnamomum polyadelphum leaf essential oil also showed notable antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and mosquito larvicidal activity, attributable to relatively high concentrations of neral (11.7%) and geranial (16.6%). Thus, members of the genus Cinnamomum from Vietnam have shown promise as antimicrobial agents and as potential vector control agents for mosquitoes.

1970 ◽  
Vol 46 (4) ◽  
pp. 513-518 ◽  
V Subhadradevi ◽  
K Asokkumar ◽  
M Umamaheswari ◽  
AT Sivashanmugam ◽  
JR Ushanandhini ◽  

Since ancient times plant as sources of medicinal compounds have continued to play a dominant role in the maintenance of human health. To treat chronic and infectious diseases plants used in traditional medicine contain a wide range of ingredients. In this regard, Cassia auriculata L. (Caesalpiniaceae) is widely used in Ayurvedic medicine as a tonic, astringent and as a remedy for diabetes, conjunctivitis, ulcers, leprosy, skin and liver diseases. The aim of present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Cassia auriculata leaves and flowers (CALE & CAFE). CALE and CAFE exhibited broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis and exhibited no antifungal activity against standard strains of Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was carried out for CALE and CAFE. The results obtained in the present study indicate that the CALE and CAFE can be a potential source of natural antimicrobial agents. Key words: Cassia auriculata; Antimicrobial activity; Agar well diffusion method. DOI: BJSIR 2011; 46(4): 513-518

2018 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 122 ◽  
Fahad Aldoghaim ◽  
Gavin Flematti ◽  
Katherine Hammer

Essential oils from the Western Australian (WA) Eucalyptus mallee species Eucalyptus loxophleba, Eucalyptus polybractea, and Eucalyptus kochii subsp. plenissima and subsp. borealis were hydrodistilled from the leaves and then analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in addition to a commercial Eucalyptus globulus oil and 1,8-cineole. The main component of all oils was 1,8-cineole at 97.32% for E. kochii subsp. borealis, 96.55% for E. kochii subsp. plenissima, 82.95% for E. polybractea, 78.78% for E. loxophleba 2, 77.02% for E. globulus, and 66.93% for E. loxophleba 1. The Eucalyptus oils exhibited variable antimicrobial activity determined by broth microdilution, with E. globulus and E. polybractea oils showing the highest activities. The majority of microorganisms were inhibited or killed at concentrations ranging from 0.25% to 8.0% (v/v). Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans were the least susceptible organisms, whilst Acinetobacter baumannii was the most sensitive. In conclusion, all oils from WA Eucalyptus species showed microorganism inhibitory activity, although this varied according to both the Eucalyptus species and the microorganism tested. These data demonstrate that WA Eucalyptus oils show activity against a range of medically important pathogens and therefore have potential as antimicrobial agents.

2013 ◽  
pp. 171-183 ◽  
Emilija Ivanova ◽  
Natalija Atanasova-Pancevska ◽  
Dzoko Kungulovski

It is well known that essential oils possess significant antimicrobial activity. This study was conducted to estimate the antimicrobial activity of various types of Biokill, a laboratory produced solution composed of several essential oils (Biokill dissolved in 96% ethanol; Biokill 96% further dissolved in DMSO; Biokill dissolved in 70% ethanol and Biokill 70% further dissolved in DMSO). The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against five selected fungal strains, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763, Aspergillus niger I.N. 1110, Aspergillus sojae CCF and Penicillium spp. FNS FCC 266. A variation of the microtiter plate-based antimicrobial assay was used in order to assess the antimicrobial activity of the solutions. By applying this assay minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the Biokill solutions were determined for each strain of the selected test microorganisms. The results demonstrated that all variations of Biokill showed antimicrobial activity at concentrations lower than 2.5?g/mL. Biokill 70% further dissolved in DMSO showed the best antimicrobial properties against all the selected strains with MICs less than 1.25?g/mL. These results indicated that Biokill could find application in the pharmaceutical industry, in food preservation and conservation, in the prevention and treat?ment of plants infected by certain phytopathogens, etc.

Samina Amin Qurban Ali ◽  
Arif Malik

The increasing rate of drug-repellent pathogens and poisonousness of existing antiseptic compounds has strained attention toward activity of antimicrobial products which are natural. Main purpose of this research was to assess antimicrobial activity of seeds and leaves of Coriandrum sativum’s essential oil, antioxidant, antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Coriandrum sativum’s ethanol extracts and essential oils. Numerous approaches were used in reviewing the antioxidant activity such as, p-anisidine test – malonaldhyde, DPPH and peroxide value. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts towards six microbial strains; two bacterial strains (Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus), one yeast (Candida tropicals) and three fungal strains (Aspergillus flavus, Mucor sp and Emericella nidulans) was assessed by determination of inhibition zone and count of bacteria, yeast and spares of fungus. The antimicrobial mechanisms found in these essential oils have been explained on the basis of their content in natural compounds such as carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene and c-terpinene, among others. Although these two essential oils have received much attention, scientists working in the fields of biomedicine and food science are paying increasing attention to a wider variety of aromatic natural oils in an effort to identify original and natural applications for the inhibition of microbial pathogens. In conclusion, utilization of coriander or their components as food additives will increase the antioxidant and the antimicrobial potential of the food which prevent food deterioration and improve the shelf-life of food beside its nutritional value. The results revealed that the leaves extracts have high levels of phenolics than the seeds extract. Concerning antioxidant activity, significant decreases (p>0.001) were observed in peroxide, P- anisidine and TBA values as compared to control oil. On the other hand, scavenging activity % of the four extracts on DPPH radical were higher than that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) especially with high concentration (1000 μg/ ml). Regarding antimicrobial activity, the results showed that the extract of coriander seeds has the highest reduction percent in growth of all the examined microorganisms. The result also revealed that Mucor sp was resistant to the action of parsley extracts while Aspergillus flavus has the highest resistance against coriander extracts.

2010 ◽  
Vol 5 (10) ◽  
pp. 1934578X1000501 ◽  
Habiba Daroui-Mokaddem ◽  
Ahmed Kabouche ◽  
Mabrouka Bouacha ◽  
Boudjemaa Soumati ◽  
Aida El-Azzouny ◽  

The essential oils of fresh leaves of Eucalyptus globulus L. (Myrtaceae), and leaves and stems of Smyrnium olusatrum L. (Apiaceae), obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus, were analyzed by GC/MS. Twenty compounds were characterized, representing 98.3% of the essential oil of E. globulus, with 1,8-cineole (48.6%), globulol (10.9%), trans-pinocarveol (10.7%), and α-terpineol (6.6%) as main components, while thirty-three compounds were characterized, representing 94.3% of the essential oil of S. olusatrum, with sabinene (27.1%), curzerene (13.7%), methyl-1-benzyl-2-oxocyclooctane carboxylate (12.3%), α-pinene (7.2%), cryptone (7.1%) and β-pinene (5.7%) as the major components. The essential oils of E. globulus and S. olusatrum were tested against a wide range of fungal and bacterial strains. Both oils showed significant antimicrobial activity.

2014 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 1934578X1400901 ◽  
Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Wan Salleh ◽  
Farediah Ahmad ◽  
Khong Heng Yen

The study was designed to examine the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oils extracted from the aerial parts of three Piper species: Piper abbreviatum, P. erecticaule and P. lanatum, all from Malaysia. GC and GC/MS analysis showed qualitative and quantitative differences between these oils. GC and GC-MS analysis of P. abbreviatum, P. erecticaule and P. lanatum oils resulted in the identification of 33, 35 and 39 components, representing 70.5%, 63.4% and 78.2% of the components, respectively. The major components of P. abbreviatum oil were spathulenol (11.2%), ( E)-nerolidol (8.5%) and β-caryophyllene (7.8%), whereas P. erecticaule oil mainly contained β-caryophyllene (5.7%) and spathulenol (5.1%). Borneol (7.5%), β-caryophyllene (6.6%) and α-amorphene (5.6%) were the most abundant components in P. lanatum oil. Antimicrobial activity was carried out using disc diffusion and broth micro-dilution method against nine microorganisms. All of the essential oils displayed weak activity towards Gram-positive bacteria with MIC values in the range 250–500 μg/mL. P. erecticaule oil showed the best activity on Aspergillus niger (MIC 31.3 μg/mL), followed by P. lanatum oil (MIC 62.5 μg/mL). This study demonstrated that the essential oils have potential as antimicrobial agents and may be useful in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries.

e-Polymers ◽  
2008 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Shipra Tripathi ◽  
G. K. Mehrotra ◽  
P. K. Dutta

AbstractAntimicrobial packaging is one of the most promising active packaging systems. Antimicrobial packaging is the packaging system that is able to kill or inhibit spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms that are contaminating foods. A tremendous effort has been made over the last decade to develop and test films with antimicrobial properties to improve food safety and shelf life. For food preservation, chitosan films are very effective. Chitosan has widely been used in antimicrobial films, to provide edible protective coating, dipping and spraying for the food products due to its antimicrobial properties. Chitosan can be formed into fibers, films, gels, sponges, beads or nanoparticles. Chitosan films have been used as a packaging material for the quality preservation of a variety of food. Chitosan has great potential for a wide range of applications due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility, antimicrobial activity, non-toxicity and versatile chemical and physical properties. The present review outlines the preparation and antimicrobial activity of chitosan based films.

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