developmental stage
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Handan Karaoglu

Within the scope of this research, the chronic effects of ammonium nitrate, which is the most widely used fertilizer worldwide, on the tadpoles of Marsh Frog (Pelophylax ridibundus), the Iranian Long-Legged Frog (Rana macrocnemis), the Caucasian Parsley Frog (Pelodytes caucasicus) and the Variable Green Toad (Bufotes variabilis) were examined. To assess the chronic effects of the fertilizer, the tadpoles of all the species were exposed to 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 mg/L concentrations in same conditions. The chronic concentrations were applied from the 25th developmental stage to the 42nd developmental stage. It was defined at the end of the experiments that although there were some variability between different populations of the same species or between different species in the observed effects, chronic levels of ammonium nitrate caused decreased growth rate, prolonging in time to complete metamorphosis, increased abnormalities, and mortality in general. Among the 4 amphibian species, the Variable Green Toad was the most damaged one in terms of growth reduction (on average 31-41 %), abnormality rates (on average 50-75 %), prolonged time to complete metamorphose (14-21 days on average) and mortality rates (%54-100). The most adaptive species and the least damaged one was an Iranian long-legged frog for growth reduction (on average 0-15 %), prolonged time to complete metamorphose (7-9 days on average), and mortality rates (%9-15). All the harmful effects of chronic fertilizer levels caused by agricultural activities in the region had very important for examined species in our researches and it can be said that important environmental and biodiversity problems may occur if certain precautions are not taken regarding the use of the fertilizers and if the attitudes of the farmers on this issue cannot be changed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
José J. Benítez ◽  
Ana González Moreno ◽  
Susana Guzmán-Puyol ◽  
José A. Heredia-Guerrero ◽  
Antonio Heredia ◽  

Two important biophysical properties, the thermal and UV-Vis screening capacity, of isolated tomato fruit cuticle membranes (CM) have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and UV-Vis spectrometry, respectively. A first order melting, corresponding to waxes, and a second order glass transition (Tg) thermal events have been observed. The glass transition was less defined and displaced toward higher temperatures along the fruit ripening. In immature and mature green fruits, the CM was always in the viscous and more fluid state but, in ripe fruits, daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations may cause the transition between the glassy and viscous states altering the mass transfer between the epidermal plant cells and the environment. CM dewaxing reduced the Tg value, as derived from the role of waxes as fillers. Tg reduction was more intense after polysaccharide removal due to their highly interwoven distribution within the cutin matrix that restricts the chain mobility. Such effect was amplified by the presence of phenolic compounds in ripe cuticle membranes. The structural rigidity induced by phenolics in tomato CMs was directly reflected in their mechanical elastic modulus. The heat capacity (Cprev) of cuticle membranes was found to depend on the developmental stage of the fruits and was higher in immature and green stages. The average Cprev value was above the one of air, which confers heat regulation capacity to CM. Cuticle membranes screened the UV-B light by 99% irrespectively the developmental stage of the fruit. As intra and epicuticular waxes contributed very little to the UV screening, this protection capacity is attributed to the absorption by cinnamic acid derivatives. However, the blocking capacity toward UV-A is mainly due to the CM thickness increment during growth and to the absorption by flavone chalconaringenin accumulated during ripening. The build-up of phenolic compounds was found to be an efficient mechanism to regulate both the thermal and UV screening properties of cuticle membranes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Bipei Zhang ◽  
Fang Hu ◽  
Xiaotao Cai ◽  
Jiaowen Cheng ◽  
Ying Zhang ◽  

Pungency is a unique characteristic of chili peppers (Capsicum spp.) caused by capsaicinoids. The evolutionary emergence of pungency is thought to be a derived trait within the genus Capsicum. However, it is not well-known how pungency has varied during Capsicum domestication and specialization. In this study, we applied a comparative metabolomics along with transcriptomics analysis to assess various changes between two peppers (a mildly pungent cultivated pepper BB3 and its hot progenitor chiltepin) at four stages of fruit development, focusing on pungency variation. A total of 558 metabolites were detected in two peppers. In comparison with chiltepin, capsaicinoid accumulation in BB3 was almost negligible at the early stage. Next, 412 DEGs associated with the capsaicinoid accumulation pathway were identified through coexpression analysis, of which 18 genes (14 TFs, 3 CBGs, and 1 UGT) were deemed key regulators due to their high coefficients. Based on these data, we speculated that downregulation of these hub genes during the early fruit developmental stage leads to a loss in pungency during Capsicum domestication (from chiltepin to BB3). Of note, a putative UDP-glycosyltransferase, GT86A1, is thought to affect the stabilization of capsaicinoids. Our results lay the foundation for further research on the genetic diversity of pungency traits during Capsicum domestication and specialization.

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (2) ◽  
pp. 260
B. Melo-Báez ◽  
Y. S. Wong ◽  
E. A. Mellisho ◽  
C. Aguilera ◽  
J. Cabezas ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 37 ◽  
pp. e37091
Theodoro Schneider ◽  
Juliane Nicolodi Camera ◽  
Jana Koefender ◽  
Mauro Antônio Rizzardi ◽  
Mario Antônio Bianchi ◽  

Intensive use of the herbicide glyphosate has led to herbicide resistant Conyza spp. populations. Thus, there is a need to indicate alternative herbicides and the appropriate developmental stage for controlling these populations. This study identifies alternatives for controlling glyphosate-resistant horseweed, with treatment applications at different plant heights. For this purpose, field experiments were conducted in the 2016/17 and 2017/18 crop years. The evaluated treatments were: glyphosate (540 g ae ha-1), glyphosate (1080 g ae ha-1), glyphosate (2160 g ae ha-1), glyphosate (3240 g ae ha-1), glyphosate + 2.4-D (1080 + 1005 g ae ha-1), glyphosate + saflufenacil (1080 + 49 g ae/ai ha-1), paraquat (400 g ai ha-1), diquat (400 g ai ha-1), ammonium glufosinate (600 g ai ha-1), and control (without application). These treatments were applied to plants with a maximum of 5 cm; plants between 6 and 15 cm; and plants between 16 and 25 cm. The results showed that glyphosate did not control weeds, regardless of rate. With the exception of 2,4-D, which needs complementation with sequential application of another contact herbicide, all alternatives were viable for the control of Conyza spp. plants with a maximum height of 5 cm.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 17-29
Timothy Obaje ◽  
Rosheena Jeawon

This paper offers a critical review of the adopted academic advising strategies at the Durban University of Technology. It is worth acknowledging that academic advising as a scholarly practice is in its developmental stage at South African tertiary institutions. The paper draws on the experiences of the authors as academic advisors to reflect on the strengths and challenges of the practices of academic advising. It interrogates and analyses the authors’ experiences vis-a-vis the extant literature on academic advising practices. In this way, the paper engages and advances best practices while simultaneously contributing to the body of literature on academic advising in South Africa.

mBio ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (6) ◽  
Vienna Kowallik ◽  
Alexander S. Mikheyev

This work investigated host-microbiome interactions during a crucial developmental stage—the transition from larvae to adults, which is a challenge to both the insect host and its microbiome. Using the honey bee as a tractable model system, we showed that microbiome transfer after emergence overrides any variation in the larval microbiome in honey bees, indicating that larval and adult microbiome stages are effectively decoupled.

2021 ◽  
Vol 119 (1) ◽  
pp. e2114083119
Yasuhiro Umemura ◽  
Nobuya Koike ◽  
Yoshiki Tsuchiya ◽  
Hitomi Watanabe ◽  
Gen Kondoh ◽  

In mammals, circadian clocks are strictly suppressed during early embryonic stages, as well as in pluripotent stem cells, by the lack of CLOCK/BMAL1-mediated circadian feedback loops. During ontogenesis, the innate circadian clocks emerge gradually at a late developmental stage, and with these, the circadian temporal order is invested in each cell level throughout a body. Meanwhile, in the early developmental stage, a segmented body plan is essential for an intact developmental process, and somitogenesis is controlled by another cell-autonomous oscillator, the segmentation clock, in the posterior presomitic mesoderm (PSM). In the present study, focusing upon the interaction between circadian key components and the segmentation clock, we investigated the effect of the CLOCK/BMAL1 on the segmentation clock Hes7 oscillation, revealing that the expression of functional CLOCK/BMAL1 severely interferes with the ultradian rhythm of segmentation clock in induced PSM and gastruloids. RNA sequencing analysis implied that the premature expression of CLOCK/BMAL1 affects the Hes7 transcription and its regulatory pathways. These results suggest that the suppression of CLOCK/BMAL1-mediated transcriptional regulation during the somitogenesis may be inevitable for intact mammalian development.

2021 ◽  
Martin Beaumont ◽  
Eloïse Mussard ◽  
Céline Barilly ◽  
Corinne Lencina ◽  
Laure Gress ◽  

Abstract Background In mammals, the establishment around weaning of a symbiotic relationship between the gut microbiota and its host determines long-term health. Objective The aim of this study was to identify the factors driving the co-maturation of the gut microbiota and intestinal epithelium at the suckling-to-weaning transition. We hypothesized that developmental stage, solid food ingestion and suckling cessation contribute to this process. Methods From birth to day 18, Hyplus rabbits were exclusively suckling. From day 18 to day 25, rabbits were i) exclusively suckling or ii) suckling and ingesting solid food or iii) exclusively ingesting solid food. The microbiota (16S amplicon sequencing), metabolome (nuclear magnetic resonance) and epithelial gene expression (high-throughput qPCR) were analyzed in the caecum at day 18 and 25. Results The microbiota structure and metabolic activity were modified with age when rabbits remained exclusively suckling. The epithelial gene expression of nutrient transporters, proliferation markers and innate immune factors were also regulated with age (e.g., 1.5-fold decrease of TLR5). Solid food ingestion by suckling rabbits had a major effect on the gut microbiota by increasing its α-diversity, remodeling its structure (e.g., 6.3-fold increase of Ruminococcaceae) and metabolic activity (e.g., 4.6-fold increase of butyrate). Solid food introduction also regulated the gene expression of nutrient transporters, differentiation markers and innate immune factors in the epithelium (e.g., 3-fold increase of NOS2). Suckling cessation had no effect on the microbiota while it regulated the expression of genes involved in epithelial differentiation and immunoglobulin transport (e.g., 2.5-increase of PIGR). Conclusion In rabbits, the maturation of the microbiota at the suckling-to-weaning transition is driven by the introduction of solid food and to a lesser extent by developmental stage. In contrast, the maturation of the intestinal epithelium at the suckling-to-weaning transition is under the influence of developmental stage, solid food introduction and suckling cessation.

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