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2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Li Zhao ◽  
Shengdong Mu ◽  
Weixiang Wang ◽  
Haibin Gu

AbstractResource utilization of chrome shavings (CS) has attracted a lot of attention from scientists and technologists in leather industry. Especially, the collagen hydrolysates extracted from CS are expected to find potential application values in agricultural field. However, there is no biotoxicity analysis of collagen hydrolysates from CS. Herein, the collagen hydrolysates with different molecular weights were produced from CS by three hydrolysis dechroming methods including alkaline hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis and alkaline-enzymatic synergistic hydrolysis, and the optimal hydrolysis process of CS was designed and conducted. To evaluate their toxicity, the three collagen hydrolysates were formulated into a nutrient solution for zebrafish development. The obtained results indicated that the hydrolysates with low concentrations (less than 0.6 mg/mL) were safe and could promote the development for zebrafish embryos. Furthermore, the three collagen hydrolysates were utilized as organic nitrogen sources and formulated into amino acid water-soluble fertilizers (AAWSF) including alkaline type fertilizer (OH), enzymatic type fertilizer (M) and alkaline-enzymatic type fertilizer (OH–M) for the early soilless seeding cultivation of wheat, soybean and rapeseed. It is worth mentioning that the chromium contents in the prepared AAWSF were less than 10 mg/kg, which is far less than the limit value in the standard (China, 50 mg/kg). The growth and development of seedlings (germination rate, plant height, fresh weight of leaves, soluble sugar content and chlorophyll content) were investigated. The corresponding results showed that the growth of seedlings watered with AAWSF was better compared with the other treatments, and the OH–M fertilizer had the best promoting effect on the seedlings growth and development, followed by the M and OH fertilizers. The safe toxicity assessment of the collagen hydrolysates will expand their application scope, and the use of collagen hydrolysates extracted from CS for seedlings growth also provides an effective and reasonable way to deal with the chromium-containing leather solid waste, which is an effective way to realize its resource utilization. Graphical Abstract

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jing Yang ◽  
Jing Hai ◽  
Xuecai Dong ◽  
Mengjie Zhang ◽  
Shufeng Duan

Recent studies have confirmed the existence and key roles of microRNA (miRNAs) in cancer drug resistance, including cervical cancer (CC). The present study aims to establish a novel role for miR-92a-3p and its associated gene networks in cisplatin (DDP) resistance of CC. First, the disparities in miRNA expression between CC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were screened based on GSE19611 microarray data that retrieved from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and we identified several miRs that were significantly downregulated or upregulated in CC tissues including miR-92a-3p. Moreover, miR-92a-3p was significantly up-regulated in DDP-resistant cells and was the most differently expressed miRNA. Functionally, knockdown of miR-92a-3p increased the sensitivity of DDP-resistant cells to DDP via inhibiting cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and promoting apoptosis. Conversely, overexpression of miR-92a-3p significantly induced DDP resistance in CC parental cells including HeLa and SiHa cells. Moreover, Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) was identified as a direct target of miR-92a-3p, and an obvious inverse correlation was observed between the expression of miR-92a-3p and KLF4 in 40 pairs of cancer tissues. Furthermore, KLF4 knockdown reversed the promoting effect of miR-92a-3p inhibition on DDP sensitivity in DDP-resistant CC cells. Besides, high expression of miR-92a-3p was associated with DDP resistance, as well as a short overall survival in clinic. Taken together, these findings provide important evidence that miR-92a-3p targets KLF4 and is significant in DDP resistance in CC, indicating that miR-92a-3p may be an attractive target to increase DDP sensitivity in clinical CC treatment.

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 114
Yang Wang ◽  
Mingxia Jin ◽  
Lichao Wang ◽  
Ailin Yu ◽  
Guai Xie ◽  

In order to study the key gene in internal causes of pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, a departure from its vector beetle, Monochamus alternatus, we collected PWNs extracted from newly emerged M. alternatus and beetles 7 days after emergence. The total RNAs of the two groups of PWNs were extracted, transcriptomes sequencing was performed, and gene expression differences between the two groups of PWN were analyzed. It was found that the expression of the choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase gene (pcyt-1) was markedly up-regulated. After inhibition of pcyt-1 expression by RNA interference, the rate of lipid degradation in PWN decreased significantly, and the motility of PWN also decreased significantly. The analysis identified that phosphatidylcholine could promote the emulsification and degradation of neutral lipid granules in PWN, which provides sufficient energy for PWN departure from M. alternatus. The up-regulation of the gene pcyt-1 is an important internal factor for PWN departure from its vector.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Yuman Sun ◽  
He Xue ◽  
Kuan Zhao ◽  
Yubiao Zhang ◽  
Youjun Zhao ◽  

The complicated driving force at the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tip of the safe-end dissimilar metal-welded joints (DMWJs) in the pressurized water reactor (PWR) is mainly caused by the heterogeneous material mechanical properties. In this research, to accurately evaluate the crack driving force at the SCC in DMWJs, the stress-strain condition, stress triaxiality, and J-integral of the crack tip at different positions are analyzed based on the heterogeneous material properties model. The results indicate that the larger driving force will be provided for the I-type crack when the crack is in the SA508 zone and the interface between the 316L region and base metal. In addition, the heterogeneous material properties inhibit the J-integral of the crack in the 316L region, which has a promoting effect when the crack is in the SA508 zone and weld metal. It provides a new idea for analyzing driving force at the crack tip and safety evaluation of DMWJs in PWRs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Guancen Wu ◽  
Qian Xu ◽  
Xing Niu ◽  
Li Tao

This paper divides government policy according to policy quantity, policy effectiveness and policy executive force so that the government policy can be quantified in more detail. Green patent data is used to represent green technological innovation, and the fixed effect model and panel data analysis from 2010 to 2019 are employed. The empirical results show that government policy has a significant direct promoting effect on green technology innovation. And the positive impact of policy quantity and policy effectiveness on green technology innovation is greater than that of policy executive force. In addition, the government policy will weaken the positive effect of enterprise innovation vitality on green technology innovation. Research conclusions also show that the direct and indirect effects of government policies on green technology innovation are heterogeneous. The government still needs appropriately policies adapted to the local situation, coordinated in policy quantity, policy effectiveness, and executive force, and accelerate the establishment of market-oriented green technology innovation environment. Different regions also should find the right green technology innovation policy scheme for their own regions.

2022 ◽  
Gudrun Sproesser ◽  
Matthias Aulbach ◽  
Thomas Gültzow ◽  
Laura M König

An intuitive style in eating decision-making, for example, basing decisions on one’s gut feeling, has been related to a less healthy diet, whereas deliberately deciding what to eat, such as making plans about eating behavior, has been related to a healthier diet. The present study investigated whether nutrition knowledge, food preferences, and habit strength for healthy and unhealthy eating moderate these relationships. In total, 1245 participants took part in a preregistered cross-sectional online survey. Results revealed that neither nutrition knowledge, nor liking of healthy or unhealthy foods, nor habit strength for healthy or unhealthy eating interacted with the preference for intuition or deliberation in eating decision-making in affecting dietary intake. Instead, including the potential moderating variables in analyses rendered the effect of a preference for intuition largely non-significant. In contrast, the positive effect of a preference for deliberation was largely stable even when including the potential moderating variables. Thus, the present study confirms the general health-promoting effect of a preference for deliberation in eating decision-making. In contrast, results speak in favor of a generally minor role of a preference for intuition for healthy or unhealthy eating.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 189
Claudio Cacace ◽  
Carlo Giuseppe Rizzello ◽  
Gennaro Brunetti ◽  
Michela Verni ◽  
Claudio Cocozza

: In an era characterized by land degradation, climate change, and a growing population, ensuring high-yield productions with limited resources is of utmost importance. In this context, the use of novel soil amendments and the exploitation of plant growth-promoting microorganisms potential are considered promising tools for developing a more sustainable primary production. This study aimed at investigating the potential of bread, which represents a large portion of the global food waste, to be used as an organic soil amendment. A bioprocessed wasted bread, obtained by an enzymatic treatment coupled with fermentation, together with unprocessed wasted bread were used as amendments in a pot trial. An integrated analytical plan aimed at assessing i) the modification of the physicochemical properties of a typical Mediterranean alkaline agricultural soil, and ii) the plant growth-promoting effect on escarole (Cichorium endivia var. Cuartana), used as indicator crop, was carried out. Compared to the unamended soils, the use of biomasses raised the soil organic content (up to 37%) and total nitrogen content (up to 40%). Moreover, the lower pH and the higher organic acid content, especially in bioprocessed wasted bread, determined a major availability of Mn, Fe, and Cu in amended soils. The escaroles from pots amended with raw and bioprocessed bread had a number of leaves, 1.7- and 1.4-fold higher than plants cultivated on unamended pots, respectively, showing no apparent phytotoxicity and thus confirming the possible re-utilization of such residual biomasses as agriculture amendments.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Suat Suphan Ersahin ◽  
Aynur Ersahin

Abstract Objective It is not known by which mechanism endometrial injury increases pregnancy rates. Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a cytokine involved in wound healing and implantation. The aim of this study was to determine the change in endometrial LIF mRNA expression before and after mechanical injury during hysteroscopy. Methods Forty patients with a history of two or more unsuccessful implantations who decided to undergo hysteroscopy in the proliferative phase were divided into two equal groups: one with endometrial injury (scratching group) and the other with noninjury (control group). Endometrial sampling was conducted before injury on the patients in the scratching group, and then injury was performed with monopolar needle forceps. Only diagnostic hysteroscopy was performed on the patients in the control group. Endometrial tissues were collected using a Pipelle catheter between Days 20 and 23 of the mid-luteal phase of the next cycles in both the scratching and control groups. Endometrial LIF mRNA expression was evaluated with the use of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions. Results Relative changes in mRNA expression levels of the LIF gene in endometrial samples taken before and after injury were calculated using the 2-ΔΔCt method, and the fold changes obtained were compared between and within the groups. Compared with preinjury values, an 11.1-fold increase was found in postinjury LIF mRNA expression in patients with monopolar forceps injury (p < 0.001). There was a 3.9-fold significant increase in postinjury LIF mRNA levels compared with those in the control group (p < 0.02). Conclusions The fertility-promoting effect of hysteroscopy-guided mechanical endometrial injury may be mediated by LIF mRNA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 581
Juanjuan Ma ◽  
Lingling Xie ◽  
Qian Zhao ◽  
Yiting Sun ◽  
Dong Zhang

Cyclanilide (CYC), a plant growth regulator, is a potent shoot branching agent in apple. However, its mechanism remains unclear. The current study revealed that CYC treatment resulted in massive reprogramming of the axillary bud transcriptome, implicating several hormones in the response. We observed a marked increase (approximately 2-fold) in the level of zeatin riboside and a significant decrease (approximately 2-fold) in the level of abscisic acid (ABA). Zeatin metabolism gene cytokinin (CTK) oxidase 1 (CKX 1) was down-regulated at 168 h after CYC treatment compared with the control. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis of differentially expressed genes demonstrated the turquoise module clusters exhibited the highest positive correlation with zeatin riboside (r = 0.92) and the highest negative correlation with ABA (r = −0.8). A total of 37 genes were significantly enriched in the plant hormone signal transduction pathway in the turquoise module. Among them, the expressions of CTK receptor genes WOODEN LEG and the CTK type-A response regulators genes ARR3 and ARR9 were up-regulated. ABA signal response genes protein phosphatase 2C genes ABI2 and ABI5 were down-regulated in lateral buds after CYC treatment at 168 h. In addition, exogenous application of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA, a synthetic type of CTK) and CYC enhanced the inducing effect of CYC, whereas exogenous application of lovastatin (a synthetic type of inhibitor of CTK biosynthesis) or ABA and CYC weakened the promoting effect of CYC. These results collectively revealed that the stimulation of bud growth by CYC might involve CTK biosynthesis and signalling, including genes CKX1 and ARR3/9, which provided a direction for further study of the branching promoting mechanism of CYC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Kang Wu ◽  
Jun Zeng ◽  
Xulian Shi ◽  
Jiajia Xie ◽  
Yuqing Li ◽  

Bladder cancer is a highly metastatic tumor and one of the most common malignancies originating in the urinary tract. Despite the efficacy of immune checkpoints, including programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), the effect of immunotherapy for bladder cancer remains unsatisfactory. Therefore, it is urgent to develop new targets to expand immunotherapeutic options. In this study, we utilized single-cell sequencing to explore the cell composition of tumors and detected a subset of Treg cells with high expression of T-cell immunoreceptor with immunoglobulin and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif domain (TIGIT) and interleukin (IL)-32. The antitumor immune response was suppressed by this subset of Treg cells, while IL-32 promoted bladder cancer metastasis. Nevertheless, targeting TIGIT not only reversed immunosuppression by restoring the antitumor immune response mediated by T cells but also suppressed the secretion of IL-32 and inhibited the metastasis of bladder cancer cells. Thus, our study provided novel insights into immunosuppression in bladder cancer and highlighted TIGIT as a novel target for immunotherapy of bladder cancer. We also illustrated the mechanism of the dual effect of targeting TIGIT and revealed the metastasis-promoting effect of IL-32 in bladder cancer. Collectively, these findings raise the possibility of utilizing TIGIT as a target against bladder cancer from the bench to the bedside.

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