longitudinal research
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Ann-Christin Kordsmeyer ◽  
Ilona Efimov ◽  
Julia Christine Lengen ◽  
Volker Harth ◽  
Stefanie Mache

On the general labor market, social firms provide 30–50% of people with different types of disabilities the opportunity to gain employment. However, the topic of workplace health promotion (WHP), needs for improvement and accompanied challenges are neglected in the current research and were the focus of the present study. Therefore, data triangulation was used between July and December 2020 by combining three focus groups with employees (n = 14 employees) with 16 interviews with supervisors from several social firms in Northern Germany (e.g., from catering, cleaning or bicycle repair sectors). 17 semi-structured telephone interviews with experts in the field of WHP or social firms were added. All approaches were audio-taped, transcribed and anonymized. To analyze the data, Mayring’s qualitative content analysis was used. The results indicated that several offers for WHP, including sport, nutrition and relaxation, were offered, as well as those on smoking cessation, cooperation with external organizations or training and education offers. Needs for improvement were stated referring to additional sport offers, support for implementing a healthy diet, offers for relaxation, financial incentives or collaborations with external organizations. A low take-up of offers; a lack of resources, structures or management support; compatibility of offers with work time and organization; challenges with available trainings or the consideration of individual needs and capacities were highlighted as challenges. Overall, there is a need for further interventional and longitudinal research on WHP in social firms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Qing Gu ◽  
Jian Meng ◽  
Xue Hu ◽  
Jun Ge ◽  
Sui Jun Wang ◽  

AbstractThe vital role of insulin resistance (IR) in the pathogenesis of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) has been expounded at the theoretical level. However, research on the correlation between some specific IR indicators and ISH is still rare, especially at different glycemic statuses. We conducted this study to explore the association between three IR indicators and ISH among young and middle-aged adults with normal fasting plasma glucose (NFG). This large cross-sectional study included 8246 young and middle-aged men with NFG and diastolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg. The homeostasis model assessment for IR (HOMA-IR) index, triglyceride glucose (TyG) index, and the metabolic score for IR (METS-IR) were calculated with the corresponding formula. The proportions of ISH among young and middle-aged men were 6.7% and 4.4%, respectively. After fully adjusting, only HOMA-IR rather than TyG and METS-IR was significantly associated with ISH. Moreover, fully adjusted smooth curve fitting showed that the association between HOMA-IR and ISH were approximately linear in both two age groups (P for non-linearity were 0.047 and 0.430 in young and middle-aged men, respectively). Among young and middle-aged men with NFG, using HOMA-IR instead of noninsulin-dependent IR indicators may have advantages in the hierarchical management of ISH. Further longitudinal research may be needed to determine their potential causal relationship.

2022 ◽  
Ted Schwaba ◽  
Wiebke Bleidorn ◽  
Christopher James Hopwood ◽  
Stephen N. Manuck ◽  
Aidan G.C. Wright

Across adulthood, people tend to experience psychologically adaptive personality trait change, a robust finding known as the maturity principle of personality development. We identify three open areas of inquiry regarding personality maturation and address them in a pre-registered study, using a sample of US adults ages 30-70 who completed a battery of personality questionnaires and were rated by two close others twice over an 11-to-16 year period (Nwave1 = 1,785, Nwave2 = 401). First, it is unclear whether the maturity principle applies to narrower facet-level traits, as there has been little research into facet development across adulthood. We examined 47 facet scales and found that most developed adaptively across ages 30-70, but some did not mature, and three healthy facets (Activity, Openness to Feelings, and Social Potency) declined significantly across adulthood, counter to the maturity principle. Second, no longitudinal research has tested whether personality maturation is perceived similarly by close others. We compared self- and other- rated development and found that close others perceived greater maturation than the self in Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and five facets. Finally, few studies have examined whether traits co-mature in adulthood. We found that correlated change between healthy facets was small in magnitude. Additionally, we found tighter co-maturation in other-reported development than self-reported development. We use these results and past research to expand and refine our understanding of personality maturation across adulthood.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Mike Thelwall ◽  
Pardeep Sud

Abstract Scientometric research often relies on large-scale bibliometric databases of academic journal articles. Long term and longitudinal research can be affected if the composition of a database varies over time, and text processing research can be affected if the percentage of articles with abstracts changes. This article therefore assesses changes in the magnitude of the coverage of a major citation index, Scopus, over 121 years from 1900. The results show sustained exponential growth from 1900, except for dips during both world wars, and with increased growth after 2004. Over the same period, the percentage of articles with 500+ character abstracts increased from 1% to 95%. The number of different journals in Scopus also increased exponentially, but slowing down from 2010, with the number of articles per journal being approximately constant until 1980, then tripling due to megajournals and online-only publishing. The breadth of Scopus, in terms of the number of narrow fields with substantial numbers of articles, simultaneously increased from one field having 1000 articles in 1945 to 308 in 2020. Scopus’s international character also radically changed from 68% of first authors from Germany and the USA in 1900 to just 17% in 2020, with China dominating (25%). Peer Review https://publons.com/publon/10.1162/qss_a_00177

Assessment ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 107319112110675
Cornelia Wrzus ◽  
Andreas B. Neubauer

Ecological Momentary Assessments (i.e., EMA, repeated assessments in daily life) are widespread in many fields of psychology and related disciplines. Yet, little knowledge exists on how differences in study designs and samples predict study compliance and dropout—two central parameters of data quality in (micro-)longitudinal research. The current meta-analysis included k = 477 articles (496 samples, total N = 677,536). For each article, we coded the design, sample characteristics, compliance, and dropout rate. The results showed that on average EMA studies scheduled six assessments per day, lasted for 7 days, and obtained a compliance of 79%. Studies with more assessments per day scheduled fewer assessment days, yet, the number of assessments did not predict compliance or dropout rates. Compliance was significantly higher in studies providing financial incentives. Otherwise, design or sample characteristics had little effects. We discuss the implications of the findings for planning, reporting, and reviewing EMA studies.

F1000Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
pp. 25
Yuanyuan Zhou ◽  
Joel Purkiss ◽  
Malvika Juneja ◽  
Jocelyn Greely ◽  
Anitra Beasley ◽  

Background: Baylor College of Medicine provides a classroom-based implicit bias workshop to all third-year medical students to increase students’ awareness of their unconscious bias and develop strategies for reducing health care disparities. The workshop meets our immediate goals and objectives. However, we are unsure if the benefit would be long-term or diminish over time. Methods: To examine the concept retention from the implicit bias classroom workshop, we administered a self-developed seven-item seven-point Likert-scale survey to our medical students at pre-, post-, and one-year post-workshop attendance. Results: The data set was comprised of survey results from two cohorts of our third and fourth-year medical students from 2018 to 2020 and included 289 completed records at three measurement points. The data included: Student Identifiers, Sex, Race/Ethnicity, Student Enrollment Type, Cohort, and three repeated measures results for each of the seven items, which were documented in wide format. The data may be of interest to those who wish to examine how factors including elapsed time, race, and sex may associate with attitudes and understandings of implicit bias following related training, and those interested in analytical methods on longitudinal research in general.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Angela F. Randolph ◽  
Danna Greenberg ◽  
Jessica K. Simon ◽  
William B. Gartner

PurposeThe authors explore the relationship between adolescent behavior and subsequent entrepreneurial persistence by drawing on scholarship from clinical psychology and criminology to examine different subtypes of antisocial behavior (nonaggressive antisocial behavior and aggressive antisocial behavior) that underlie adolescent rule breaking. The intersection of gender and socioeconomic status on these types of antisocial behavior and entrepreneurial persistence is also studied.Design/methodology/approachUsing a longitudinal research design, this study draws from a national representative survey of USA adolescents, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997) (NLSY97). Nonaggressive antisocial behavior was assessed with a composite scale that measured economic self-interest and with a second measure that focused on substance abuse. Aggressive antisocial behavior was assessed as a measure of aggressive, destructive behaviors, such as fighting and property destruction. Entrepreneurial persistence was operationalized as years of self-employment experience, which is based on the number of years a respondent reported any self-employment.FindingsAggressive antisocial behavior is positively related to entrepreneurial persistence but nonaggressive antisocial behavior is not. This relationship is moderated by gender and socioeconomic status.Originality/valueThese findings contribute to research on the relationship between adolescent behavior and entrepreneurship in adulthood, the effect of antisocial behavior, and demographic intersectionality (by gender and socioeconomic status) in entrepreneurship. The authors surmise that the finding that self-employment for men from lower socioeconomic backgrounds involved in aggressive antisocial behavior was significantly higher compared to others may indicate that necessity entrepreneurship may be the primary driver of entrepreneurial activity for these individuals.

2022 ◽  
Vol 75 (3) ◽  
Deise Juliana Rhoden ◽  
Cátia Cristiane Matte Dezordi ◽  
Raida Ahmad Musa Mheisen Husein ◽  
Dulce Aparecida Barbosa ◽  
Patrícia Treviso ◽  

ABSTRACT Objectives: to analyze and compare levels of stress and resilience in nurses before and after the assessment for maintenance of the Hospital Accreditation Certification. Methods: quantitative, observational, and longitudinal research, with 53 nurses from a philanthropic hospital, in the Rio Grande do Sul. Data collected in two stages, March, and July 2019, before the assessment visit and 60 days after, using the Bianchi Stress Scale and Resilience Scale. Descriptive and analytical statistics were employed. Results: the majority of participants showed an average stress level before and after the evaluation. The highest stress scores were related to Domains E (coordination of unit activities) and C (activities related to personnel administration). In both moments of the study, the participants had medium and high resilience. Conclusions: managing people, processes, and assistance are stressful activities in the Accreditation process and increase the nurses’ stress levels.

Susanne Gustafsson ◽  
Helena Hörder

AbstractThis chapter presents the ICECAP-O, a measure of capability tailored for older people. It briefly presents the original version of the ICECAP-O. In addition, it describes the work that has been done concerning the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the ICECAP-O to the Swedish context. Finally, the chapter contains arguments for the use of the Swedish version of the ICECAP-O in health and social care, and in the evaluation of interventions and longitudinal research studies where older people’s capabilities are a focus.

2022 ◽  
pp. 97-114
Helle Pia Laursen ◽  
Line Møller Daugaard ◽  
Uffe Ladegaard ◽  
Winnie Østergaard ◽  
Birgit Orluf ◽  

In this article, the authors build on empirical data from the ongoing longitudinal research project Signs of language (2008 – 2018) to examine how multilingual children in a primary school setting use metalinguistic resources linked to several written languages. Grounded in social semiotics and drawing on newer social perspectives on metalanguage, the authors focus on a researcher-generated activity designed to invite the children to reflect on language and literacy. In two particular interactions, they explore how the children “engage with the meta” by navigating between different languages and sign systems, and how their use of metalinguistic resources in a referential sense is inextricably linked to a dialogically formed and performative negotiation of social identity and social relations. Thus, adopting a metalanguaging perspective, this article demonstrates how metalinguistic statements about language are closely interwoven with an ongoing production and negotiation of the communicative situation.

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