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YMER Digital ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (01) ◽  
pp. 277-282
Sreejee Gopalakrishnan ◽  
S Elengkumaran ◽  
S Poojyashree ◽  
Pooja K. N ◽  

Background - The recently developed HPV vaccine is highly effective against the HPV virus. It has met widespread acceptance amongst healthcare and public health professionals. However, there are still social barriers to vaccination that hampers the effects of preventing the disease caused by HPV. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the survey responses regarding the knowledge, awareness, and vaccination status among dental professionals and students in a local population and to emphasize the relationship between HPV and the increasing incidence of oral and oropharyngeal cancers in the current scenario. Methodology - This study was a prospective analysis of a questionnaire collected from the dentist and dental students at The Faculty of Dental Sciences, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Porur, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India; regarding their knowledge, awareness, and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) - vaccination status.Results - 96% of the participants were aware of the HPV and only 4% were unaware of the virus. About 18.7 % of the participants were unaware of the modes of transmission of HPV. Only 66.6 % knew that HPV - 16 and 18 were responsible for Oral and cervical cancers. Conclusion - Understanding the barriers and hesitancy to vaccination is the crucial step to designing strategies that may aid in enhancing the vaccination

2022 ◽  
Margaret Mills ◽  
Pooneh Hajian ◽  
Shah Mohamed Bakhash ◽  
Hong Xie ◽  
Derrek Mantzke ◽  

Background Mutations in the receptor binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein are associated with increased transmission or substantial reductions in vaccine efficacy, including in the recently described Omicron variant. The changing frequencies of these mutations combined with their differing susceptibility to available therapies have posed significant problems for clinicians and public health professionals. Objective To develop an assay capable of rapidly and accurately identifying variants including Omicron in clinical specimens to enable case tracking and/or selection of appropriate clinical treatment. Study Design Using three duplex RT-ddPCR reactions targeting four amino acids, we tested 419 positive clinical specimens from February to December 2021 during a period of rapidly shifting variant prevalences and compared genotyping results to genome sequences for each sample, determining the sensitivity and specificity of the assay for each variant. Results Mutation determinations for 99.7% of detected samples agree with NGS data for those samples, and are accurate despite wide variation in RNA concentration and potential confounding factors like transport medium, presence of additional respiratory viruses, and additional mutations in primer and probe sequences. The assay accurately identified the first 15 Omicron variants in our laboratory including the first Omicron in Washington State and discriminated against S-gene dropout Delta specimen. Conclusion We describe an accurate, precise, and specific RT-ddPCR assay for variant detection that remains robust despite being designed prior the emergence of Delta and Omicron variants. The assay can quickly identify mutations in current and past SARS-CoV-2 variants, and can be adapted to future mutations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 111-116
Keerthana S ◽  
Mugdha Kamble ◽  
Neeraj Khare

Background: The coronavirus has become a global pandemic and to overcome the pandemic crisis vaccine were launched in India. COVID-19 mass immunisation has emerged as a crucial preventive technique. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy may become a distinctive element of the pandemic's next stage. The loss of public trust in vaccines around the world is a source of concern and a serious problem for public health professionals. A study was therefore planned in Bhopal to determine whether hesitancy is present in a population and to distinguish hesitancy from other reasons why adults do not get vaccinated. The study was conducted with the objective as to assess the vaccine hesitancy in Bhopal. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study conducted among the general population of Bhopal during the time period between 2oth Jan to Feb 2021. 381 participants were administered with a predesigned pretested questionnaire. Results: The mean age of the participants was 33.8 years. Majority was unskilled workers, Hindu by religion and most of them were married. 57.3 % showed hesitancy for COVID vaccination. Majority had the knowledge of vaccine. Television was the major source of information. Almost 80% responded as they would continue practicing personal protective measures even after vaccination. The major reasons for hesitancy were lack of information, safety about vaccination, and side effects from the same. The public demands the proper information about the vaccine and educate the general public and communicate the important information regarding vaccinations. Conclusion: Routine monitoring of vaccine hesitancy plays a valuable role in identifying early vaccine concerns. And adopt the strategies to address these concerns, through in-depth understanding of the nature of hesitancy, as well as who is hesitating. Given the dynamic and changing nature of vaccine hesitancy, the importance of ongoing monitoring cannot be overstated. Key words: COVID-19, COVID-19 Vaccine, SARS-COV2 vaccine, Vaccine hesitancy, Vaccine resistance, Vaccine opposition.

Zoonotic diseases are characterized by significant morbidity and mortality in humans. In Nigeria, tragic effects of zoonotic diseases have been reported. This calls for a sustained collaboration among public health professionals to confront the ever-increasing challenges of managing zoonotic diseases. This study explores the perception of public health professionals about knowledge sharing and the absorptive capacity of health professionals in managing zoonotic diseases. Data were collected through a semi- structured interview. The analysis was done using qualitative content analysis. Findings revealed positive perception of public health professionals about knowledge sharing in managing zoonotic. Also, the study found that Public Health professionals acquire external knowledge for managing zoonotic disease through multidisciplinary networks and professional associations. The One Health initiative is one avenue where public health professionals can leverage on the strength and capacities of each other to respond competently to emerging health threats of zoonotic diseases.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (4) ◽  
pp. 211-231
Aisagbonhi Henry

Patients have developed a well-informed sense of validation concerning maintaining hygiene standards. The pandemic, somehow in disguise, presented the valuable perspective of life reflection and gratitude. The attitude of a majority of patients engaged was immensely that of a deep reflection of the privilege of having access to early diagnosis, treatment, and adequate support. However, the complaints of the past, knowing that they are alive and have hope to keep fighting on with gratitude and sense of acceptance. However, they wished that the experience of the social media – health engagement platform should continue as it provided a good level of the bridge of gap of information. The cost of treatment remains a major concern as it largely translates to possible dropout from treatment courses for most cancer patients who can’t afford the current cost. The concerns of the cancer patients and survivors during and after the covid-19 pandemic are similarly a concern to public health professionals worldwide. The need to aid their return to routine health care services is more important and therefore requires an urgent reorganization of cancer management services. An urgent intervention should be focused on patient re-orientation /pandemic control, staff training and retraining, awareness campaign, screening and result accessibility, special pandemic services, amongst others. The outcome reflected a very huge level of poor cancer patient experience in the public cancer treatment centres, while the reverse is the case with the private cancer treatment centres. This can be managed if an urgent intervention as proffered is implemented.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Mohannad Al Nsour ◽  
Tala Chahien ◽  
Yousef Khader ◽  
Mirwais Amiri ◽  
Hana Taha

Research is essential for evidence-based decision making. This study aimed to identify research priorities in the areas of field epidemiology and public health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) from the perspectives of public health professionals. A Delphi technique, using online survey, was employed to reach 168 public health professionals who have experience in the EMR countries. The study took place between November 2019 and January 2020. Consensus on the research priorities was reached after two-round online questionnaires. A list of top 10 field epidemiology and public health research priorities in the EMR was developed. Of those priorities, four fell under health in emergency, war and armed conflict, two under communicable diseases, two under immunization, one under digital health, and one under sexual, reproductive, and adolescent health. Availability, adequacy, and quality of health services in crisis settings were scored as a top priority (mean = 4.4, rank 1), followed by use of technology to improve the collection, documentation, and analysis of health data (mean = 4.28, rank 2), and capacity of countries in the region to respond to emergencies (mean = 4.25, rank 3). This study was conducted prior to COVID-19 pandemic and, thus, it did not capture COVID-19 research as a priority area. Nevertheless, identified priorities under communicable diseases including outbreak investigation of infectious diseases, epidemics and challenges related to communicable diseases in the EMR were still notable. In conclusion, the field epidemiology and public health research priorities identified in this study through a systematic inclusive process could be useful to make informed decisions and gear the research efforts to improve the health of people in the EMR.

2021 ◽  
Vol 111 (12) ◽  
pp. 2202-2211
Nicholas Freudenberg ◽  
Kelley Lee ◽  
Kent Buse ◽  
Jeff Collin ◽  
Eric Crosbie ◽  

In recent years, the concept of commercial determinants of health (CDoH) has attracted scholarly, public policy, and activist interest. To date, however, this new attention has failed to yield a clear and consistent definition, well-defined metrics for quantifying its impact, or coherent directions for research and intervention. By tracing the origins of this concept over 2 centuries of interactions between market forces and public health action and research, we propose an expanded framework and definition of CDoH. This conceptualization enables public health professionals and researchers to more fully realize the potential of the CDoH concept to yield insights that can be used to improve global and national health and reduce the stark health inequities within and between nations. It also widens the utility of CDoH from its main current use to study noncommunicable diseases to other health conditions such as infectious diseases, mental health conditions, injuries, and exposure to environmental threats. We suggest specific actions that public health professionals can take to transform the burgeoning interest in CDoH into meaningful improvements in health. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(12):2202–2211. )

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 313-316
Krista D. Mincey

Implicit bias is a topic many faculty/instructors may feel uncomfortable teaching and discussing with their students. As public health professionals, it is important that we teach the next generation of public health professionals about bias so that they are able to address the elements in society that allow these biases to affect the health care that is received and the health outcomes that occur because of these biases. This article provides detailed information on an activity around bias conducted with undergraduate students in an Introduction to Public Health course. The article discusses how this activity can be adapted and guidance on how to make this activity work for any course.

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