dispositional optimism
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2022 ◽  
Vol 185 ◽  
pp. 111265
Ana Miljković ◽  
Ajka Pribisalić ◽  
Andrea Gelemanović ◽  
Davor Lasić ◽  
Caroline Hayward ◽  

Jakob Weitzer ◽  
Claudia Trudel-Fitzgerald ◽  
Olivia I. Okereke ◽  
Ichiro Kawachi ◽  
Eva Schernhammer

AbstractDispositional optimism is a potentially modifiable factor and has been associated with multiple physical health outcomes, but its relationship with depression, especially later in life, remains unclear. In the Nurses´ Health Study (n = 33,483), we examined associations between dispositional optimism and depression risk in women aged 57–85 (mean = 69.9, SD = 6.8), with 4,051 cases of incident depression and 10 years of follow-up (2004–2014). We defined depression as either having a physician/clinician-diagnosed depression, or regularly using antidepressants, or the presence of severe depressive symptoms using validated self-reported scales. Age- and multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) across optimism quartiles and for a 1-standard deviation (SD) increment of the optimism score. In sensitivity analyses we explored more restrictive definitions of depression, potential mediators, and moderators. In multivariable-adjusted models, women with greater optimism (top vs. bottom quartile) had a 27% (95%CI = 19–34%) lower risk of depression. Every 1-SD increase in the optimism score was associated with a 15% (95%CI = 12–18%) lower depression risk. When applying a more restrictive definition for clinical depression, the association was considerably attenuated (every 1-SD increase in the optimism score was associated with a 6% (95%CI = 2–10%-) lower depression risk. Stratified analyses by baseline depressive symptoms, age, race, and birth region revealed comparable estimates, while mediators (emotional support, social network size, healthy lifestyle), when combined, explained approximately 10% of the optimism-depression association. As social and behavioral factors only explained a small proportion of the association, future research should investigate other potential pathways, such as coping strategies, that may relate optimism to depression risk.

Jenny Marcionetti ◽  
Luciana Castelli

AbstractThe purpose of the study was to test a model of factors predicting teachers’ job and life satisfaction, burnout, dispositional optimism, social support, perceived workload, and self-efficacy. The model extends Lent and Brown’s (J Voc Behav 69(2):236–247, 10.1016/j.jvb.2006.02.006, 2006; J Career Assess 16(1):6–21, 10.1177/1069072707305769, 2008) social cognitive model of the interaction of sources of job and life satisfaction. Specifically, burnout, a condition with a high incidence rate among teachers, was included. The participants were 676 Swiss teachers. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results revealed the differential effect of the variables considered on teachers' burnout and job satisfaction, as well as their life satisfaction. Dispositional optimism, social support, and perceived workload might reduce the risk of teacher burnout; dispositional optimism, social support, and teacher self-efficacy seem to positively affect job satisfaction; and dispositional optimism alone, together with burnout and job satisfaction, directly relates to teachers’ life satisfaction. Practical implications of these results are discussed.

Ekaterina Mihal'chi

The article examines the features and factors of manifestation of mental health in persons with different levels of health: mild health disorders, chronic diseases and other defects, severe health disorders and disabilities. At the beginning, the author cites the results of an analysis of theoretical sources on mental health problems and highlights the factors that affect its level: the presence and degree of physical disorders in health and the presence of mental disorders and negative psychological states. As shown by the results of a survey of research participants, more than 70% of them have mental health disorders, expressed in the manifestation of negative mental states and disorders. Further, the features of mental health in persons with different levels of health were studied by using the following questionnaires: "Scale of coherence", "Test of hardiness", "Test of dispositional optimism", "Test of social adaptation", "Methods of coping behavior". An analysis of the results of using these questionnaires showed that the presence and degree of disorders in human health affects a decrease in the levels of hardiness and dispositional optimism, and deterioration in mental health and the development of negative psychological states also lead to a decrease in hardiness and its components, and a decrease in optimistic expectations from changes in the future, a decrease in the level of a sense of coherence and the possibilities of cognitive perception of the surrounding reality, an increase in the level of negative impact of stress on the psychophysical state of a person and an increase in cases of choosing maladaptive coping strategies for coping with stress.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 389-397
Deng-Xin He ◽  
Ming-Hao Pan

Abstract Objectives Depressive symptoms are common in heart failure (HF) patients and they may exacerbate the progression of HF. Thus, identifying associations with depressive symptoms is essential to develop effective interventions to alleviate patients’ depressive symptoms. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the factors related to HF patients’ depressive symptoms. Methods Potential hospitalized patients were recruited from a university-affiliated hospital by convenience sampling. This study included 321 HF patients who had completed information about depressive symptoms, functional capacity, social support, dispositional optimism, self-care confidence, and health literacy. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample. Independent group t-tests and one-way analysis of variance were used to assess the difference in depressive symptoms score in demographic and clinical characteristics, while Pearson's correlation was used to assess the associations among continuous variables. Results The scores for functional capacity, social support, dispositional optimism, self-care confidence, and health literacy were negatively associated with the score for depressive symptoms. The interaction effect between the functional capacity and the dispositional optimism on depressive symptoms was significant. Conclusions Interventions targeted improving the above-mentioned factors may be beneficial to reduce depressive symptoms in HF patients.

2021 ◽  
pp. 107780122110309
Yifeng Du ◽  
Olivia D. Chang ◽  
Mingqi Li ◽  
Misu Kwon

The present study tested a prediction model involving affectivity and dispositional optimism as predictors of suicide risk (i.e., depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation) in young adult Chinese females with and without prior interpersonal violence (IPV) victimization (294 nonvictimized and 94 victimized females). Results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that negative affectivity was a significant predictor of both depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation for Chinese females, regardless of IPV victimization. Beyond affectivity, dispositional optimism was found to further add to the prediction model of depressive symptoms in both groups, but only for suicidal ideation in the IPV victimized group.

2021 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
Fabio Alexis Rincón Uribe ◽  
Silvia Botelho de Oliveira ◽  
Amauri Gouveia Junior ◽  
Janari da Silva Pedroso

AbstractThe objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of publications that reported the association between dispositional optimism and depression during youth, analyzing if the strength of this relationship varied according to potential factors. Systematic searches were carried out in APA PsycNet, Virtual Health Library, Embase, Web of Science, PubMed Central, and Scopus to collect English, Portuguese, or Spanish studies from 2009 onwards. Two reviewers selected the eligible articles, assessed the quality of each study, and extracted the data. For the synthesis of the results, a meta-analytic approach was used. We identified 4077 publications in the initial searches and 22 in the supplementary searches, from which 31 studies remained for analysis once the eligibility criteria were applied. The results showed a statistically significant negative association between dispositional optimism and depression in the young population, age being a factor that modifies the effect measure between these variables. This meta-analysis provides a consistent and robust synthesis on the interaction effect between dispositional optimism and depression in the young population. Based on these findings, early clinical admissions may effectively improve optimistic tendencies in young people, which could help them prevent depressive symptoms or episodes.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (11) ◽  
pp. 3778
Roberta Adorni ◽  
Francesco Zanatta ◽  
Marco D'Addario ◽  
Francesca Atella ◽  
Elena Costantino ◽  

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Promoting healthy behaviors throughout life is an essential prevention tool. This study investigated the associations among lifestyle profiles (including diet, alcohol consumption, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and cardiovascular screening), sociodemographic factors (gender, age, education, and family history of CVDs), and psychological factors (sense of coherence and dispositional optimism). In total, 676 healthy adults (mean age = 35 years; range = 19–57; 46% male) participated in an online survey. Lifestyle profiles were identified through cluster analysis, and a multinomial logistic regression was then performed to explore their association with sociodemographic and psychological variables. Results show that men were more likely than women to belong to the lifestyle profile with the highest amount of physical activity (OR = 2.40; p < 0.001) and the greatest attention to cardiovascular screening (OR = 2.09; p < 0.01). Lower dispositional optimism was associated with the profile paying the greatest attention to cardiovascular screening (OR = 0.67; p < 0.05). Sense of coherence, in terms of lower comprehensibility (OR = 0.67; p < 0.05) and higher manageability (OR = 1.43; p < 0.05), was associated with the lifestyle profile characterized by an unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, and nonsmoking. This study shed light on factors associated with different co-occurring health-related behaviors that should be considered in planning effective communication strategies promoting adherence to health claims.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Claudia Horn-Hofmann ◽  
Jennifer J. Piloth ◽  
Astrid Schütz ◽  
Roy F. Baumeister ◽  
Stefan Lautenbacher

Abstract Objectives Past work has found that optimism reduces a person’s responsiveness to pain, but the effects of pessimism are not clear. Therefore, we gave pessimistic forecasts of participants’ future social life and measured changes in their pain responsiveness. In particular, some participants were told that they would end up alone in life. Methods Seventy-five subjects were investigated in three conditions (negative forecast, positive forecast, no forecast) for changes in pain threshold and pain tolerance threshold. Pressure pain induction was accomplished by either human- or machine-driven algometers. A randomly assigned bogus forecast promising either a lonely or a socially satisfying future was ostensibly based on a personality questionnaire and an emotional dot-probe task. As potential covariates, questionnaires assessing dispositional optimism (LOT-R), pain catastrophizing (PCS), and self-esteem (SISE) were given. Results Pain thresholds suggested a change toward unresponsiveness only in the negative forecast condition, with only small differences between the modes of pain induction (i.e., human or machine). The results for pain tolerance thresholds were less clear also because of limiting stimulation intensity for safety reasons. The covariates were not associated with these changes. Conclusions Thus, people expecting a lonely future became moderately less responsive to pain. This numbing effect was not modulated by personality measures, neither in a protective fashion via dispositional optimism and self-esteem nor in a risk-enhancing fashion via trait pain catastrophizing. Alternative mechanisms of action should be explored in future studies.

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