signal transduction pathway
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 820-826
Chengyong Wu ◽  
Weifeng Wei ◽  
Jing Li ◽  
Shenglin Peng

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is closely related to the migrating and invading behaviors of cells. Periostin is one of the essential components in the extracellular matrix and can induce EMT of cells and their sequential metastasis. But its underlying mechanism is unclear. The Hela and BMSC cell lines were assigned into Periostin-mimic group, Periostin-Inhibitor group and Periostin-NC group followed by analysis of cell migration and invasion, expression of E-Cadherin, Vimentin, β-Catenin, Snail, MMP-2, MMP-9, PTEN, and p-PTEN. Cells in Periostin-mimic group exhibited lowest migration, least number of invaded cells, as well as lowest levels of Vimentin, β-Catenin, Snail, MMP-2, MMP-9, p-PTEN, Akt, p-Akt, p-GSK-3β, p-PDK1 and p-cRcf, along with highest levels of E-cadherin and PTEN. Moreover, cells in Periostin-NC group had intermediate levels of these above indicators, while, the Periostin-Inhibitor group exhibited the highest migration rate, the most number of invaded cells, and the highest levels of these proteins (P < 0.05). In conclusion, BMSCs-derived Periostin can influence the EMT of cervical cancer cells possibly through restraining the activity of the PI3K/AKT signal transduction pathway, indicating that Periostin might be a target of chemotherapy in clinics for the treatment of cervical cancer.

BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Yunying Cao ◽  
Tingyu Shan ◽  
Hui Fang ◽  
Kangtai Sun ◽  
Wen Shi ◽  

Abstract Background Salt damage is an important abiotic stress that affects the growth and yield of maize worldwide. As an important member of the salt overly sensitive (SOS) signal transduction pathway, the SOS3 gene family participates in the transmission of stress signals and plays a vital role in improving the salt tolerance of plants. Results In this study, we identified 59 SOS3 genes in the maize B73 genome using bioinformatics methods and genome-wide analyses. SOS3 proteins were divided into 5 different subfamilies according to the phylogenetic relationships. A close relationship between the phylogenetic classification and intron mode was observed, with most SOS3 genes in the same group sharing common motifs and similar exon-intron structures in the corresponding genes. These genes were unequally distributed on five chromosomes of B73. A total of six SOS3 genes were identified as repeated genes, and 12 pairs of genes were proven to be segmentally duplicated genes, indicating that gene duplication may play an important role in the expansion of the SOS3 gene family. The expression analysis of 10 genes that were randomly selected from different subgroups suggested that all 10 genes were significantly differentially expressed within 48 h after salt treatment, of which eight SOS3 genes showed a significant decline while Zm00001d025938 and Zm00001d049665 did not. By observing the subcellular localization results, we found that most genes were expressed in chloroplasts while some genes were expressed in the cell membrane and nucleus. Conclusions Our study provides valuable information for elucidating the evolutionary relationship and functional characteristics of the SOS3 gene family and lays the foundation for further study of the SOS3 gene family in the maize B73 genome.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 844
Myun Soo Kim ◽  
Dongmin Park ◽  
Sora Lee ◽  
Sunyoung Park ◽  
Kyung Eun Kim ◽  

Erythroid differentiation regulator 1 (Erdr1) has previously been reported to control thymocyte selection via TCR signal regulation, but the effect of Erdr1 as a TCR signaling modulator was not studied in peripheral T cells. In this report, it was determined whether Erdr1 affected TCR signaling strength in CD4 T cells. Results revealed that Erdr1 significantly enhanced the anti-TCR antibody-mediated activation and proliferation of T cells while failing to activate T cells in the absence of TCR stimulation. In addition, Erdr1 amplified Ca2+ influx and the phosphorylation of PLCγ1 in CD4 T cells with the TCR stimuli. Furthermore, NFAT1 translocation into nuclei in CD4 T cells was also significantly promoted by Erdr1 in the presence of TCR stimulation. Taken together, our results indicate that Erdr1 positively modulates TCR signaling strength via enhancing the PLCγ1/Ca2+/NFAT1 signal transduction pathway.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Shehzad Iqbal ◽  
Xiukang Wang ◽  
Iqra Mubeen ◽  
Muhammad Kamran ◽  
Iqra Kanwal ◽  

In the past and present, human activities have been involved in triggering global warming, causing drought stresses that affect animals and plants. Plants are more defenseless against drought stress; and therefore, plant development and productive output are decreased. To decrease the effect of drought stress on plants, it is crucial to establish a plant feedback mechanism of resistance to drought. The drought reflex mechanisms include the physical stature physiology and biochemical, cellular, and molecular-based processes. Briefly, improving the root system, leaf structure, osmotic-balance, comparative water contents and stomatal adjustment are considered as most prominent features against drought resistance in crop plants. In addition, the signal transduction pathway and reactive clearance of oxygen are crucial mechanisms for coping with drought stress via calcium and phytohormones such as abscisic acid, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, auxin, gibberellin, ethylene, brassinosteroids and peptide molecules. Furthermore, microorganisms, such as fungal and bacterial organisms, play a vital role in increasing resistance against drought stress in plants. The number of characteristic loci, transgenic methods and the application of exogenous substances [nitric oxide, (C28H48O6) 24-epibrassinolide, proline, and glycine betaine] are also equally important for enhancing the drought resistance of plants. In a nutshell, the current review will mainly focus on the role of phytohormones and related mechanisms involved in drought tolerance in various crop plants.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Claudia Pivonello ◽  
Roberta Patalano ◽  
Mariarosaria Negri ◽  
Rosa Pirchio ◽  
Annamaria Colao ◽  

Pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNET) are commonly benign tumors accounting for 10-25% of intracranial tumors. Prolactin-secreting adenomas represent the most predominant type of all PitNET and for this subtype of tumors, the medical therapy relies on the use of dopamine agonists (DAs). DAs yield an excellent therapeutic response in reducing tumor size and hormonal secretion targeting the dopamine receptor type 2 (D2DR) whose higher expression in prolactin-secreting adenomas compared to other PitNET is now well established. Moreover, although DAs therapy does not represent the first-line therapy for other PitNET, off-label use of DAs is considered in PitNET expressing D2DR. Nevertheless, DAs primary or secondary resistance, occurring in a subset of patients, may involve several molecular mechanisms, presently not fully elucidated. Dopamine receptors (DRs) expression is a prerequisite for a proper DA function in PitNET and several molecular events may negatively modify DR membrane expression, through the DRs down-regulation and intracellular trafficking, and DR signal transduction pathway. The current mini-review will summarise the presently known molecular events that underpin the unsuccessful therapy with DAs.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Bo Wang ◽  
Zhuoshu Li ◽  
Longfei Mao ◽  
Mingyi Zhao ◽  
Bingchang Yang ◽  

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Hydrogen is a chemical substance that has yet to be widely used in medicine. However, recent evidence indicates that hydrogen has multi-faceted pharmacological effects such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. An increased number of studies are being conducted on the application of hydrogen in various diseases, especially those affecting the renal system. <b><i>Summary:</i></b> Hydrogen can be inhaled, as a gas or liquid, and can be administered orally, intravenously, or locally. Hydrogen can rapidly enter suborganelles such as mitochondria and nucleus by simple diffusion, producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and triggering DNA damage. Hydrogen can selectively scavenge hydroxyl radical (•OH) and peroxynitrite (ONOO<sup>−</sup>), but not other reactive oxygen radicals with physiological functions, such as peroxyanion (O<sub>2</sub><sup>−</sup>) and hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>). Although the regulatory effect of hydrogen on the signal transduction pathway has been confirmed, the specific mechanism of its influence on signal molecules remains unknown. Although many studies have investigated the therapeutic and preventive effects of H<sub>2</sub> in cellular and animal experiments, clinical trials are few and still far behind. As a result, more clinical trials are required to investigate the role of hydrogen in kidney disease, as well as the effect of its dose, timing, and form on the overall efficacy. Large-scale randomized controlled clinical trials will be required before hydrogen can be used to treat renal illnesses. <b><i>Key Messages:</i></b> This article reviews the mechanisms of hydrogen in the treatment of renal disease and explores the possibilities of its use in clinical practice.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 756
Chengjie Xu ◽  
Mingzhao Luo ◽  
Xianjun Sun ◽  
Jiji Yan ◽  
Huawei Shi ◽  

Salt stress is a major threat to crop quality and yield. Most experiments on salt stress-related genes have been conducted at the laboratory or greenhouse scale. Consequently, there is a lack of research demonstrating the merit of exploring these genes in field crops. Here, we found that the R2R3-MYB transcription factor SiMYB19 from foxtail millet is expressed mainly in the roots and is induced by various abiotic stressors such as salt, drought, low nitrogen, and abscisic acid. SiMYB19 is tentatively localized to the nucleus and activates transcription. It enhances salt tolerance in transgenic rice at the germination and seedling stages. SiMYB19 overexpression increased shoot height, grain yield, and salt tolerance in field- and salt pond-grown transgenic rice. SiMYB19 overexpression promotes abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in transgenic rice and upregulates the ABA synthesis gene OsNCED3 and the ABA signal transduction pathway-related genes OsPK1 and OsABF2. Thus, SiMYB19 improves salt tolerance in transgenic rice by regulating ABA synthesis and signal transduction. Using rice heterologous expression analysis, the present study introduced a novel candidate gene for improving salt tolerance and increasing yield in crops grown in saline-alkali soil.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 581
Juanjuan Ma ◽  
Lingling Xie ◽  
Qian Zhao ◽  
Yiting Sun ◽  
Dong Zhang

Cyclanilide (CYC), a plant growth regulator, is a potent shoot branching agent in apple. However, its mechanism remains unclear. The current study revealed that CYC treatment resulted in massive reprogramming of the axillary bud transcriptome, implicating several hormones in the response. We observed a marked increase (approximately 2-fold) in the level of zeatin riboside and a significant decrease (approximately 2-fold) in the level of abscisic acid (ABA). Zeatin metabolism gene cytokinin (CTK) oxidase 1 (CKX 1) was down-regulated at 168 h after CYC treatment compared with the control. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis of differentially expressed genes demonstrated the turquoise module clusters exhibited the highest positive correlation with zeatin riboside (r = 0.92) and the highest negative correlation with ABA (r = −0.8). A total of 37 genes were significantly enriched in the plant hormone signal transduction pathway in the turquoise module. Among them, the expressions of CTK receptor genes WOODEN LEG and the CTK type-A response regulators genes ARR3 and ARR9 were up-regulated. ABA signal response genes protein phosphatase 2C genes ABI2 and ABI5 were down-regulated in lateral buds after CYC treatment at 168 h. In addition, exogenous application of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA, a synthetic type of CTK) and CYC enhanced the inducing effect of CYC, whereas exogenous application of lovastatin (a synthetic type of inhibitor of CTK biosynthesis) or ABA and CYC weakened the promoting effect of CYC. These results collectively revealed that the stimulation of bud growth by CYC might involve CTK biosynthesis and signalling, including genes CKX1 and ARR3/9, which provided a direction for further study of the branching promoting mechanism of CYC.

2022 ◽  
Dipak K. Sahoo ◽  
Dana C. Borcherding ◽  
Lawrance Chandra ◽  
Albert E. Jergens ◽  
Todd Atherly ◽  

Abstract Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is associated with chronic intestinal inflammation and promotes intestinal cancer progression in the gut. While the interplay between LPS and intestinal immune cells has been well characterized, little is known about LPS and intestinal epithelium interactions. In this study, we explored the differential effect of LPS on proliferation and the transcriptome in 3D enteroids/colonoids obtained from dogs with naturally occurring gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and GI mast cell tumor. The study objective was to analyze LPS-induced modulation of signaling pathways involving the intestinal epithelia and critical to colorectal cancer development in the context of IBD or a tumor microenvironment. While LPS incubation resulted in a pro-cancer gene expression pattern and stimulated proliferation of IBD enteroids and colonoids, down-regulation of several cancer-associated genes like CRYZL1, Gpatch4, SLC7A1, ATP13A2, and ZNF358 was also observed in tumor enteroids. Genes participating in porphyrin metabolism (CP), thiamine and purine metabolism (TAP2, EEF1A1), arachidonic acid, and glutathione metabolism (GPX1) exhibited a similar pattern of altered expression between IBD enteroids and IBD colonoids following LPS stimulation. In contrast, genes involved in anion transport, transcription and translation, apoptotic processes, and regulation of adaptive immune responses showed opposite expression patterns between IBD enteroids and colonoids following LPS treatment. In brief, the cross-talk between LPS/TLR4 signal transduction pathway and several metabolic pathways, such as fatty acid degradation and biosynthesis, and purine, thiamine, arachidonic acid, and glutathione metabolism, may be important in driving chronic intestinal inflammation and intestinal carcinogenesis.

PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e12684
Hansheng Li ◽  
Yuqiang Qiu ◽  
Gang Sun ◽  
Wei Ye

Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo (D. officinale) has promising lung moisturizing, detoxifying, and immune boosting properties. Light is an important factor influencing functional metabolite synthesis in D. officinale. The mechanisms by which lasers affect plants are different from those of ordinary light sources; lasers can effectively address the shortcomings of ordinary light sources and have significant interactions with plants. Different light treatments (white, blue, blue laser) were applied, and the number of red leaves under blue laser was greater than that under blue and white light. RNA-seq technology was used to analyze differences in D. officinale under different light treatments. The results showed 465, 2,107 and 1,453 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in LB-B, LB-W and W-B, respectively. GO, KEGG and other analyses of DEGs indicated that D. officinale has multiple blue laser response modes. Among them, the plasma membrane, cutin, suberine and wax biosynthesis, flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, heat shock proteins, etc. play central roles. Physiological and biochemical results verified that blue laser irradiation significantly increases POD, SOD, and PAL activities in D. officinale. The functional metabolite results showed that blue laser had the greatest promoting effect on total flavonoids, polysaccharides, and alkaloids. qPCR verification combined with other results suggested that CRY DASH, SPA1, HY5, and PIF4 in the blue laser signal transduction pathway affect functional metabolite accumulation in D. officinale through positively regulated expression patterns, while CO16 and MYC2 exhibit negatively regulated expression patterns. These findings provide new ideas for the efficient production of metabolites in D. officinale.

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