Forty-two samples of Tiaca Honey (Caldcluvia paniculata) obtained from beehives belonging to 14 apiaries (three honey samples per apiary) were collected at the end of January near Osorno (40°34′ S, 73°8′ W), Puyehue (40°40′ S, 72°37′ W) and Frutillar 41°7′ S, 72°59′ W) covering an area of 1240 km2. They presented the highest phenol contents (0.36 mg gallic acid equivalent/kg) and antioxidant power (1.27 mM equivalent of Fe+2/g of sample), and were among the highest for antiradical activity. Phenol contents and antioxidant power (r = 0.72, p-value < 0.01) and total phenol contents and antiradical activity (r = 0.69; p-value < 0.01) displayed linear correlations. Only two beeswax samples showed residues of the pesticide fenhexamid. The respective sites (Purranque [40°55′ S, 73°10′ W] and Coligual [40°49′ S, 72°54′ W]) were the only areas located near active farms. Additionally, the m/z value 163.1091 was found as an element to identify honeys. Data were used to construct a mapped suitability index ranking for pesticide-free areas with high biological quality. The provided chemical profiles will aid local beekeepers in obtaining international certifications, particularly for the EU market. In turn, the constructed maps indicate suitable areas for apiculture expansion, while differentiated pesticide detection in honey and beeswax requires further comparative research.
Enrichment or depletion ranging from −40 to +100% in the major isotopes 16O and 24Mg were observed experimentally in solids condensed from carbonaceous plasma composed of CO2/MgCl2/Pentanol or N2O/Pentanol for O and MgCl2/Pentanol for Mg. In NanoSims imaging, isotope effects appear as micrometer-size hotspots embedded in a carbonaceous matrix showing no isotope fractionation. For Mg, these hotspots are localized in carbonaceous grains, which show positive and negative isotopic effects so that the whole grain has a standard isotope composition. For O, no specific structure was observed at hotspot locations. These results suggest that MIF (mass-independent fractionation) effects can be induced by chemical reactions taking place in plasma. The close agreement between the slopes of the linear correlations observed between δ25Mg versus δ26Mg and between δ17O versus δ18O and the slopes calculated using the empirical MIF factor η discovered in ozone [M. H. Thiemens, J. E. Heidenreich, III. Science 219, 1073–1075; C. Janssen, J. Guenther, K. Mauersberger, D. Krankowsky. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 3, 4718–4721] attests to the ubiquity of this process. Although the chemical reactants used in the present experiments cannot be directly transposed to the protosolar nebula, a similar MIF mechanism is proposed for oxygen isotopes: at high temperature, at the surface of grains, a mass-independent isotope exchange could have taken place between condensing oxides and oxygen atoms originated form the dissociation of CO or H2O gas.
Salt marshes serve as zones of intense groundwater mixing and reaction between freshwater uplands and estuaries. This raises the question of whether the impacts of upland development on nutrient and carbon species can be transmitted through salt marshes via groundwater, or whether salt marshes can buffer estuarine waters from coastal development. We sampled groundwater from fifteen tidal creek basins in South Carolina to test for compositional differences associated with development and marsh width. Groundwater samples from near creekbanks and below freshwater uplands were analyzed for salinity, total dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus, and dissolved organic carbon. Analyses revealed significantly higher TDN and TDP concentrations in creekbank samples from developed watersheds, independent of the season. Analyses of upland samples revealed significantly lower DOC concentrations in developed uplands, again independent of season. These results support the hypothesis that development can affect groundwater compositions in coastal groundwater and therefore may affect coastal nutrient and carbon fluxes. However, results also revealed significant linear correlations between marsh width, salinity, and nutrient concentrations in some marshes. These results suggest that salt marshes can act as buffers for development, and specifically suggests that the buffering capacity of salt marshes increases with width. Narrow or trenched salt marshes are far less likely to be effective buffers.
Using latest 32 years (1964-95) data, upper air temperatures and zonal and meridional components of winds of several selected stations for various standard isobaric levels (850 to 10 hPa) are screened for the pre-monsoon months of April & May in order to study their association with onset date of southwest monsoon at Delhi. Data for temperature and wind components for May for several stations exhibit significant correlations with onset-date. Some well known parameters presently in use in long range forecast models of monsoon seasonal rainfall have also been screened similarly. With a multiple regression technique, equations have been developed using suitable parameters from those which showed significant linear correlations.
ABSTRACT .The tropospheric mean monthly thickness anomalies of northern Indian stations of selected layers for the months April to July for a 28 years (1968-95) period have been analysed. The thickness anomalies of April and May exhibit significant persistence through July. Also the thickness anomalies of different layers for the months May-July are found to have generally significant (5% to 0.1% level) linear correlations with the succeeding all India seasonal monsoon rainfall. Out of different layers and all the months analysed, the thickness anomalies of 850-300 and 850-100 hPa layers for May are found to have maximum correlations (significant at 0.1% level). From linear and multiple regression results, 850-300 hPa thickness anomaly is seen to be a useful predictor for long range prediction of Indian monsoon rainfall.
This is an informal and sketchy review of five topical, somewhat unrelated subjects in quantitative finance and econophysics: (i) models of price changes; (ii) linear correlations and random matrix theory; (iii) non-linear dependence copulas; (iv) high-frequency trading and market stability; and finally—but perhaps most importantly—(v) “radical complexity” that prompts a scenario-based approach to macroeconomics heavily relying on Agent-Based Models. Some open questions and future research directions are outlined.
Vegetable food stuff produced under controlled and identical conditions from one farm of identical “age” (batch) has a similar isotopic composition. This fact can be used to control the origin of vegetables. This question is of special relevance when food-contaminations have to be traced back to the producer, or certain production claims have to be controlled. However, as vegetables are harvested, brought to whole-sale merchants and to retail shops, where they remain until being bought by the consumer, one has to consider possible changes in isotopic composition during this transfer period, when comparing vegetables of questioned origin with reference samples taken directly from the field/producer. We investigated changes in the isotope composition of vegetables during storage by studying as an example cucumbers from one batch. We stored the cucumbers in a vegetable storage under controlled conditions and removed one sample every day and analyzed its isotopic composition. We found changes in the δ15N and δ18O isotope values over the investigated period of 21 days, with both parameters showing positive linear correlations, and maximum enrichments with time of more than 1.5‰ for δ15N and more than 2‰ for δ18O. However, within the interval the samples remained in a saleable condition the isotope variations remained more or less within the variability of the sample batch. Our study demonstrates that changes in the isotopic signature in vegetables might occur after harvest during storage and have to be taken into account when (commercial) samples collected in a market are investigated.
Recent works shed light on the neural correlates of true and false recognition and the influence of time of day on cognitive performance. The current study aimed to investigate the modulation of the false memory formation by the time of day using a non-linear correlation analysis originally designed for fMRI resting-state data. Fifty-four young and healthy participants (32 females, mean age: 24.17 ± 3.56 y.o.) performed in MR scanner the modified Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm in short-term memory during one session in the morning and another in the evening. Subjects’ responses were modeled with a general linear model, which includes as a predictor the non-linear correlations of regional BOLD activity with the stimuli, separately for encoding and retrieval phases. The results show the dependence of the non-linear correlations measures with the time of day and the type of the probe. In addition, the results indicate differences in the correlations measures with hippocampal regions between positive and lure probes. Besides confirming previous results on the influence of time-of-day on cognitive performance, the study demonstrates the effectiveness of the non-linear correlation analysis method for the characterization of fMRI task paradigms.
The present review discusses a new viewpoint on refractometry as the oldest experimental physical method, whose scientific potential in the estimation of structural effects in organic chemistry has been missed so far. The author demonstrates that upon certain adjustment and redesign of refractometry, this potential can be tapped and successfully used to determine a type of Π-electron interaction, delocalization degree of Π-electrons in organic compounds, and to perform quantitative estimates of resonance effects in unsaturated, (polycyclic) aromatic, and other polyconjugated systems (e.g., fullerenes). The method for accurate separation of molar refraction into additive and constitutive components was suggested; the method is based on the specially developed additive scheme. It was revealed that the negative deviations from additivity for cycloalkanes depend linearly on the number of carbon atoms in the ring. Excellent linear correlations between renewed optical exaltations, the number of Π-electrons in a conjugated system, and experimentally found resonance energy (determined from hydrogenation heat values) were demonstrated. Angular coefficients of the correlation series (ρ-constants) are considered as a criterion of classification, which characterizes the degree of mobility of Π-electrons in the conjugated system of a given type. It is emphasized that the development of methods for precise measurement of the constitutive components of molar refraction may become a useful additional source of information about resonance and other effects in organic and polymer chemistry.