Elevated Lipid
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2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 1212-1217
Jessica Herlianez Saiful ◽  
Rina Gustia

Background: Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis disease of childhood. But due to rarity of non Langerhans cell hystiosis itself, the exact prevalence of juvenile xanthogranuloma remain unknown with only a few epidemiological journal ever published. Juvenile xanthogranuloma usually wihout lipid abnormality and systemic involvement. But association between JXG and lipid abnormalities is still not well understood. We describe a patient with multiple cutaneous JXG who also developed hyperlipidemia. Case: A case of a  8 months-old baby patient with juvenile xanthogranuloma is reported.  Patient parents noticed yellowish dots on child’s face since six months ago, and it was gradually increase in size and number, and spread to trunks, upper and lower limb since 2 months ago. Patients got formula milk since 7 months ago. Patients father has uncontrolled hypercholesterolemia, and grandparents  had controlled dyslipidemia. Dermatological state showed yellowish plaque and papule on the face, trunk, lower limb, and upper limb. Dermoscopy show yellowish papule with sun setting appearance and branched and linear vessel on orange yellow background. Laboratory finding showed  elevated lipid serum. Foam cell and Touton giant  cell is found on histopathology examination. Discussion: The presented case demonstrates that skin lesions in patients with diagnosed JXG may have a variable clinical presentation, ranging from single to diffuse skin lesions, also present from the birth to childhood. The diagnosis requires histopathological confirmation to avoid misdiagnosis of malignant disease. Association between JXG and lipid abnormalities remain unknown, with most of the patient show normal  lipid serum. Majority of patients presenting lesions limited to the skin requires only a strict dermatological observation.

Basma S. Ismail ◽  
Eman S. Abdel-Reheim ◽  
Hanan A. Soliman ◽  
Basant Mahmoud

Liver is considered as significant organ within body. Aims: Our survey aimed in illustrating protective effectiveness of gallic acid (GA) against high fat regimen nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Study design: In our study, Rats were classified into 3 groups; control, orally given fatty-sucrosed diet, gallic acid treated groups. Methodology: They were evaluated through measuring hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases and gammaglutamyl-transferase; total, direct and indirect bilirubin; total protein, albumin and globulin; hepatic and adipose malondialdehyde, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activities; glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin and adiponectin; tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-17 and interleukin-1beta; fatty acid synthase, acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase-α  and HMGCoA reductase. Results: Our results demonstrated that GA ameliorated the elevated lipid, serum liver function enzymes, bilirubin and the decreased L.glycogen levels and serum protein profile. GA improved the hepatic and adipose antioxidants activities by decreasing MDA and increasing GST, SOD, Cat, GSH and GPx activities. GA ameliorated the elevated Glu, INS, HOMA-IR, LEP and the decreased adiponectin levels. Moreover, GA ameliorated the elevated TNF-α, IL-17, IL-1β, FAS, ACC-α and HMGCR levels. Liver and adipose histopathologies confirmed our results. Conclusion: Gallic acid intake exhibited a beneficial therapeutic effect on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease rats as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent.

2021 ◽  
Yasumasa Okazaki ◽  
Kanako Sasaki ◽  
Nanami Ito ◽  
Hiromasa Tanaka ◽  
Ken-Ichiro Matsumoto ◽  

Abstract Non-thermal plasma (NTP) devices have been explored for medical applications. NTP devices discharge electrons, positive ions, ultraviolet, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), such as the hydroxyl radical (●OH), singlet oxygen (1O2), superoxide (O2●−), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ozone, and nitric oxide, at near-physiological temperature. At preclinical stages or in human clinical trials, NTP promotes blood coagulation, eradication of bacterial, viral, and biofilm-related infections, wound healing, and cancer cell death. Here, we observed that ferric, vanadium, and gold(III) ions, measured by 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in combination with NTP exposure, significantly elevated lipid peroxidation. Using 3,3,5,5-tetramethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (M4PO) as a spin probe in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), we observed that tetrachloroaurate (III) yielded an M4PO-X spin adduct. Tetrachloroaurate-induced oxidation was attenuated efficiently by reduced (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), while glycine (Gly) and L-glutamate (Glu), components of GSH, were ineffective. Furthermore, GSH and GSSG efficiently suppressed tetrachloroaurate-induced lipid peroxidation, while Gly and Glu were ineffective in suppressing TBARS elevation. These results indicate that tetrachloroaurate-induced oxidation is attenuated by GSH as well as GSSG. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the redox reactions between metal ions and biomolecules to advance the clinical application of NTP.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
pp. 282-288
Taiwo A. Abayomi

Background: Though the neuroprotective roles of ascorbic acid are well established, the therapeutic role of nicotine in various neurological disorders is attracting increasing attention. This study evaluated the putative ameliorative role of the synergetic treatment of nicotine and ascorbic acid against neurodegenerative consequences associated with free radical species and amyloid plaques generation in adult male Wistar rats Methods: A total of 35 Wistar rats were distributed into five groups labeled A-E. Group A served as the control group; animals in group B were treated with 100mg/kg body weight of aluminium chloride (AlCl3) for 21 days. Group C animals were treated with 100mg/kg body weight of aluminium chloride for 21 days and post-treated with 14mg/kg body weight of nicotine for 21 days. Group D was treated with 100mg/kg body weight of aluminium chloride for 21 days and post-treated with 100mg/kg bodyweight of ascorbic acid for 21 days. Group E animals were treated with 100mg/kg body weight of aluminium chloride for 21 days and post-treated with 100mg/kg bodyweight of ascorbic acid and 14mg/kg body weight of nicotine. On completion of treatments, the prefrontal cortex was excised and processed for biochemical and histochemical examinations. Results: Oxidative stress was evident from the diminished level of catalase and glutathione per oxidase and elevated lipid peroxidation levels in animals administered with aluminium in addition to the presence of amyloid plaques in these animals. However, synergetic administration of ascorbic acid and nicotine attenuated these oxidative and histochemical perturbations induced by aluminium. Conclusion: Synergetic treatment with ascorbic acid and nicotine provided better ameliorative potential against aluminium-induced neurotoxicity compared to either ascorbic acid or nicotine treatments alone

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 450-464
Renu Tripathi ◽  
Swati Agarwal ◽  
Syed Ibrahim Rizvi ◽  
Neetu * Mishra

Mercury is a harmful toxic pollutant, which has hepato-nephrotoxic, hematotoxic, genotoxic and neurotoxic, effects. The aim of the study was to evaluate the protective efficacy of wheatgrass on mercuric chloride (HgCl2) induced oxidative stress and associated complications in rat model. Albino rats were divided into four groups (three rats per group). Group I normal control group. Group II oxidative stressed group received mercuric chloride (0.5 mg/kg/day). Group III only received wheatgrass extract (100 mg/kg/day), whereas Group IV received wheatgrass (100 mg/kg/day) after one hour, followed by mercuric chloride (0.5 mg/kg/day) for 30 days. The results of the study showed that wheatgrass supplementation significantly decreased the HgCl2 induced elevated oxidative stress parameters Plasma Malondialdehyde (MDA) content, Plasma membrane redox system (PMRS), Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), simultaneously elevated lipid profile (Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), liver enzymes as, Plasma Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Serum Urea, and Creatinine levels in rats. In addition, wheatgrass treatment improved the antioxidant status in terms of intracellular Reduced Glutathione (GSH), Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2, 2- diphenyl -1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Therefore it can be concluded that wheatgrass has great potential to diminish the stress-mediated complications and improve the antioxidant status.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Jill M. Maples ◽  
Samantha F. Ehrlich ◽  
Nikki B. Zite ◽  
Kevin J. Pearson ◽  
W. Todd Cade ◽  

Abstract Background Deviations from gestational weight gain (GWG) recommendations are associated with unfavorable maternal and neonatal outcomes. There is a need to understand how maternal substrate metabolism, independent of weight status, may contribute to GWG and neonatal outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential link between maternal lipid oxidation rate, GWG, and neonatal anthropometric outcomes. Methods Women (N = 32) with a lean pre-pregnancy BMI were recruited during late pregnancy and substrate metabolism was assessed using indirect calorimetry, before and after consumption of a high-fat meal. GWG was categorized as follows: inadequate, adequate, or excess. Shortly after delivery (within 48 h), neonatal anthropometrics were obtained. Results Using ANOVA, we found that fasting maternal lipid oxidation rate (grams/minute) was higher (p = 0.003) among women with excess GWG (0.1019 ± 0.0416) compared to women without excess GWG (inadequate = 0.0586 ± 0.0273, adequate = 0.0569 ± 0.0238). Findings were similar when lipid oxidation was assessed post-meal and also when expressed relative to kilograms of fat free mass. Absolute GWG was positively correlated to absolute lipid oxidation expressed in grams/minute at baseline (r = 0.507, p = 0.003), 2 h post-meal (r = 0.531, p = 0.002), and 4 h post-meal (r = 0.546, p = 0.001). Fasting and post-meal lipid oxidation (grams/minute) were positively correlated to neonatal birthweight (fasting r = 0.426, p = 0.015; 2-hour r = 0.393, p = 0.026; 4-hour r = 0.540, p = 0.001) and also to neonatal absolute fat mass (fasting r = 0.493, p = 0.004; 2-hour r = 0.450, p = 0.010; 4-hour r = 0.552, p = 0.001). Conclusions A better understanding of the metabolic profile of women during pregnancy may be critical in truly understanding a woman’s risk of GWG outside the recommendations. GWG counseling during prenatal care may need to be tailored to women based not just on their weight status, but other metabolic characteristics.

2021 ◽  
Vol In Press (In Press) ◽  
Mehdi Evazalipour ◽  
Pouya Safarzadeh Kozani ◽  
Pooria Safarzadeh Kozani ◽  
Sahar Shabani ◽  
Bahar Rezaei Soufi ◽  

Background: Stress-induced cellular senescence is a perpetual state of cell cycle arrest occurring in proliferating cells in response to stressful conditions. It is believed that oxidative stress plays a unique role in this process. As a reactive chemical compound that can induce oxidative stress, acrylamide is widely applied in several fields. Carvacrol is a liquid phenolic monoterpenoid found in essential oils of some plants and is known for its antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of carvacrol on oxidative stress and cellular senescence induced by acrylamide in the NIH 3T3 cell line. Methods: NIH 3T3 embryonic fibroblast cells were exposed to different concentrations of acrylamide, carvacrol, and H2O2 in a cell culture medium. The level of β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, as a marker of cellular senescence, was measured using staining and quantitative assays. Furthermore, to measure oxidative stress parameters, the content of glutathione and lipid peroxidation were determined. Results: Acrylamide could induce premature senescence evident by the elevated lipid peroxidation and SA-β-gal activity and declined cell viability and glutathione. Moreover, carvacrol showed beneficial effects on both acrylamide- and H2O2-induced cellular senescence by significantly reversing or subsiding the effect of oxidative stress and mediating its consequences. Conclusions: It can be concluded that carvacrol has protective effects against oxidative cellular senescence induced by acrylamide in the NIH 3T3 cell line.

2021 ◽  
Yaakov Nahmias ◽  
Avner Ehrlich ◽  
Konstantinos Ioannidis ◽  
Makram Nasar ◽  
Ismaeel Abu Alkian ◽  

Abstract Viruses are efficient metabolic engineers that actively rewire host metabolic pathways to support their lifecycle, presenting attractive metabolic targets for intervention. Here we chart the metabolic response of lung epithelial cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection in primary cultures and COVID-19 patient samples. Bulk and single-cell analyses show that viral replication induces endoplasmic stress and lipid accumulation. Protein expression screen suggests a role for viral proteins in mediating this metabolic response even in the absence of replication. Metabolism-focused drug screen showed that fenofibrate reversed lipid accumulation and blocked SARS-CoV-2 replication. Analysis of 3,233 Israeli patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 supported in vitro findings. Patients taking fibrates showed significantly lower markers of immunoinflammation and faster recovery. Additional corroboration was received by comparative epidemiological analysis from cohorts in Europe and the United States. A subsequent prospective interventional open-label study was carried out in 15 patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19. The patients were treated with 145 mg/day of nanocrystallized fenofibrate (TriCor®) in addition to standard-of-care. Patients receiving fenofibrate demonstrated a rapid reduction in inflammation and a significantly faster recovery compared to control patients admitted during the same period and treated with the standard-of-care. Taken together, our data show that elevated lipid metabolism underlies critical aspects of COVID-19 pathogenesis, suggesting that pharmacological modulation of lipid metabolism should be strongly considered for the treatment of coronavirus infection.

Kai Chen ◽  
Xiaobing Jiang ◽  
Moxin Wu ◽  
Xianming Cao ◽  
Wendai Bao ◽  

Cell death is a common phenomenon in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the mechanism of triggering the death of neuronal cells remains unclear. Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent lipid peroxidation-driven cell death and emerging evidences have demonstrated the involvement of ferroptosis in the pathological process of AD. Moreover, several hallmarks of AD pathogenesis were consistent with the characteristics of ferroptosis, such as excess iron accumulation, elevated lipid peroxides, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) levels. Besides, some ferroptosis inhibitors can relieve AD-related pathological symptoms in AD mice and exhibit potential clinical benefits in AD patients. Therefore, ferroptosis is gradually being considered as a distinct cell death mechanism in the pathogenesis of AD. However, direct evidence is still lacking. In this review, we summarize the features of ferroptosis in AD, its underlying mechanisms in AD pathology, and review the application of ferroptosis inhibitors in both AD clinical trials and mice/cell models, to provide valuable information for future treatment and prevention of this devastating disease.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Amir Hadi ◽  
Makan Pourmasoumi ◽  
Ameneh Najafgholizadeh ◽  
Cain C. T. Clark ◽  
Ahmad Esmaillzadeh

Abstract Background Elevated lipid profiles and impaired glucose homeostasis are risk factors for several cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which, subsequently, represent a leading cause of early mortality, worldwide. The aim of the current study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of apple cider vinegar (ACV) on lipid profiles and glycemic parameters in adults. Methods A systematic search was conducted in electronic databases, including Medline, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Web of Knowledge, from database inception to January 2020. All clinical trials which investigated the effect of ACV on lipid profiles and glycemic indicators were included. Studies were excluded if ACV was used in combination with other interventions or when the duration of intervention was < 2 weeks. To account for between-study heterogeneity, we performed meta-analysis using a random-effects model. Results Overall, nine studies, including 10 study arms, were included in this meta-analysis. We found that ACV consumption significantly decreased serum total cholesterol (− 6.06 mg/dL; 95% CI: − 10.95, − 1.17; I2: 39%), fasting plasma glucose (− 7.97 mg/dL; 95% CI: − 13.74, − 2.21; I2: 75%), and HbA1C concentrations (− 0.50; 95% CI: − 0.90, − 0.09; I2: 91%). No significant effect of ACV consumption was found on serum LDL-C, HDL-C, fasting insulin concentrations, or HOMA-IR. The stratified analysis revealed a significant reduction of serum TC and TG in a subgroup of patients with type 2 diabetes, those who took ≤15 mL/day of ACV, and those who consumed ACV for > 8-weeks, respectively. Furthermore, ACV consumption significantly decreased FPG levels in a subgroup of studies that administered ACV for > 8-weeks. Further, ACV intake appeared to elicit an increase in FPG and HDL-C concentrations in apparently healthy participants. Conclusion We found a significant favorable effect of ACV consumption on FPG and blood lipid levels.

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