signal frequency
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Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 504
Ranran Zhao ◽  
Yuming Zhang ◽  
Hongliang Lv ◽  
Yue Wu

This paper realized a charge pump phase locked loop (CPPLL) frequency source circuit based on 0.15 μm Win GaAs pHEMT process. In this paper, an improved fully differential edge-triggered frequency discriminator (PFD) and an improved differential structure charge pump (CP) are proposed respectively. In addition, a low noise voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) and a static 64:1 frequency divider is realized. Finally, the phase locked loop (PLL) is realized by cascading each module. Measurement results show that the output signal frequency of the proposed CPPLL is 3.584 GHz–4.021 GHz, the phase noise at the frequency offset of 1 MHz is −117.82 dBc/Hz, and the maximum output power is 4.34 dBm. The chip area is 2701 μm × 3381 μm, and the power consumption is 181 mw.

Micromachines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 85
Saifur Rahman ◽  
Farman Ali ◽  
Fazal Muhammad ◽  
Muhammad Irfan ◽  
Adam Glowacz ◽  

Hundreds of kilometers of optical fibers are installed for optical meshes (OMs) to transmit data over long distances. The visualization of these deployed optical fibers is a highlighted issue because the conventional procedure can only measure the optical losses. Thus, this paper presents distributed vibration sensing (DVS) estimation mechanisms to visualize the optical fiber behavior installed for OMs which is not possible by conventional measurements. The proposed technique will detect the power of light inside the optical fiber, as well as different physical parameters such as the phase of transmitted light inside the thread, the frequency of vibration, and optical losses. The applicability of optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) and optical time-domain reflectometry (OTDR) DVS techniques are validated theoretically for various state detection procedures in optical fibers. The simulation model is investigated in terms of elapsed time, the spectrum of a light signal, frequency, and the impact of many external physical accidents with optical fibers.

2021 ◽  
Shravan Kumar Donthula ◽  
Supravat Debnath

This paper describes the implementation of a 4-channel, 10-bit, 1 GS/s time-interleaved analog to digital converter (TI-ADC) in 65nm CMOS technology. Each channel consists of interleaved T/H and ADC array operating at 250 MS/s, with each ADC array containing 14 timeinterleaved sub-ADCs. This configuration provides high sampling rate even though each subADC works at a moderate sampling rate. We have selected 10-bit successive approximation ADC (SAR ADC) as a sub-ADC, since this architecture is most suitable for low power and medium resolution. SAR ADC works on binary search algorithm, since it resolves 1-bit at a time. The target sampling rate was 20 MS/s in this design, however the sampling rate achieved is 15 MS/s. As a result, the 10-bit SAR ADC operates at 15 MS/s with power consumption of 560 μW at 1.2 V supply and achieves SNDR of 57 dB (i.e. ENOB 9.2 bits) near nyquist rate input. The resulting Figure of Merit (FoM) is 63.5 fJ/step. The achieved DNL and INL is +0.85\-0.9 LSB and +1\-1.1 LSB respectively. The 10-bit SAR ADC occupies an active area of 300 μm × 440 μm. The functionality of single channel TI-SAR ADC has been verified by simulation with input signal frequency of 33.2 MHz and clock frequency of 250 MHz. The desired SNDR of 59.3 dB has been achieved with power consumption of 11.6 mW. This results in a FoM value of 60 fJ/step.

2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (4) ◽  
pp. 452-461
Leonid Nikolaevich Kazakov ◽  
Evgenii Pavlovich Kubyshkin ◽  
Ilya Victorovich Lukyanov

Research in the field of efficient frequency estimation algorithms is of great interest. The reason for this is the redistribution of the role of additive and phase noise in many modern radio-engineering applications. An example is the area of measuring radio devices, which usually operate at high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). The estimation error is largely determined not by the broadband noise, but by the frequency and phase noise of the local oscillators of the receiving and transmitting devices. In particular, earlier works \\cite{Nikiforov} proposed an efficient computational algorithm for estimating the frequency of a quasi-harmonic signal based on the iterative calculation of the autocorrelation sequence (ACS). In \\cite{Volkov}, this algorithm was improved and its proximity to the Rao-Cramer boundary was shown (the sources of this noise are master oscillators and frequency synthesizers). Possibilities of frequency estimation in radio channels make it possible to significantly expand the functionality of the entire radio network. This can include, for example, the problem of adaptive distribution of information flows of a radio network. This also includes the tasks of synchronization and coherent signal processing. For these reasons, more research is needed on this algorithm, the calculation of theoretical boundaries and their comparison with the simulation results.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (4B) ◽  
Sumithra G ◽  
Meganathan D ◽  

In shallow water applications, multipath signal propagation is a major concern for robust communication. Multipath signal propagation is not explicitly seen in the channel, even though it is a main contributor for signal degradation. This fact motivated us to simulate multipath patterns to understand its influence in short-range communication. In this paper, a three-path signal propagation model is presented, where, besides the line of sight (LOS) signal, other two non-line of sight (NLOS) signals contact any point of channel boundary to reach the receiver. In simulation, the combination of eight possible multipath patterns is converged to estimate the received signal. A source fixed in water-tank periodically transmits low frequency acoustic signals 1 kHz and 1.5 kHz to the channel, and the receiver records them. The experiment was repeated for various input signal strengths. It has been observed that the simulation results coincide with the measured values. The good reception is noticed for signal frequency 1 kHz at 2.5m and 1.5 kHz at 1.2m. This study identifies the optimal signal strength for better signal reception in short range, which drives to the establishment of high-quality communication in shallow water.

Machines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 315
Yanqing Zhao ◽  
Kondo H. Adjallah ◽  
Alexandre Sava ◽  
Zhouhang Wang

Four noise-assisted empirical mode decomposition (EMD) algorithms, i.e., ensemble EMD (EEMD), complementary ensemble EMD (CEEMD), complete ensemble EMD with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN), and improved complete ensemble EMD with adaptive noise (ICEEMDAN), are noticeable improvements to EMD, aimed at alleviating mode mixing. However, the sampling frequency ratio (SFR), i.e., the ratio between the sampling frequency and the maximum signal frequency, may significantly impact their mode mixing alleviation performance. Aimed at this issue, we investigated and compared the influence of the SFR on the mode mixing alleviation performance of these four noise-assisted EMD algorithms. The results show that for a given signal, (1) SFR has an aperiodic influence on the mode mixing alleviation performance of four noise-assisted EMD algorithms, (2) a careful selection of SFRs can significantly improve the mode mixing alleviation performance and avoid decomposition instability, and (3) ICEEMDAN has the best mode mixing alleviation performance at the optimal SFR among the four noise-assisted EMD algorithms. The applications include, for instance, tool wear monitoring in machining as well as fault diagnosis and prognosis of complex systems that rely on signal decomposition to extract the components corresponding to specific behaviors.

Rongjiang Tang ◽  
Yingxiang zuo ◽  
Weiya Liu ◽  
Liguo Tang ◽  
Weiguang Zheng ◽  

Abstract In this paper, we propose a compressed sensing (CS) sound source localization algorithm based on signal energy to solve the problem of stopping iteration condition of orthogonal matching pursuit reconstruction algorithm in compressed sensing. The orthogonal matching tracking algorithm needs to stop iteration according to the number of sound sources or the change of residual. Generally, the number of sound sources cannot be known in advance, and the residual often leads to unnecessary calculation. Because the sound source is sparsely distributed in space, and its energy is concentrated and higher than that of the environmental noise, the comparison of the signal energy at different positions in each iteration reconstruction signal is used to determine whether the new sound source is added in this iteration. At the same time, the block sparsity is introduced by using multiple frequency points to avoid the problem of different iteration times of different frequency points in the same frame caused by the uneven energy distribution in the signal frequency domain. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm retains the advantages of the orthogonal matching tracking sound source localization algorithm, and can complete the iteration well. Under the premise of not knowing the number of sound sources, the maximum error between the number of iterations and the set number of sound sources is 0.31.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2065 (1) ◽  
pp. 012007
Qinglong Li ◽  
Yong Xu ◽  
Qiao Li ◽  
Kun Peng ◽  
Xian Zhang

Abstract The demodulation circuit designed in this paper is suitable for the analog front end of passive UHF RFID tag chip, which can handle ASK signals with large changes in amplitude, modulation depth and signal frequency. Its performance meets the requirements of standards ISO/IEC 18000-6C and GB/T 29768-2013. Envelope detection circuit and limiter circuit are simple in structure and do not consume power. The comparison reference voltage is taken according to the average value of the envelope high and low levels, and is less affected by the dynamic changes of the input signal. Changing the width-to-length ratio of the MOSFETs in the feedback path of the comparator can adjust the hysteresis, with strong noise suppression and controllable sensitivity. The demodulator is implemented with TSMC 0.18 μm standard CMOS process. The simulation results show that the ASK signal modulation depth that the demodulator can handle is as low as 30%, and the maximum pulse width demodulation error is only 0.43%.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1199 (1) ◽  
pp. 012051
I Honcharuk ◽  
A Golovan ◽  
A Voloshyn ◽  
O Kostenko ◽  
O Deli

Abstract The paper presents the result of solving a relevant scientific and practical problem, which consists in the development of methods and diagnostic tools and improving the efficiency of monitoring the technical condition of transport equipment, in particular elements and units of marine railways, through the introduction of an automated system for diagnostics and monitoring of technical condition, which provides an increase in the reliability of diagnosis, reducing the time and cost of diagnostics. The analysis showed that the existing methods for determining the main parameters of the technical condition of elements and units of slips, which are the basis for reliable diagnostics of the technical condition, need to be improved. A method has been developed for monitoring the integrity of the main elements of marine railways based on the analysis of the temperature and natural vibration frequency of the main elements, which, in contrast to the existing methods, gives an error in measuring the signal frequency of less than 0.05%, which makes it possible to determine defects at early stages of their development.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1199 (1) ◽  
pp. 012090
M Duhancik ◽  
S Gaspar ◽  
T Coranic

Abstract The subject of the submitted paper is to provide a detailed description of simulation control of rotor position sensing of an asynchronous motor by an injection method of high-frequency analogue signal on supply signal frequency of up to 5 Hz, i.e., at zero and low speed. In general, contrary to discrete signal injection, the implementation of the method appears to be simpler for continual signal injection aimed at monitoring of asymmetry of rotary electric machines, however, the process of information gathering related to position of monitored asymmetries during signal reaction processing is more complicated. Genuine verification of the method requires designing a mathematical model of a motor including asymmetries caused by rotor grooving and by magnetic core saturation. The asymmetries occurring in asynchronous motors considerably influence the instant value of a stator induction LS. Asymmetries caused by magnetic circuit saturation were identified and eliminated because of inducing the measured signal distortion. The elimination method LMDEM is the method proposed for repressing the asymmetries. The asymmetries caused by rotor grooving are intended to detect the rotor position. In final part, mathematical functions will be used for converting the signal to rotor position.

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