kegg pathway
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Metabolites ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 79
Yaqiong Wu ◽  
Hao Yang ◽  
Zhengjin Huang ◽  
Chunhong Zhang ◽  
Lianfei Lyu ◽  

Blueberry belongs to the genus Vaccinium L. in the Ericaceae and is an economically important shrub that produces small berries that are rich in nutrients. There were differences in the appearance of blueberry leaves under different shade treatments. To explore the differences in metabolites in blueberry leaves under different shading treatments, nontargeted liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) metabonomic analysis was performed. Different shade intensities resulted in significant differences in the contents of metabolites. A total of 6879 known metabolites were detected, including 750 significantly differentially expressed metabolites, including mainly lipids and lipid-like molecules and phenylpropanoid and polyketide superclass members. Based on a Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, the flavone and flavonol biosynthesis pathways were the most significantly enriched. The results of this study provide a reference and scientific basis for the establishment of a high-quality and high-yield shaded blueberry cultivation system.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Xianhui Liu ◽  
Weiyu Zhang ◽  
Huanrui Wang ◽  
Lin Zhu ◽  
Kexin Xu

BackgroundPrevious reports have shown that short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADSB) plays an important role in glioma, but its role in clear cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC) has not been reported.MethodsThe TIMER and UALCAN databases were used for pan-cancer analysis. RNA sequencing and microarray data of patients with ccRCC were downloaded from the Cancer Genome Atlas and Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differential expression of ACADSB in ccRCC and normal kidney tissues was tested. Correlations between ACADSB expression and clinicopathological parameters were assessed using the Wilcoxon test. The influences of ACADSB expression and clinicopathological parameters on overall survival were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed to explore the associated gene sets enriched in different ACADSB expression phenotypes. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed on genes with similar expression patterns to ACADSB. Correlations between ACADSB and ferroptosis-related genes were assessed using Spearman’s correlation analysis.ResultsPan-cancer analysis revealed that ACADSB is down-regulated in multiple cancers, and decreased expression of ACADSB correlates with poor prognosis in certain types of cancer. Differential expression analyses revealed that ACADSB was down-regulated in ccRCC, indicating that ACADSB expression could be a single significant parameter to discriminate between normal and tumor tissues. Clinical association analysis indicated that decreased ACADSB expression was associated with high tumor stage and grade. The Cox regression model indicated that low ACADSB expression was an independent risk factor for the overall survival of patients with ccRCC. GSEA showed that 10 gene sets, including fatty acid (FA) metabolism, were differentially enriched in the ACADSB high expression phenotype. GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that ACADSB-related genes were significantly enriched in categories related to FA metabolism, branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism, and iron regulation. Spearman’s correlation analysis suggested that the expression of ACADSB was positively correlated with the expression of ferroptosis driver genes.ConclusionsACADSB showed good diagnostic and prognostic abilities for ccRCC. The downregulation of ACADSB might promote tumorigenesis and tumor progression by inhibiting FA catabolism, BCAA catabolism, and ferroptosis in ccRCC.

2022 ◽  
Fan Yuanchan ◽  
Dafu Chen ◽  
Rui Guo

Apis cerana is the original host for Nosema ceranae, a widespread fungal parasite resulting in bee nosemosis, which leads to severe losses for apiculture industry throughout the world. However, knowledge of N. ceranae infecting eastern honeybees is extremely limited. Currently, the mechanism underlying N. ceranae infection is still largely unknown. Based on our previously gained high-quality transcriptome datasets, comparative transcriptomic investigation was conducted in this work, with a focus on virulence factor-associated differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Microscopic observation showed that A. c. cerana workers midguts were effectively infected after inoculation with clean spores of N. ceranae. Totally, 1411, 604, and 38 DEGs were identified from NcCK vs. NcT1, NcCK vs. NcT2 and NcT1 vs. NcT2 comparison groups. Venn analysis showed that ten up-regulated genes and nine down-regulated ones were shared by aforementioned comparison groups. GO category indicated these DEGs were involved in a series of functional terms relevant to biological process, cellular component, and molecular function, such as metabolic process, cell part, and catalytic activity. Additionally, KEGG pathway analysis suggested that the DEGs were engaged in an array of pathways of great importance, such as metabolic pathway, glycolysis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Further, expression clustering analysis demonstrated that majority of genes encoding virulence factors such as ricin B lectins and polar tube proteins displayed apparent up-regulation, whereas a few virulence factor-associated genes such as hexokinase gene and 6-phosphofructokinase gene presented down-regulation during the fungal infection. Finally, the expression trend of 14 DEGs was confirmed by RT-qPCR, validating the reliability of our transcriptome datasets. These results together demonstrated that an overall alteration of the transcriptome of N. ceranae occurred during the infection of A. c. ceranae workers, and most of virulence factor-related genes were induced to activation to promote the fungal invasion. Our findings not only lay a foundation for clarifying the molecular mechanism underlying N. ceranae infection of eastern honeybee workers, but also shed light on developing novel targets for microsporidiosis control.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-21
Jiamin Xu ◽  
Fuqin Kang ◽  
Wei Wang ◽  
Shujun Liu ◽  
Jianhui Xie ◽  

Background. Clinical research found that TCM is therapeutic in treating gastric cancer. Clearing heat is the most common method, while some antirheumatic medicines are widely used in treatment as well. To explore the pharmacological mechanism, we researched the comparison between heat-clearing medicine and antirheumatic medicine in treating gastric cancer. Methods. First, related ingredients and targets were searched, respectively, and are shown in an active ingredient-target network. Combining the relevant targets of gastric cancer, we constructed a PPI network and MCODE network. Then, GO and KEGG enrichment analyses were conducted. Molecular docking experiments were performed to verify the affinity of targets and ligands. Finally, we analyzed the tumor immune infiltration on gene expression, somatic CNA, and clinical outcome. Results. A total of 31 ingredients and 90 targets of heat-clearing medicine, 31 ingredients and 186 targets of antirheumatic medicine, and 12,155 targets of gastric cancer were collected. Antirheumatic medicine ranked the top in all the enrichment analyses. In the KEGG pathway, both types of medicines were related to pathways in cancer. In the KEGG map, AR, MMP2, ERBB2, and TP53 were the most crucial targets. Key targets and ligands were docked with low binding energy. Analysis of tumor immune infiltration showed that the expressions of AR and ERBB2 were correlated with the abundance of immune infiltration and made a difference in clinical outcomes. Conclusions. Quercetin is an important ingredient in both heat-clearing medicine and antirheumatic medicine. AR signaling pathway exists in both types of medicines. The mechanism of the antitumor effect in antirheumatic medicine was similar to trastuzumab, a targeted drug aimed at ERBB2. Both types of medicines were significant in tumor immune infiltration. The immunology of gastric tumor deserves further research.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Fangzhou Guo ◽  
Jun Yan ◽  
Guoyuan Ling ◽  
Hainan Chen ◽  
Qianrong Huang ◽  

Lower-grade glioma (LGG) is a common type of central nervous system tumor. Due to its complicated pathogenesis, the choice and timing of adjuvant therapy after tumor treatment are controversial. This study explored and identified potential therapeutic targets for lower-grade. The bioinformatics method was employed to identify potential biomarkers and LGG molecular mechanisms. Firstly, we selected and downloaded GSE15824, GSE50161, and GSE86574 from the GEO database, which included 40 LGG tissue and 28 normal brain tissue samples. GEO and VENN software identified of 206 codifference expressed genes (DEGs). Secondly, we applied the DAVID online software to investigate the DEG biological function and KEGG pathway enrichment, as well as to build the protein interaction visualization network through Cytoscape and STRING website. Then, the MCODE plug is used in the analysis of 22 core genes. Thirdly, the 22 core genes were analyzed with UNCLA software, of which 18 genes were associated with a worse prognosis. Fourthly, GEPIA was used to analyze the 18 selected genes, and 14 genes were found to be a significantly different expression between LGGs and normal brain tumor samples. Fifthly, hierarchical gene clustering was used to examine the 14 important gene expression differences in different histologies, as well as analysis of the KEGG pathway. Five of these genes were shown to be abundant in the natural killer cell-mediated cytokines (NKCC) and phagosome pathways. The five key genes that may be affected by the immune microenvironment play a crucial role in LGG development.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Liangtao Luo ◽  
Haowen Wang ◽  
Guowei Huang ◽  
Lu Zhang ◽  
Xiuwei Li ◽  

Objective. Tinglizi has been extensively used to treat chronic heart failure (CHF) in modern times, but the material basis and pharmacological mechanisms are still unclear. To explore the material basis and corresponding potential targets and to elucidate the mechanism of Tinglizi, network pharmacology and molecular docking methods were utilized. Methods. The main chemical compounds and potential targets of Tinglizi were collected from the pharmacological database analysis platform (TCMSP). The corresponding genes of related action targets were queried through gene cards and UniProt database. The corresponding genes of CHF-related targets were searched through Disgenet database, and the intersection targets were obtained by drawing Venn map with the target genes related to pharmacodynamic components. Then, drug targets and disease targets were intersected and put into STRING database to establish a protein interaction network. The “active ingredient-CHF target” network was constructed with Cytoscape 3.8.2. Finally, Gene Ontology (GO) Enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment of intersection targets were analyzed using metascape. With the aid of SYBYL software, the key active ingredients and core targets were docked at molecular level, and the results were visualized by PyMOL software. Molecular docking was carried out to investigate interactions between active compounds and potential targets. Results. A total of 12 active components in Tinglizi were chosen from the TCMSP database, and 193 corresponding targets were predicted. Twenty-nine potential targets of Tinglizi on CHF were obtained, of which nine were the core targets of this study. Twenty GO items were obtained by GO function enrichment analysis ( P < 0.05 ), and 10 signal pathways were screened by KEGG pathway enrichment analysis ( P < 0.05 ), which is closely related to the treatment of CHF by Tinglizi. The constructed drug compound composition action target disease network shows that quercetin, kaempferol, and other active compounds play a key role in the whole network. The results of molecular docking showed that all the key active ingredients, such as quercetin and isorhamnetin, were able to successfully dock with ADRB2 and HMOX1 with a total score above 5.0, suggesting that these key components have a strong binding force with the targets. Conclusion. Through network pharmacology and molecular docking technology, we found that the main components of Tinglizi in the treatment of CHF are quercetin, kaempferol, β-sitosterol, isorhamnetin, and so on. The action targets are beta 2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), and so on. The main pathways are advanced glycation end products/receptor for advanced glycation end products (AGE-RAGE) signaling pathway in diabetic complications, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) signaling pathway, estrogen signaling pathway, and so on. They play an integrated role in the treatment of CHF.

Tucheng Huang ◽  
Kangjie Wang ◽  
Yuewei Li ◽  
Yanchen Ye ◽  
Yangxin Chen ◽  

Atheroclerosis refers to a chronic inflammatory disease featured by the accumulation of fibrofatty lesions in the intima of arteries. Cardiovasular events associated with atherosclerosis remain the major causes of mortality worldwide. Recent studies have indicated that ferroptosis, a novel programmed cell death, might participate in the process of atherosclerosis. However, the ferroptosis landscape is still not clear. In this study, 59 genes associated with ferroptosis were ultimately identified in atherosclerosis in the intima. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed for functional annotation. Through the construction of protein–protein interaction (PPI) network, five hub genes (TP53, MAPK1, STAT3, HMOX1, and PTGS2) were then validated histologically. The competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network of hub genes was ultimately constructed to explore the regulatory mechanism between lncRNAs, miRNAs, and hub genes. The findings provide more insights into the ferroptosis landscape and, potentially, the therapeutic targets of atherosclerosis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Guosheng Xing ◽  
Yufeng Zhang ◽  
Xinlin Wu ◽  
Hua Wang ◽  
Yan Liu ◽  

Objective. We analyzed the efficacy and pharmacological mechanisms of action of Zhen Ren Yang Zang decoction (ZRYZD) on ulcerative colitis (UC) using meta-analysis and network pharmacology. Methods. The major databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of ZRYZD for the treatment of UC. Meta-analysis of the efficacy of ZRYZD on UC was conducted using RevMan software. Active compounds and target genes were acquired using the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform. UC-related genes were searched using the GeneCards database. Gene Ontology (GO) functional enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed using RGUI. A compound-target network was constructed using Cytoscape software, and a protein-protein interaction network was constructed using the STRING database. Molecular docking simulations of the macromolecular protein targets and their corresponding ligand compounds were performed using the AutoDock tool and AutoDock Vina software. Results. Meta-analysis revealed that the total effective rate and recovery rate of clinical efficacy were significantly higher in the experimental group than those of the control group. The screening identified 169 active compounds and 277 active target genes for ZRYZD. The 277 active target genes were compared with the 4,798 UC-related genes. This identified 187 active target genes of ZRYZD for UC that correlated with 138 active compounds. GO functional enrichment and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses were performed, and compound-target and protein-protein interaction networks were constructed. The key compounds and key target proteins were then selected. Finally, target protein binding with the corresponding compound was analyzed using molecular docking. Conclusion. Our findings demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of ZRYZD for the treatment of UC and provide insight into the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of action. Furthermore, key compounds were identified, laying the foundation for future studies on ZRYZD for the treatment of UC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Xianhua Wen ◽  
Yuncheng Gu ◽  
Beili Chen ◽  
Feipeng Gong ◽  
Wenting Wu ◽  

Migraine is a disease whose aetiology and mechanism are not yet clear. Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR) is employed in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat various disorders. CR is effective for migraine, but its active compounds, drug targets, and exact molecular mechanism remain unclear. In this study, we used the method of systems pharmacology to address the above issues. We first established the drug-compound-target-disease (D-C-T-D) network and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network related to the treatment of migraine with CR and then established gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses. The results suggest that the treatment process may be related to the regulation of inflammation and neural activity. The docking results also revealed that PTGS2 and TRPV1 could directly bind to the active compounds that could regulate them. In addition, we found that CR affected 11 targets that were more highly expressed in the liver or heart but were the lowest in the whole brain. It also expounds the description of CR channel tropism in TCM theory from these angles. These findings not only indicate that CR can be developed as a potential effective drug for the treatment of migraine but also demonstrate the application of systems pharmacology in the discovery of herbal-based disease therapies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yuanjun Tang ◽  
Chenyang Shi ◽  
Yingyi Qin ◽  
Shuowen Wang ◽  
Hui Pan ◽  

Background: The beneficial effects of colchicine on cardiovascular disease have been widely reported in recent studies. Previous research demonstrated that colchicine has a certain protective effect on ischemic myocardium and has the potential to treat myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI). However, the potential targets and pharmacological mechanism of colchicine to treat MIRI has not been reported.Methods: In this study, we used network pharmacology and experimental verification to investigate the pharmacological mechanisms of colchicine for the treatment of MIRI. Potential targets of colchicine and MIRI related genes were screened from public databases. The mechanism of colchicine in the treatment of MIRI was determined by protein-protein interaction (PPI), gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. Additionally, we evaluated the effect of colchicine on H9C2 cell activity using CCK-8 assays, observed the effect of colchicine on H9C2 cell apoptosis via flow cytometry, and further verified the expression of key targets after colchicine treated by Western blot.Results: A total of 626 target genes for colchicine and 1549 MIRI disease targets were obtained. 138 overlapping genes were determined as potential targets of colchicine in treating MIRI. the PPI network analysis demonstrated that the targets linked to MIRI were ALB, TNF, ACTB, AKT1, IL6, TP53, IL1B, CASP3 and these targets showed nice affinity with colchicine in molecular docking experiments. The results of GO analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment demonstrated that the anti-MIRI effect of colchicine involves in apoptotic signaling pathway. Further tests suggested that colchicine can protect H9C2 cell from Hypoxia/Reoxygenation (H/R) injury through anti-apoptotic effects. Western blot results demonstrated that colchicine can inhibited MIRI induced apoptosis of H9C2 cell by enhancing the decreased levels of Caspase-3 in myocardial injure model induced by H/R and activating the PI3K/AKT/eNOS pathway.Conclusions: we performed network pharmacology and experimental evaluation to reveal the pharmacological mechanism of colchicine against MIRI. The results from this study could provide a theoretical basis for the development and clinical application of colchicine.

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