CAB Reviews Perspectives in Agriculture Veterinary Science Nutrition and Natural Resources
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Updated Saturday, 16 October 2021

Author(s):  
Emmanuel Nyadzi

Abstract Indigenous people are often considered victims of climate change impact rather than agents of adaptation. Emerging studies in Africa have shifted the attention to indigenous knowledge (IK) to support the development of effective climate change adaptation strategies. This study adopted a systematic literature review methodology to analyse the following: (i) characterization of IK, (ii) potential of IK for knowledge co-production, (iii) IK for climate change causes and impact identification, (iv) IK for formulating and implementing climate change interventions, and (v) documentation and conservation of IK as a resource for climate change adaptation. Results show that there is no consensus on the definition of IK. However, certain identical elements in the available definitions are relevant for contextualization. IK has been useful in the formulation of different climate change adaptation strategies: management practices, early warning, and risk and disaster management. IK has the potential for knowledge co-production relevant for developing robust adaptation measures. Weather and climate services remain a critical area where IK and scientific knowledge (SK) are integrated to enhance forecast reliability and acceptability for local communities. IK is disappearing because of modernization and rural-urban migration, changing landscape and shifting religious beliefs. We suggest the need for more research into the complexity of the IK, proper documentation and storage of IK, and developing effective approaches to integrate IK with SK such that it is well received among researchers and policymakers. While doing this, it is important to maintain the unique features that distinguish IK from other forms of knowledge.


Author(s):  
Ricardo Antonio Ayub

Abstract Flavonoids occur naturally and are derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. There is growing evidence of the preventive and protective roles of anthocyanins against a wide range of pathologies, including different types of cancer and metabolic diseases. However, most red fruits available to consumers typically contain only small amounts of anthocyanins, mainly limited to the epidermis of plant organs. Therefore, we reviewed the current literature on the biosynthesis of anthocyanins in berries, including the structural and regulatory genes involved in the differential pigmentation patterns of plant structures, as well as management and cultural treatments. Also, the genetic regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis in different red fruits is explored to observe and create strategies to increase biosynthesis and anthocyanin accumulation. It is concluded that the regulation, transport and accumulation of flavonoids varies markedly between species, and is influenced by abiotic and biotic factors.


Author(s):  
Minglu Wang ◽  
◽  
Yu-Kai Huang ◽  
Muxi Cheng ◽  
Bingru Sheng ◽  
...  

Ocean-atmospheric phenomena (OAP) have been found to be associated with regional climate variability and, in turn, agricultural production. Previous research has shown that advance information on OAP and its climate implications could provide valuable opportunities to adjust agriculture practices. In this study, we review OAP effects on crop yields, covering both shorter-term El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and longer-term ocean-related decadal climate variability (DCV) phenomena, such as Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), the Tropical Atlantic Gradient (TAG), and the West Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP). We review both statistical approaches and simulation models that have been used to assess OAP impacts on crop yields. Findings show heterogeneous impacts across crops, regions, OAP phases, and seasons. Evidence also indicates that more frequent and extreme OAP phases would damage agriculture. However, economic gains could be achieved via adaptation strategies responding to the early release of OAP phase information. Discussions on current knowledge gaps and future research issues are included.


Author(s):  
Onisimo Mutanga

Abstract Disease infection on crops has been increasing over the years, in line with the changing climate, which has provided a conducive environment for disease proliferation. Timely and up-to-date information on disease spread and its magnitude is a critical component of crop management. This study provides a detailed overview on the role of remote sensing in crop disease detection and mapping with particular reference to the implication on maize, a staple food for many countries in the Global South. Studies have shown the capability of various remote sensing approaches in detecting the severity of disease infection. Most studies undertaken focused on disease classification, with hyperspectral data demonstrating satisfactory performance in detecting the early stages of disease infection. Thermal remote sensing has great potential but remains largely unexplored and very few studies have focused on the application of remote sensing on maize crop diseases in different environments. With new developments on unmanned aerial vehicles (AUVs), there is a great potential to mount sensors with useful information for precise crop disease monitoring and the large size and architecture of maize leaves provide opportunities for early detection with high-resolution remotely sensed data.


Author(s):  
Ming-lu Wang

Abstract Ocean-atmospheric phenomena (OAP) have been found to be associated with regional climate variability and, in turn, agricultural production. Previous research has shown that advance information on OAP and its climate implications could provide valuable opportunities to adjust agriculture practices. In this study, we review OAP effects on crop yields, covering both shorter-term El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and longer-term ocean-related decadal climate variability (DCV) phenomena, such as Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), the Tropical Atlantic Gradient (TAG), and the West Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP). We review both statistical approaches and simulation models that have been used to assess OAP impacts on crop yields. Findings show heterogeneous impacts across crops, regions, OAP phases, and seasons. Evidence also indicates that more frequent and extreme OAP phases would damage agriculture. However, economic gains could be achieved via adaptation strategies responding to the early release of OAP phase information. Discussions on current knowledge gaps and future research issues are included.


Author(s):  
Veronica F. Guwela

Abstract Wheat (Tritcum aestivum L.) is an important cereal crop, consumed by over 2.5 billion people globally. The current demand for wheat in Malawi is estimated to be 200,000 tonnes/year with a projected growth in consumption of 3%-6% annually. We reviewed literature and databases on wheat production, imports, processing and consumption to describe current wheat value chains in Malawi, and to identify possible future economic and food security opportunities. The current gap between the supply and demand of wheat in Malawi is large with 99% imported due to low domestic production. The main actors in the value chain include importers, millers, bakeries, biscuit manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers. In total, 45% of milled flour is utilised by commercial bakeries, 46% is distributed to rural and urban outlets and biscuit manufacturers utilise 9%. Although there is no information on wheat exports between 2016 and 2019, FAOSTAT crop database and the ITC Trade Map databases show small quantities of wheat flour exports prior to 2016. Production constraints include the lack of a national wheat development strategy, lack of stable markets, unavailability of improved varieties, low input use and limited knowledge in the management of wheat crop. Currency devaluation and limited forex reserves further affect the annual import volumes and prices of wheat flour on the domestic market. We conclude that domestic production and wider value chain opportunities could be increased through policy support, including research for development, expansion of production into.


Author(s):  
Daniela R. Klein

Abstract The gut microbiota has been a subject of great interest in recent years because the composition and diversity are associated with the maintenance of piglets' health and welfare. This review aims to summarise the composition and diversity of piglet microbiome, the impact on health maintenance, influence of feed and nutrients, impact of stress situations, and the effect of growth promoters and antimicrobials on gut microbiota. The composition and diversity of microbiota are influenced by animal early experiences, the appropriate development of microbiota is essential for intestinal function, and influence animal health, growth and productivity. Interactions between the gut microbiota and the immune system help maintain epithelial barrier, and protect from post-weaning diarrhoea pathogenies. After weaning, the piglets' diet changes abruptly, affecting the microbiota and the physiology, but this can be modulated through nutrients such as fibre, protein and minerals. Stress situations contribute to the appearance of intestinal disorders, possibly changing the microbiota and epithelial cell structure, facilitating colonisation of pathogenic bacteria, decreased performance and increase the use of antimicrobials. In swine production, growth promoters and antibiotics are used to reduce mortality and morbidity, especially in weaning piglets, reducing and controlling potential pathogenic bacteria, resulting in more feed intake and body weight. Antimicrobial use reduces the entire gut microbial population; the replacers are probiotics, prebiotics and organic acids, which helps maintain intestinal microbial populations, and inhibits pathogenic bacteria development. Knowing the animal microbiome dynamics helps improve immunity, productive performance and welfare, and also reduce the use of antimicrobials in animal production.


Author(s):  
Desalegn Yayeh Ayal

Abstract The sub-Saharan Africa region has been affected by multifaceted interrelated challenges including climate change risks, environmental degradation, political crises, demographic, and food security. The region is geographically exposed to and heavily depends on heat stress-sensitive livelihood and economy. Unlike drought, flood, and erratic rainfall, the situation and impact of heat stress are not well documented. This paper summarized the impact of heat stress on various sectors of the Sahel region. The result revealed that exposure to heat stress contributed to water, agricultural, food security, health, and economic adverse impacts in sub-Saharan Africa. The study also shows in sub- Saharan Africa especially in semiarid and arid areas the future impact of heat stress in various sectors is expected to be more severe. The changes and impacts of heat stress are not uniform across the region. For instance, East Africa is at higher risk of acquiring concurrent health impacts. West Africa is projected to experience severe impacts on food production. South Africa observes the strongest decrease in precipitation with concurrent risks of drought. Thus, understanding the effect of heat stress on humans and various heat-sensitive sectors should be the focus of researchers. However, given the degree of uncertainty of the models' results and effect of heat stress in the region, it is important to develop adaptive capacities at different ecological settings that enable the region population to adapt to risk factors related to climate change and heat stress.


Author(s):  
Baffour Badu-Apraku

Abstract Striga hermonthica is a major stress of maize in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), in collaboration with national scientists, have used team approach to investigate how best to solve the problem. Emphasis was on (i) establishing a reliable infestation technique for selecting resistant/tolerant genotypes, (ii) availability of appropriate germplasm and good sources of Striga resistance, (iii) use of appropriate breeding methods for incorporating resistance genes into adapted germplasm, and (iv) extensive multilocational evaluation to identify genotypes with stable performance. Host plant resistance, with additive-dominance model, has been the major control option for S. hermonthica infestation on maize. Recurrent selection, followed by hybridization of inbred lines developed from its products, have been used to identify high-yielding, stable hybrids for commercialization in SSA. In a study involving early-maturing tropical maize inbred lines, 24 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers significantly associated with grain yield, Striga damage, ears per plant, and ear aspect under Striga infestation were detected. In a quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping study involving extra-early white BC1S1 families obtained from TZEEI 29 (Striga-resistant) and TZEEI 23 (Striga susceptible) inbreds, 14 QTLs were identified for Striga resistance/tolerance traits. In a second QTL study involving the extra-early yellow F2:3 families derived from the Striga-resistant parent (TZEEI 79) and the susceptible parent (TZdEEI 11), 12 QTL were identified for 4 Striga resistance/tolerance traits. QTL identified in the studies would be invaluable for rapid introgression of Striga resistance genes into maize genotypes using marker-assisted selection approaches after validation of QTL in inbreds.


Author(s):  
S. Azarpajouh

Abstract The growing world population has increased the demand for meat and milk products and has led to a rapid growth in the scale of cattle enterprises globally. As a result, livestock production would intensify even more with farmers aiming to maximize output per animal unit and it would lower the stockperson per animal ratio. This will result in less time available to monitor and manage individual animals properly, jeopardizing animal health and welfare. The recent advancement in technological and engineering tools and materials such as advances sensors and sensing devices, and data processing and machine learning methods provide effective tools for the dairy industry to control qualitative and quantitative parameters related to dairy cattle health and welfare. This review paper will (a) explain smart dairy technologies, (b) describe on-farm cattle welfare assessment, and (c) discuss sensors applied in automatic cattle welfare assessment.


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