Family-centered postnatal training and adherence to newborn care practices in district hospitals in two Indian states: A quasi-experimental intervention study

Sehj Kashyap ◽  
Amanda F Spielman ◽  
Nikhil Ramnarayan ◽  
Sahana SD ◽  
Rashmi Pant ◽  

Background and Objectives: Globally, 2.5 million newborns die within the first month of life annually. The majority of deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and many of these deaths happen at home. The study assessed if the Care Companion Program (CCP) an in-hospital, skills-based training given to families improves post-discharge maternal and neonatal health outcomes. Methods: This quasi-experimental pre-post intervention study design compared self-reported behavior and health outcomes among families before and after the CCP intervention. Intention to treat analysis included families regardless of their exposure to the intervention. Mixed effects logistic regression model, adjusted for confounders, was fit for all observations. Effects were expressed as Relative Risks (RR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Results: At 2-weeks post-delivery, telephone surveys were conducted in the pre (n = 3510) and post-intervention (n = 1474) groups from 11 district hospitals in the states of Karnataka and Punjab. The practice of dry cord care improved significantly by 4%, (RR = 1.04, 95%CI [1.04,1.06]) and skin to skin care by 78% (RR=1.78, 95%CI [1.37,2.27]) in the post-intervention group as compared to pre-intervention group. Furthermore, newborn complications reduced by 16% (RR=0.84, 95%CI [0.76,0.91]), mother complications by 12% (RR=0.88, 95%CI [0.79,0.97]) and newborn readmissions by 56% (RR=0.44, 95%CI [0.31,0.61]). Outpatient visits increased by 27% (RR=1.27, 95%CI [1.10,1.46]). However, outcomes of breastfeeding, mothers diet, hand-hygiene, and process indicator of being instructed on warning signs were not different. Conclusion: Postnatal care should incorporate pre-discharge multi-pronged training of families to improve essential maternal and newborn care practices. The CCP model runs on a public-private partnership and is integrated into existing health systems. Our findings demonstrate that it is possible to improve outcomes through a family-centered approach in India. The CCP model can be integrated into formalised hospital processes to relieve overburdened healthcare systems in LMIC settings.

BMJ Open ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. e041829
Wen Qu ◽  
Qing Yue ◽  
Yan Wang ◽  
Jin Liuxing Yang ◽  
Xi Jin ◽  

ObjectiveTo explore the changes in childbirth care practices and health outcomes of newborns after the introduction of early essential newborn care (EENC).DesignA pre-comparison and post-comparison study.SettingThe study was conducted in December 2016 and December 2018 in 18 counties in four western provinces of China.Participants46 hospitals that provide delivery services participated in the study.InterventionsEENC practices were introduced and implemented in the 46 hospitals.Outcome measuresThe changes of hospital indicators such as incidence of birth asphyxia and neonatal mortality were compared in 2016 and 2018. EENC coverage indicators, such as skin-to-skin (STS) contact, and time of first breast feeding were also compared before and after the intervention via interview with 524 randomly selected postpartum mothers (320 in 2016 and 204 in 2018).Results54 335 newborns were delivered in the pre-EENC period (2016) and 58 057 delivered in the post-EENC period (2018). According to hospital records, the proportion of newborns receiving immediate STS contact increased from 32.6% to 51.2% (Risk Ratio (RR)=1.57,95% CI 1.55 to 1.59) and the percentage of newborns receiving prolonged STS contact for more than 90 min increased from 8.1% to 26.8% (RR=3.31, 95% CI 3.21 to 3.41). No statistically significant changes were found in neonatal mortality, although slight decreases in birth asphyxiate and neonatal intensive care unit admission rates were detected. Among the mothers interviewed, the proportion of newborns receiving immediate STS contact increased from 34.6% to 80.0% (RR=2.31, 95% CI 1.69 to 3.17). The exclusive breastfeeding rate increased from 43% to 73.4% (RR=1.71, 95% CI 1.43 to 2.04). The average length of the first breast feeding increased from 15.8 min to 17.1 min.ConclusionsThe introduction of EENC has yielded significant improvements in newborn care services at the pilot hospitals, including enhanced maternal and newborn care practices, improved STS contact quality and early breastfeeding performance. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term impact of EENC on newborn health outcomes.

2020 ◽  
Vol 7 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. S65-S65
Ross Pineda ◽  
Meganne Kanatani ◽  
Jaime Deville

Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains a significant pathogen in patients with respiratory infections. Guidelines recommend empiric MRSA coverage in patients at increased risk, resulting in substantial vancomycin use. Recent literature highlights the use of MRSA nasal assays as a rapid screening tool for MRSA pneumonia, demonstrating high negative predictive values and allowing for shorter empiric coverage. We aimed to evaluate the impact of MRSA nasal screening review by the antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) on vancomycin utilization for respiratory infections. Methods This was a retrospective, quasi-experimental, pre-post intervention study. The intervention saw the addition of an MRSA screening review tool into the ASP electronic record, highlighting patients on vancomycin (actively or recently administered) with a negative MRSA screening. Vancomycin days of therapy (DOT) was collected for all orders indicated for a respiratory infection in the two weeks following a negative screening. Additional outcomes include vancomycin total dose and DOT per 1,000 patient days. Outcomes were compared via independent samples t-tests. Results 1,110 MRSA screenings resulted across 2 months, of which the majority were excluded for either not having vancomycin ordered, or for having vancomycin ordered for a non-respiratory indication, leaving 37 and 35 evaluable screenings in the pre- and post-intervention groups, respectively. Regarding vancomycin DOT, we did not identify a significant difference between pre- and post-intervention groups with respective means of 2.45 (SD=1.52) and 2.14 (SD=1.12) (p=0.35). We identified a total 8.78 vancomycin DOT per 1,000 patient days in the pre-intervention group versus 6.69 in the post-intervention group. Conclusion ASP-guided review of MRSA screenings was associated with a nonsignificant decrease in mean vancomycin DOT and lower total DOT per 1,000 patient days for respiratory infections following a negative screen. Given the recent implementation of our intervention, our analysis covered a small sample size, highlighting the need for continued data collection. MRSA screenings are not always fully or immediately utilized in our institution, demonstrating room to de-escalate MRSA-targeted antibiotics. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

1997 ◽  
Vol 27 (4) ◽  
pp. 199-202 ◽  
Mubina Agboatwalla ◽  
Dure Samin Akram

A prospective community-based intervention study was conducted in a slum area of Karachi, Pakistan, with the objective of evaluating the impact of health education on the knowledge of mothers. One hundred and fifty households were studied in the intervention and the same in the non-intervention group. The post intervention knowledge scores of the mothers showed a significant difference of P < 0.05. Nearly 50.7% mothers in the intervention group knew of at least four diseases against which vaccination is given as compared to the non-intervention group ( P < 0.05). Similarly, mothers in the intervention group were more aware about the advantages of breast feeding, signs of dehydration, measures for prevention of measles and tuberculosis as compared to the non-intervention group ( P < 0.05). Finally, a comparison was made between the pre- and post-intervention scores between the two groups. The score in the non-intervention group changed from 11.5 to 16.1 ( P > 0.05) as compared to the intervention group in which it changed from 10.2 to 32.2 ( P < 0.05).

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Karen Zamboni ◽  
Samiksha Singh ◽  
Mukta Tyagi ◽  
Zelee Hill ◽  
Claudia Hanson ◽  

Abstract Background Improving quality of care is a key priority to reduce neonatal mortality and stillbirths. The Safe Care, Saving Lives programme aimed to improve care in newborn care units and labour wards of 60 public and private hospitals in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, India, using a collaborative quality improvement approach. Our external evaluation of this programme aimed to evaluate programme effects on implementation of maternal and newborn care practices, and impact on stillbirths, 7- and 28-day neonatal mortality rate in labour wards and neonatal care units. We also aimed to evaluate programme implementation and mechanisms of change. Methods We used a quasi-experimental plausibility design with a nested process evaluation. We evaluated effects on stillbirths, mortality and secondary outcomes relating to adherence to 20 evidence-based intrapartum and newborn care practices, comparing survey data from 29 hospitals receiving the intervention to 31 hospitals expected to receive the intervention later, using a difference-in-difference analysis. We analysed programme implementation data and conducted 42 semi-structured interviews in four case studies to describe implementation and address four theory-driven questions to explain the quantitative results. Results Only 7 of the 29 intervention hospitals were engaged in the intervention for its entire duration. There was no evidence of an effect of the intervention on stillbirths [DiD − 1.3 percentage points, 95% CI − 2.6–0.1], on neonatal mortality at age 7 days [DiD − 1.6, 95% CI − 9–6.2] or 28 days [DiD − 3.0, 95% CI − 12.9—6.9] or on adherence to target evidence-based intrapartum and newborn care practices. The process evaluation identified challenges in engaging leaders; challenges in developing capacity for quality improvement; and challenges in activating mechanisms of change at the unit level, rather than for a few individuals, and in sustaining these through the creation of new social norms. Conclusion Despite careful planning and substantial resources, the intervention was not feasible for implementation on a large scale. Greater focus is required on strategies to engage leadership. Quality improvement may need to be accompanied by clinical training. Further research is also needed on quality improvement using a health systems perspective.

2015 ◽  
Vol 19 (6) ◽  
pp. 976-982 ◽  
Lorena Saavedra-Garcia ◽  
Vanessa Sosa-Zevallos ◽  
Francisco Diez-Canseco ◽  
J Jaime Miranda ◽  
Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz

AbstractObjectivesTo explore salt content in bread and to evaluate the feasibility of reducing salt contained in ‘pan francés’ bread.DesignThe study had two phases. Phase 1, an exploratory phase, involved the estimation of salt contained in bread as well as a triangle taste test to establish the amount of salt to be reduced in ‘pan francés’ bread without detection by consumers. In Phase 2, a quasi-experimental, pre–post intervention study assessed the effects of the introduction of low-salt bread on bakery sales.SettingA municipal bakery in Miraflores, Lima, Peru.SubjectsSixty-five clients of the bakery in Phase 1 of the study; sales to usual costumers in Phase 2.ResultsOn average, there was 1·25 g of salt per 100 g of bread. Sixty-five consumers were enrolled in the triangle taste test: fifty-four (83·1 %) females, mean age 58·9 (sd 13·7) years. Based on taste, bread samples prepared with salt reductions of 10 % (P=0·82) and 20 % (P=0·37) were not discernible from regular bread. The introduction of bread with 20 % of salt reduction, which contained 1 g of salt per 100 g of bread, did not change sales of ‘pan francés’ (P=0·70) or other types of bread (P=0·36). Results were consistent when using different statistical techniques.ConclusionsThe introduction of bread with a 20 % reduction in salt is feasible without affecting taste or bakery sales. Results suggest that these interventions are easily implementable, with the potential to contribute to larger sodium reduction strategies impacting the population’s cardiovascular health.

2016 ◽  
pp. czw104 ◽  
Alyssa Sharkey ◽  
Aisha Yansaneh ◽  
Peter Soulaiman Bangura ◽  
Augustin Kabano ◽  
Eoghan Brady ◽  

2017 ◽  
Vol 19 (2) ◽  
pp. 255-263 ◽  
Somen Saha ◽  
Beena Varghese

Background: Under the Norway-India Partnership Initiative (NIPI), a pilot programme was launched in 2008 to improve the quality of institutional maternal and neonatal care through Yashodas or birth companions. Yashodas were placed at higher-level healthcare facilities across select districts of India to support mother and newborn. This article presents the additional cost of the Yashoda programme from a government perspective and models the potential cost-effectiveness of the Yashoda intervention in averting neonatal deaths. Methods: We estimated the additional costs of the Yashoda programme (2011–2012) using an activity-based costing approach from a provider perspective. Effectiveness measure was estimated as the difference in the average rate of receipt of counselling (for mothers who delivered at district hospitals) between intervention and comparison districts. The potential impact of the Yashoda programme on neonatal mortality was modelled from secondary data assuming a 30 per cent reduction in neonatal mortality among those who received counselling and practiced safe newborn care practices. Results: The additional cost of Yashoda intervention was US$26,350 per year or US$0.83 per live birth. Eighty-four per cent of mothers in the intervention group received essential postpartum newborn care counselling at the facility compared to 62 per cent of mothers in the comparison groups. Through potential change in newborn care practices, the Yashoda intervention was estimated to avert 45 neonatal deaths for a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 mothers who delivered at district hospitals. The incremental cost of the Yashoda intervention was US$1,832 per neonatal death averted or US$29 per life year saved (LYS). Sensitivity analysis showed the incremental cost per LYS of the Yashoda intervention varied between US$14 and US$59. Conclusion: This study concludes that the Yashoda intervention, when scaled up at high delivery load facilities, is a very cost-effective intervention to save newborn lives.

Critical Care ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Chung-Pei Wu ◽  
Yu-Juan Xu ◽  
Tyng-Guey Wang ◽  
Shih-Chi Ku ◽  
Ding-Cheng Chan ◽  

Abstract Background For patients who survive a critical illness and have their oral endotracheal tube removed, dysphagia is highly prevalent, and without intervention, it may persist far beyond hospital discharge. This pre- and post-intervention study with historical controls tested the effects of a swallowing and oral care (SOC) intervention on patients’ time to resume oral intake and salivary flow following endotracheal extubation. Methods The sample comprised intensive care unit patients (≥ 50 years) successfully extubated after ≥ 48 h endotracheal intubation. Participants who received usual care (controls, n = 117) were recruited before 2015, and those who received usual care plus the intervention (n = 54) were enrolled after 2015. After extubation, all participants were assessed by a blinded nurse for daily intake status (21 days) and whole-mouth unstimulated salivary flow (2, 7, 14 days). The intervention group received the nurse-administered SOC intervention, comprising toothbrushing/salivary gland massage, oral motor exercise, and safe-swallowing education daily for 14 days or until hospital discharge. Results The intervention group received 8.3 ± 4.2 days of SOC intervention, taking 15.4 min daily with no reported adverse event (coughing, wet voice, or decreased oxygen saturation) during and immediately after intervention. Participants who received the intervention were significantly more likely than controls to resume total oral intake after extubation (aHR 1.77, 95% CI 1.08–2.91). Stratified by age group, older participants (≥ 65 years) in the SOC group were 2.47-fold more likely than their younger counterparts to resume total oral intake (aHR 2.47, 95% CI 1.31–4.67). The SOC group also had significantly higher salivary flows 14 days following extubation (β = 0.67, 95% CI 0.29–1.06). Conclusions The nurse-administered SOC is safe and effective, with greater odds of patients’ resuming total oral intake and increased salivary flows 14 days following endotracheal extubation. Age matters with SOC; it more effectively helped participants ≥ 65 years old resume total oral intake postextubation. Trial registration NCT02334774, registered on January 08, 2015

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