threshold effect
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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Jiacheng He

Abstract Purpose Creatinine to body weight (Cre/BW) ratio is considered the independent risk factor for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but research on this relationship is limited. The relationship between the Cre/BW ratio and T2DM among Chinse individuals is still ambiguous. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between the Cre/BW ratio and the risk of T2DM in the Chinese population. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study from a prospectively collected database. We included a total of 200,658 adults free of T2DM at baseline. The risk of incident T2DM according to Cre/BW ratio was estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, and a two-piece wise linear regression model was developed to find out the threshold effect. Results With a median follow-up of 3.13 ± 0.94 years, a total of 4001 (1.99%) participants developed T2DM. Overall, there was an L-shaped relation of Cre/BW ratio with the risk of incident T2DM (P for non-linearity < 0.001). When the Cre/BW ratio (× 100) was less than 0.86, the risk of T2DM decreased significantly as the Cre/BW ratio increased [0.01 (0.00, 0.10), P < 0.001]. When the Cre/BW ratio (× 100) was between 0.86 and 1.36, the reduction in the risk of developing T2DM was not as significant as before [0.22 (0.12, 0.38), P < 0.001]. In contrast, when the Cre/BW ratio (× 100) was greater than 1.36, the reduction in T2DM incidence became significantly flatter than before [0.73 (0.29,1.8), P = 0.49]. Conclusion There was an L-shaped relation of Cre/BW ratio with incidence of T2DM in general Chinese adults. A negative curvilinear association between Cre/BW ratio and incident T2DM was present, with a saturation effect predicted at 0.86 and 1.36 of Cre/BW ratio (× 100).

Trials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Tao Yuan ◽  
Hongyu He ◽  
Yuepeng Liu ◽  
Jianwei Wang ◽  
Xin Kang ◽  

Abstract Background Blood glucose levels that are too high or too low after traumatic brain injury (TBI) negatively affect patient prognosis. This study aimed to demonstrate the relationship between blood glucose levels and the Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) in TBI patients. Methods This study was based on a randomized, dual-center, open-label clinical trial. A total of 208 patients who participated in the randomized controlled trial were followed up for 5 years. Information on the disease, laboratory examination, insulin therapy, and surgery for patients with TBI was collected as candidate variables according to clinical importance. Additionally, data on 5-year and 6-month GOS were collected as primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. For multivariate analysis, a generalized additive model (GAM) was used to investigate relationships between blood glucose levels and GOS. The results are presented as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). We further applied a two- piecewise linear regression model to examine the threshold effect of blood glucose level and GOS. Results A total of 182 patients were included in the final analysis. Multivariate GAM analysis revealed that a bell-shaped relationship existed between average blood glucose level and 5-year GOS score or 6-month GOS score. The inflection points of the average blood glucose level were 8.81 (95% CI: 7.43–9.48) mmol/L considering 5-year GOS as the outcome and were 8.88 (95% CI 7.43−9.74) mmol/L considering 6-month GOS score as the outcome. The same analysis revealed that there was also a bell relationship between average blood glucose levels and the favorable outcome group (GOS score ≥ 4) at 5 years or 6 months. Conclusion In a population of patients with traumatic brain injury, blood glucose levels were associated with the GOS. There was also a threshold effect between blood glucose levels and the GOS. A blood glucose level that is either too high or too low conveys a poor prognosis. Trial registration NCT02161055. Registered on 11 June 2014.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0257498
Kaiyang Zhong

In recent years, digital finance has become a crucial part of the financial system and reshaped the mode of green finance in China. Digital finance has brought certain impact on economic growth, industrial structure, and resident income, which may affect pollution. The nexus of digital finance and environment in China is thus worth exploring. By revising the traditional Environmental Kuznets Curve model with income inequality variable, this paper decomposes the environmental effects of economic activities into income growth effect, industrial structure effect and income inequality effect, and use panel data of China’s provinces to conduct an empirical analysis. The results reveal the following: (1) the Environmental Kuznets Curve is still valid in sample, and digital finance can reduce air and water pollution (as measured through SO2 and COD emission) directly; (2) in the influence mechanism, digital finance can alleviate income inequality and promote green industrial structure, thus reducing pollution indirectly, but the scale effect of income growth outweighs the technological effect, which increases pollution indirectly; and (3) digital finance has a threshold effect on improving the environment, then an acceleration effect appears after a certain threshold value. From the regional perspective, digital finance development in eastern regions is generally ahead of central and western regions, and the effects of environmental improvement in the eastern regions are greater. According to the study, this paper suggest that digital finance can be an effective way to promote social sustainability by alleviating income inequality and environmental sustainability by reducing pollution.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 28-36
Riadh El Abed ◽  
Zouheir Mighri ◽  
Abderrazek Ben Hamouda

In this article, we estimate the links between nominal exchange rates (JPY/USD and CNY/USD) and economic policy uncertainty (EPU) in China and Japan by employing monthly data during the period span from January 1997 to September 2020. The threshold cointegration approach focus in TAR, M-TAR, C-TAR and C-MTAR is used. Results indicate the evidence of asymmetric effect in the adjustment process to equilibrium and the M-TAR is the best model to detect threshold effect for the (CNY/USD-CNYEPU) pair and the C-TAR is the best model to detect threshold effect for the (JPY/USD-JPYEPU) pair.  

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 310
Robert M. Geraghty ◽  
Amelia Pietropaolo ◽  
Luca Villa ◽  
John Fitzpatrick ◽  
Matthew Shaw ◽  

Background: The aim of this study is to investigate outcomes of pre-operative stent dwell time on infectious complications following ureteroscopy and stone treatment to identify a time cut-off. Material and Methods: Three tertiary referral centres in Europe retrospectively collected outcomes of ureteroscopy and laser fragmentation (URSL) for all patients with pre-operative indwelling ureteric stents over a period of up to 5 years. Data was collected on patient details, stone demographics, stent dwell time, complications and stone free rate (SFR). Matching for age, sex, operative time, stone size and post-operative stent insertion. To examine for a threshold effect, monthly cut-offs were used to compare post-ureteroscopic febrile UTIs. Binomial logistic regression was used (SPSS v.24) with a significance level set at 0.0036. The risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) and the number needed to harm (NNH) are reported. Results: There were 467 patients with a pre-operative stent for analysis. These patients (n = 315) were matched to non-stented controls after excluding 152 patients to achieve adequate matching. There was a significant difference in rates of post-ureteroscopic febrile UTI between stented vs non-stented patients (RR = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.10–6.48, p = 0.03). On adjustment, a dwell time of more than two months was associated with an increased risk of post-ureteroscopic febrile UTI (RR = 3.94, 95% CI: 1.30–12.01, p = 0.02), this increased risk rose with longer dwell time. At stent time longer than four months was associated with a significantly increased risk of post-ureteroscopic febrile UTI (5% vs. 15%, RR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.56–6.10, p = 0.001), with the number needed to harm at 10. Conclusions: Overall infectious complication rates from URSL are low. The risk of post-operative UTI after four months of dwell time is nearly tripled compared to less than four months.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Lu Shen ◽  
Guohua He

The relationship between financial system and economic development is not a simple linear relationship. In some cases, the development of finance may not improve the economic development level. This paper studies the influence of the financial system on the high-quality economic development, constructs the comprehensive index of the financial system by the factor analysis method, and calculates the green total factor productivity as the index of high-quality economic development by the CRS multiplier model. Empirically, this paper takes the panel data of 30 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions in China from 2005 to 2018 as samples, constructs the panel threshold model, and applies the financial system, economic development level, infrastructure, and industrial structure as threshold variables to study the nonlinear relationship between the financial system and high-quality economic development. The results demonstrate that the impact of the financial system on the high-quality economy presents an inverted U-shaped relationship when the financial system and industrial structure are the threshold variables, indicating that there is an optimal interval, that is, when the financial system threshold is between 0.1355 and 0.1377 and the industrial structure threshold is between 0.1364 and 0.1408, the financial system plays a greater role in the allocation of funds and has the most obvious positive impact on high-quality economic development. Meanwhile, the impact of the financial system on the high-quality shows a marginal decreasing trend when the economic development level and infrastructure are the threshold variables; when the economic development threshold is less than 0.1409 and the basic setting threshold is less than 0.1167, the financial system has the greatest effect on promoting high-quality economic development. Based on the research results, targeted policy suggestions are put forward.

2021 ◽  
Vol 39 (4 supplement) ◽  
pp. 1336-1345
Abobaker Al.Al. HADOOD ◽  
Ridha Ali Mohamed BEN SALEH ◽  
Khaled AB EMGEG ◽  

Tourism has become an information-intensive business that heavily relies on ICT to provide information and conduct transactions for consumers of touristic products and services. Thus, ICT infrastructure would play a major role in the development of the tourism sector. This paper aims to investigate the threshold effect of ICT infrastructure on tourism sector development in top10 African tourism destinations including ; Botswana, Egypt, Kenya, Morocco, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Tunisia, Uganda. To do so, a double panel threshold regression model utilized over the period 2004 to 2017. The empirical results revealed a new perspective that there is a double-threshold effect of ICT infrastructure on the development of tourism sector, indicating a non-linear effect of ICT infrastructure on the development of tourism sector in top 10 African tourism destinations. More specifically, the empirical results reveal that ICT infrastructure weakly and positively derives the number of intentional tourism arrivals and international tourist receipts when the level of ICT infrastructure is less or equal to the first threshold, while it strongly and positively derives the number of intentional tourism arrivals and international tourist when the level of ICT infrastructure is less or equal to the first and second thresholds. Thus, this paper provides important implications for policy makers, in that maximizing the benefits from information technology in developing tourism sector can be achieved when its level between certain critical threshold values.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Bongumusa Prince Makhoba ◽  
Irrshad Kaseeram ◽  
Lorraine Greyling

PurposeThis study aims to interrogate dynamic asymmetric relationships between public debt and economic growth in Southern African Developing Communities (SADC), over the period 2000–2018.Design/methodology/approachThe study employed a panel smooth transition regression (PSTR) technique to analyse dynamic asymmetric relationships between public debt and economic growth, and the threshold effect at which public debt hampers economic growth.FindingsThe findings indicate that there is a significant nonlinear effect of debt on economic growth in SADC. The study discovered a debt threshold of 60% to GDP at which debt beyond this threshold deteriorates long-term growth. The low-debt regime was found to be positive and statistically significant, while the high-debt regime is detrimental for long-term growth. Fiscal policymakers ought to consider the adoption of well-coordinated debt policies that aims to strike a balance between sustainable public debt and economic growth, within a reasonable threshold target.Originality/valueThe study focusses on asymmetric and threshold analysis of public debt on economic growth in SADC using sophisticated panel smooth transition regression (STAR). This study provides rigorous empirical evidence within the SADC perspective in which previous studies have predominantly been confined in advanced economies.

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