scholarly journals Aqueous Allium sativum (garlic) extract ameliorated CdCl2- induced alterations in blood formation and spermatogenesis in albino rats

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 309-314
Edmund Chidiebere Mbegbu ◽  
Rita Ifeoma Odo ◽  
Paul Tobechukwu Ozioko ◽  
Mark Ebubechukwu Awachie ◽  
Lotanna Gilbert Nwobi ◽  

Purpose: To investigate the ameliorative effect of aqueous garlic extract (AGEx) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2-induced) alterations in the blood and testicles of rats. Methods: A total of 24 male rats (160 - 200 g), randomly assigned into 4 groups (A - D; n = 6), were used to investigate the claimed protective effect of AGEx on blood and spermatogenic tissues following CdCl2-intoxication in albino rats. The rats in Group A served as controls and were given 5 mg/mL of deionized water. Group B rats were given 300 mg/kg of AGEx. Group C rats were given 2 mg/kg of CdCl2. Rats in Group D first received 2 mg/kg of CdCl2, and 300 mg/kg of AGEx 2 h later. All treatments were done every 48 h for a period of six weeks. Results: CdCl2 administration to group C rats reduced (p < 0.05) haematocrit value (PCV), concentration of haemoglobin (Hb), red cells count (RBC), total leucocytes count (tWBC), eosinophil, neutrophil, testicular weights and sperm reserves; but elevated (p < 0.05) lymphocytes count compared with the controls. AGEx 300 mg/kg in group D rats significantly reversed (p < 0.05) the altered parameters compared with the controls. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that administration of aqueous Allium sativum (garlic) extract to male rats enhances spermatogenesis, and ameliorates testicular and haematological alterations induced by cadmium poisoning. Therefore, the spermatogenic principle in AGEx is a potential candidate for the clinical management of male infertility.

O. J. Mba ◽  
G. S. Aloh ◽  
E. N. Uhuo

Aim: This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of methanol extract of Napoleonae imperialis leaves against methotrexate renal damage in albino rats. Methodology: Thirty (30) male albino rats of mean weight 130 g were used for this study. The animals for the study were grouped into five (5) of six (6) rats each. Group A (normal control) received feed and water only and Group B (positive control) was induced with methotrexate without treatment. Test groups (C and D) were orally given 250 mg and 500 mg/kg b.wt of leaves extract, and group E was orally given the extract only (500 mg/kg b.wt) respectively for 14 days. All the rats used in this study were initially subjected to renal damage using 0.5 ml/kg of methotrexate except the normal control group. The rats were sacrificed after 14 days and the blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis, Results: From the result obtained, there was a significant (p< 0.05) decrease in the groups that received 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg b.wt of the plant extract in (Urea, Creatinine and Na+), and a significant increase (p< 0.05) in K+ and Cl-. Also there was a significant (p< 0.05) decrease in (Urea, Creatinine, and Na+) in comparison with the control groups and the group that received the extract only (500 mg/kg b.wt), and a significant increase (p< 0.05) in (K+ and Na+). Conclusion: The study indicates that the methanol extract of Napoleonae imperialis leaves may have exerted renal functioning effects in albino rats, and may also be used pharmacologically in the management of organ toxicity.

Olufunke Ola-Davies ◽  
O. Samuel Ajani

Abstract: Sodium arsenite has been proven to be abundant in nature and released into the environment through human activities, including agricultural and industrial processes. The objective of our study was to investigate the sperm protective potential of: The sperm protective potential of: Group B had a significantly lower (p<0.05) percentage sperm motility (26.7±6.67 %) while group A had a significantly (p<0.05) higher mean value (63.3±3.33 %) when compared across the groups. The sperm motility of rats in group D was significantly higher (p<0.05) than groups B and C. This implies that: The study concluded that ethanol leaf extract of

2019 ◽  
Vol 15 (3) ◽  
pp. 337-342
James I. Eze ◽  
Ubochioma E. Didacus

Background:Trypanosomosis is an important disease of both humans and animals commonly found in most parts of Africa and South America. Because of their activities, the parasites produce numerous changes in the cellular and biochemical constituents of blood. Also, trypanosomosis cause immunosuppression and also induce lipid peroxidation in the host. Probiotics confer beneficial health benefit to the host such as immune stimulation, protection against pathogens, metabolism, reduced oxidative stress, etc.Methods:Thirty (30) adult albino rats were assigned into 5 groups (A – E) of 6 rats each. Groups A, B and C rats were fed feed supplemented with probiotics at 0.08, 0.12 and 0.16 mg per kg respectively. On day 14 on the supplementation (OTS), groups A, B, C and D rats were infected with 1 x 106 trypanosomes intraperitonealy. Group E served as the not infected, not supplemented control.Results:The pre-infection supplementation did not vary the serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartrate transaminase (AST), urea, creatinine and total protein values of groups A, B and C. However, following infection, the ALT value of group D (infected, not supplemented) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than other groups on day 42 OTS. Also, the AST value of groups A and D were significantly (p<0.05) higher than group E but not with groups B and C on days 42 and 56 on the supplementation. On day 28 OTS, the urea level of group B was significantly (p<0.05) lower than group D whereas on days 42 and 56, group E and groups E and C were significantly (p<0.05) lower than other groups respectively. The serum creatinine level showed increase following infection with groups A and D being significantly (p<0.05) higher than other groups on days 42 and 56 OTS. On day 28 OTS, the total protein value of group A was significantly (p<0.05) lower than group C but not with other groups. By days 42 and 56 OTS, group D showed significantly (p<0.05) lower protein level when compared with other groups. The mean parasitaemia level of group D was significantly higher than other infected infected groups on days 28 and 42 on the supplementation. However, on day 56, the parasitaemia level of all infected groups did not vary (p>0.05).Conclusion:The ability of the supplementation to keep serum biochemical values before infection within range, and the subsequent maintenance of the value during most part of the infection were indication that probiotic was not toxic and may play a vital role in management of trypanosomosis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 32 (01) ◽  
pp. 09-14
Annum Basit ◽  
Attya Shahid ◽  
Shagufta Nasreen

Objective: to reveal the effects of sea buckthorn seed oil on acetaminophen induced variations (Diameter of hepatocytes and vacuolization) in liver of rats. Methods: it was experimental study, conducted at Post Graduate Medical Institute. This study was performed on 24 adult rats, which were then randomly separated into 4 groups A,B,C and D. the experiment lasted for 13 days. Group A was control received normal saline and distilled water. Group B, received acetaminophen750mg/kg as single dose on day 10. Group C and D received acetaminophen at dose of 750mg/kg along with sea buckthorn seed oil extract 2.6mg/kg and 5.2mg/kg. Liver was removed and fixed in 10% formalin. To observe the effect of acetaminophen and sea buckthorn seed oil , slides were prepared for histological examination. The diameter of hepatocytes and vacuolization was observed. The evaluation of results was done by using SPSS 21. Results: In Group B, vacuolization was seen in all animals and significant increase in mean diameter (11.9± 1.5 μm) of hepatocytes was seen. However in Group C, vacuolization was absent in all animals and mean hepatocyte diameter was (6 ± 0.6 μm). In Group D, no vacuolization was seen in all animals and mean hepatocyte diameter decreased to (5.2± 1.5 μm) after administration of SBT seed oil. Conclusion: Administration of SBT( 2.6mg/kg and 5.2mg/kg) exerts a protective effect against damaging effects of ACM ( 750 mg/kg) on hepatocytes in albino rats. This hepatoprotective role becomes greater with increasing dose of SBT.

2019 ◽  
Vol 26 (12) ◽  
pp. 2206-2215
Rabia Sajjad Toor ◽  
Faiza Irshad ◽  
Sania Asif

Endocrine Disrupting chemicals including bisphenols have contaminated the environment significantly and is known to damage spermatogenesis via increase in oxidative stress. The anti-oxidant properties of naturally occurring substances like curcumin have been well established. Objectives: To evaluate the protective effects of curcumin against bisphenol-A induced testicular damage. Study Design: Experimental Study. Setting: Department of Anatomy, University of Health Sciences, Lahore. Period: From March 2015 to December 2015. Material & Methods: Thirty six rats were divided into four groups A, B, C and D of 9 animals each. Group A (control) was given 5ml/kg/day of corn oil orally for 10 days. Group B (Bisphenol-A) was given 100mg/kg/day of Bisphenol-A dissolved in corn oil orally for 10 days. Group C (recovery) was given 100mg/kg/day of BPA dissolved in corn oil orally for 10 days and left untreated for 10 days. Group D (Curcumin + BPA) was given 100mg/kg/day of BPA and 100mg/kg/day of Curcumin, dissolved in corn oil orally for 10 days. Rats of group A, B and D were sacrificed on day 11 and those of group C on day 21. After weighing the euthanized rats, testes were removed, processed and tissue sections were stained with H&E for Johnson scoring and with PAS stain for assessment of basement membrane integrity. Results: Bisphenol-A administration caused a significant decrease in weight of animals, a significantly low Johnson score of seminiferous tubules and high frequency of disrupted basement membranes of the tubules in Group B as compared to control. The weight gain of animals improved in the with-drawl group C while no self-recovery was observed in other parameters. Curcumin co-administration improved the body weight gain of animals, increased the Johnson scoring of tubules significantly and partially restored the basement membrane integrity in group D, comparable to the control group. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that co-administration of a potent antioxidant curcumin causes a significant antagonism of the histo-toxicity of testis produced by Bisphenol-A in albino rats.

2020 ◽  
Adeoye Waheed Saka ◽  
Busuyi David Kehinde ◽  
Adebola Olayemi Akintola ◽  
Samuel Seyi Oyekanmi ◽  
Ajoke Esther Oyewande ◽  

Abstract Background: The excessive use of alcohol can lead to alcohol liver damage. However, natural compounds such as honey and kolanut have been investigated to have hepatoprotective activities against liver damage. Objectives: The possible protective effects of aqueous extract of kolanut and honey and the combination of both on alcohol induced hepatotoxicity of male rats were investigated.Materials and Methods: The rats were randomly divided into five equal groups (n=6). Group A was allowed access to water; Group B received ethanol (45% at 3g/kg) once for 21 days, Group C, D and E received alcohol an hour before treated with 50mg/kg of Cola nitida, 2.5g/kg of honey and combination of both respectively. Histopathological analysis and measurement of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase (CAT).Results: Administration of ethanol (45%) at 3g/kg to rats resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increase in the activities of hepatic markers enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP) as compared with control. Pretreatment of rats with kolanut (50 mg/kg) and honey (2.5g/kg) separately caused significant reduction in ALT, AST and ALP activities while pretreatment with combination of both was not better than the decrease observed when pretreated separately as compared to alcohol-induced group. Conversely, the results of oxidative stress and histological findings took a different pattern in all the pretreated groups.Conclusion: The result showed that the combination of honey and kolanut does not work synergistically in alcohol-induced hepatic damage.

2020 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 773-780
Martins S. AKOGWU ◽  
Chukwuka N. UCHENDU ◽  
Rita I. ODO

This study evaluated the influence of human chorionic gonadotropin on hormonal and haematological profile of postpubertal male albino rats exposed to chronic oral administration of alcohol. Twenty-four mature male albino rats were assigned to four groups (n=6). Group A was the control, given distilled water, Group B was given 30% ethanol (8 ml/kg) orally 3 times a week, Group C was given human chorionic gonadotropin (HcG) (50 IU/kg) subcutaneously 3 times a week and Group D was given HcG (50 IU/kg) subcutaneously + 30% ethanol (8 ml/kg) orally 3 times a week. The study was for 10 weeks, and hormonal profile and haematology were determined. The follicle stimulating hormone of Group B decreased significantly (P<0.05) when compared to Groups A, C and D. The luteinizing hormone was significantly lower (P<0.05) in Group B when compared to Groups A, C and D. The testosterone level was significantly higher (P<0.05) in Group D when compared to Groups A, B and C. The results obtained from haematology indicated that haemoglobin concentration of Group B was significantly lower (P<0.05) when compared to Groups A, C and D. Ethanol significantly reduced (P<0.05) platelets when compared to Groups A, C and D. There was a significant reduction (P<0.05) in the neutrophils and lymphocytes in Group B when compared to Groups A, C and D. The study showed that HcG improves the level of male hormones and haematology in postpubertal albino rats exposed to chronic alcohol administration.


Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the gastroprotective potential of Cajanus cajan seed aqueous extract (CCSE) on experimentally induced gastric ulcer in albino rats. Methods: Preliminary acute toxicity study was conducted to determine the oral median lethal dose (LD50). Twenty (20) male rats divided into 5 groups (A-E) of 4 animals each were used. Group A (normal control) and B (ulcer model) received 10ml/kg distilled water. Groups C, D and E received Cimetidine (100mg/kg b.w intraperitoneally), 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg b.w of CCSE orally respectively, once daily for seven (7) days. On Day 8, gastric ulcers were induced in groups B – E using 80% ethanol (1ml/rat) prior to sacrifice. Ulcer indices were determined on excised stomach tissues prior to further processing for histological examination. Results: The LD50 of CCSE is greater than 5g/kg b.w. Cimetidine and CCSE treatments showed statistically significant decrease (p<0.05) in ulcer indices compared to group B (ulcer model). Histological features revealed noticeable preservation of the gastric mucosa in consistence with the macroscopical findings. Conclusion: The present study revealed that C. cajan seed extract possesses gastroprotective properties against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers.

2010 ◽  
Vol 17 (01) ◽  
pp. 21-30
Nabeela Kaukab ◽  
Muhammad Ismail Ismail ◽  

Aim and Objective: The study was conducted to see the effects of dexamethasone (synthetic corticosteroid) on involution ofhyperplastic thyroid gland in albino rats, and to evaluate its uses in thyroid diseases. Study Design: Comparative histological study done inPostgraduate Medical Institute Lahore in 1998. Materials and methods: 54 adult male rats were taken and divided at random into control grouphaving 27 rats and experimental groups containing 27 rats. Control group was given normal diet along with 2 microgram of Potassium iodidefor 21 days while experimental groups further subdivided into group A having 3 rats and group B and C containing 12 rats each. All theexperimental groups were treated with Thiourea. Group A was sacrificed on day 22 after withdrawal of thiourea. Group B was given Potassiumiodide after stoppage of thiourea on day 21 and were sacrificed on days 22, 26, 30 and 50 in 4 sub groups (B1- B4). Group C was injectedDexamethasone daily from day 22 to day 50 and sacrificed on same days in 4 subgroups (C1-C2) to study involution process. Results:Histologically experimental group A exhibited significant increase in width and length of follicular cells lining the small sized follicles havingscanty colloid. The results of experimental subgroups B revealed early and complete involution whereas subgroups C showed significantlypersistent hyperplastic changes in the form of tall follicular cells lining small empty follicles. Conclusion: Thus it was concluded thatdexamehasone did retain hyperplastic changes during involution process, so steroid should consciously be used in thyroid diseases.

Mfon Isua Akpaso ◽  
A. O. Igiri ◽  
P. A. Odey

The effects of  methanolic leaf extracts of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) (Bitter leaf) and Gongronema latifolium (GL) (Utazi) and metformin on the histology and the DNA of the pancreas of streptozocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats were investigated in this study. 24 male albino rats which were divided into four groups of six rats each were used for this work: A (Normal control) and B (Diabetic control) received tap water, C received 5mg/kg of Metformin daily, D received combined extract of VA and GL, 400mg/kg twice daily. Groups B – D animals were induced for diabetes by intraperitoneal injection of 45mg/kg of Streptozocin, Following sacrifice, the pancreas and blood were collected for histopathological and biochemical studies. The results revealed normal exocrine and endocrine pancreas in group A. In group B, the pancreatic islets cells were shrunken with signs of degeneration and inflammation. In the group that received metformin, the islet appeared shrunken. In group D, the pancreas showed prominent and normal acinar and islet cells, suggestive of a possible regeneration. Feulgen’s reaction showed damage to the DNA of group B which was almost completely reversed in group D. The blood glucose in group B was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to group A. In all the treatment groups, the blood glucose was significantly reduced (p<0.05) compared to group B.  Administration of methanolic leaf extracts of Vernonia amygdalina and Gongronema latifolium especially in combination restores pancreatic beta cells damaged by STZ compared to metformin. 

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