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2022 ◽  
Shiferaw Gelchu

Abstract Background COVID-19 brings several challenges to nursing education that involves both classroom theory and clinical-based practical education. These challenges affect the function of health care and academic institution. The students were vulnerable to the challenges of COVID-19 in the clinical care setting. The aim of this study was to explore the challenges of COVID-19 experienced by nursing students during their clinical practice education. Methods The qualitative study method used a phenomenological approach. A total of four Focus group discussions were conducted in this study. Each FGD consists of six participants in which twelve from third and twelve from fourth-year nursing students. The Quota sampling technique was applied in this study to enroll study participants. The moderator who fluently speaks the English language and Note taker was involved in the study to guide group discussion and to record the data. ATLAS.ti version-7 software was used for coding and forming quotations. Results After data analysis, four main themes and twelve subthemes emerged in this study. The main themes of this study were; Risks to contracting COVID-19, Negative impact on health care, Worry, and Loss of experienced staff. Conclusion Nursing students faced many challenges of COVID-19 during clinical practices. These challenges affect nursing students in learning practical skills and health care facilities to provide quality care. The students give emphasize on their learning by implementing COVID-19 prevention protocols. In addition, health care workers focused on safe procedural practices.

Shahzadi Mahmuda ◽  

Maternal health service had a potentially critical role in the improvement of reproductive health. This descriptive study was carried out in Tangail district, from 1st January to 31st December, 2019 to find out the quality of counselling of services for pregnant women in community clinics during pregnancy period. Data were collected among 289 respondents by face to face interview who had delivered within last 24 months and respondents were selected purposively. The majority (97.6%) of the respondents were housewife and maximum (72%) of the respondent were below SSC in this study monthly family income mean was taka 16124.00± 10065.480. Majority of the respondents (99.2%) had received antenatal check-up from different health care facilities and highest (87.2%) had received from the community clinic other hands (6.0%) pregnant women got antenatal care from non-government hospital among 250 respondents (94.0%) pregnant women received ANC from CHCP also (4%) pregnant women received ANC from HA. Out of 250 pregnant women (70%) of the respondents were problem suffer during pregnancy. Here majority (59.6%) pregnant women were suffer from nausea and vomiting and only (6.3%) were suffering from constipation. Majority (89.2%) of the respondents had preparation about danger sign during pregnancy. Most 245 (98%) of the respondents of pregnant women had information about ANC and most (85.7%) got information from CHCF on other hand ride got information (2.9%) from neighbour. half (4.8%) of the respondents choice of conduct delivery at upazila health complex followed by (48.8%) only choice of conduct clinics. Most (98%) of the respondents had received TT vaccine and maximum (95.1%) of the respondents had completed TT vaccine. Enough skilled manpower for patient care (98.4%). Health care provider perform ANC check-up (96.8%). Health care provider counselling during pregnancy (96.4%) physical examination (98.0%) explanation of health. (99.2%) health care provider give any advice before departure (70.4%). Continue to follow-up health status over phone (99.2%). Service providers in health care shows that 33.3% was BSc/BA, 42.9% of service providers were masters and above their professional training more than one third (38.1%) of the providers has basic training, 47.6% had basic & CSBA and rest 14.3% had ECT and nutritional training. Majority 100% of the provider’s designation had CHCP, number of staff in two health care had more than half (57.1%) providers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (6) ◽  
pp. 738-754
D. V. Blinov ◽  
E. S. Akarachkova ◽  
D. M. Ampilogova ◽  
E. M. Dzhobava ◽  
V. I. Tsibizova ◽  

Surgical and natural menopause is often associated with depression symptoms. Along with the postpartum period, perimenopause is a “window of vulnerability” for depression development, because decline in estrogen level accounts for extinction of reproductive function, emotional disorders, genitourinary menopausal syndrome, which are combined with non-endocrine risk factors, such as decreasing income levels, low social support, and stress. Although a direct relationship between blood estrogens level and depression has not been demonstrated, the relation between menopause symptoms and depression has been proven, i.e., the symptoms of menopause can be considered as risk factors. Here, we summarizes the current view on the correct counseling and routing of menopausal women with depression symptoms in primary health care facilities, the principles of managing patients with risk factors, including genitourinary menopausal syndrome, as well as methods of rehabilitation and informational support. This will aid to improve the quality of medical care for such patients.

Atul Kapoor ◽  
Aprajita Kapoor ◽  
Goldaa Mahajan

Abstract Background Evaluation of suspected coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patient is a diagnostic dilemma as it commonly presents like influenza in early stages. Studies and guidelines have emerged both for and against the use of imaging as a frontline tool to investigate such patients. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is suggested as the backbone of diagnosis. We designed and tested a diagnostic algorithm using artificial intelligence (AI) to determine the role of imaging in the evaluation of patients with acute flu-like presentation. Materials and Methods Overall, 3,235 consecutive patients with flu-like presentation were evaluated over a period of 240 days. All patients underwent plain radiographs of chest with computer-aided detection for COVID-19 (CAD4COVID) AI analysis. Based on the threshold scores, they were divided into two groups: group A (score < 50) and group B (score > 50). Group A patients were discharged and put on routine symptomatic treatment and follow-up with RT-PCR, while group B patients underwent high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) followed by COVID-19 AI analysis and RT-PCR test. These were then triaged into COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 subgroups based on COVID-19 similarity scores by AI, and lung severity scores were also determined. Results Group A had 2,209 (68.3%) patients with CAD4COVID score of <50 while 1,026 (31.7%) patients comprised group B. Also, 825 (25.5%) patients were COVID-19 positive with COVID-19 similarity threshold of >0.85 on AI. RT-PCR was positive in 415 and false-negative in 115 patients while 12 patients died before the test could be done. The sensitivity and specificity of CAD4COVID AI analysis on plain radiographs for detection of any lung abnormality combined with HRCT AI analysis was 97.9% and 99% using the above algorithm. Conclusion Combined use of chest radiographs and plain HRCT with AI-based analysis is useful and an accurate frontline tool to triage patients with acute flu-like symptoms in non-COVID-19 health care facilities.

Bahar Shahverdi ◽  
Elise Miller-Hooks ◽  
Mersedeh Tariverdi ◽  
Hadi Ghayoomi ◽  
David Prentiss ◽  

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of key hospital units associated with emergency care of both routine emergency and pandemic (COVID-19) patients under capacity enhancing strategies. Methods: This investigation was conducted using whole-hospital, resource-constrained, patient-based, stochastic, discrete-event simulation models of a generic 200-bed urban U.S. tertiary hospital serving routine emergency and COVID-19 patients. Systematically designed numerical experiments were conducted to provide generalizable insights into how hospital functionality may be affected by the care of COVID-19 pandemic patients along specially designated care paths under changing pandemic situations from getting ready to turning all of its resources to pandemic care. Results: Several insights are presented. For example, each day of reduction in average ICU length of stay increases intensive care unit patient throughput by up to 24% for high COVID-19 daily patient arrival levels. The potential of five specific interventions and two critical shifts in care strategies to significantly increase hospital capacity is described. Conclusions: These estimates enable hospitals to repurpose space, modify operations, implement crisis standards of care, prepare to collaborate with other health care facilities, or request external support, increasing the likelihood that arriving patients will find an open staffed bed when one is needed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (1) ◽  
pp. 51-58
Sathi Binte Ali ◽  
Mohammad Asraful Alam

Background: To assess the health care facilities provided for senior citizens in selected tertiary hospitals. Methods: This descriptive type of cross-sectional study was carried out among service providers (doctors and nurses) and hospital administrators within the period of January to December 2020. A total of 305 respondents was selected purposively. Semi structured questionnaire and observational checklist was used to collect data. Data was collected by face to face interview and observation. Data was analyzed by using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) software version 25. Results: Among participants, Administrator 2.6%, Doctor 25.2% and Nurse 72.1%. Mean age of the respondents was 32.72±7.67 years. Most of the respondents 90.8% working experience less than 10 years and their average monthly income was Tk. 35398.90±16509.12. In DMCH separate geriatric ward present but in BSMMU geriatric ward absent. Rehabilitation center & long-term care facilities for elderly patients, telemedicine service, separation facility for non COVID geriatric patients from COVID positive patients, free care facility for poor elderly patients, social welfare support facilities present in both hospitals. Separate bed facility in general wards, geriatric ICU and COVID ward absent, training facility on geriatric health absent in both hospitals. Majority of the respondents 97.0% take consent before any procedure, 89.6% service provider involve geriatric patients in decision making about their care and treatment, 56.6% respondents follow polypharmacy guideline. Opinion regarding utility service was average. Opinion regarding diagnostic facilities, essential drugs, sterilization facilities, of this hospital for senior citizens was moderately sufficient 50.5%, 60.6% and 59.3% respectively and ambulance service insufficient 53.4%. Among respondents 89.8% face barriers in providing geriatric health care. Opinion regarding the existing health care facilities for senior citizens of this hospitals insufficient 52.8%. Regarding improvement of health care services 26.0% mentioned that training of doctor/ nurses followed by separate geriatric ward facilities for geriatric patients 20.8%, increase the number of supporting staff 16.2%, free health care facilities for poor elderly patients 11.8%, training of supporting staffs 10.6%, training for informal/family caregiver 7.4%, separate bed for geriatric patient in general wards 6.4% and the rest others mentioned 0.7%. Analysis found statistically significant association between national guideline follow for the treatment and care of older patients and their educational qualification (0.001), designation (p=0.001), polypharmacy guideline follows for the treatment and care of older patients and their designation, referral guideline follows for geriatric patients and their designation (p=0.001). Conclusion: To provide quality healthcare service to the senior citizens of Bangladesh, geriatric health care should be given highest priority. JOPSOM 2021; 40(1): 51-58

2022 ◽  
Endrias Zewdu Gebremedhin ◽  
Weraka Weya ◽  
Chala Dima ◽  
Demeke Zewde ◽  
Vincenzo Di Marco Lo Presti ◽  

Abstract Background Canine Leishmania infantum infection is a major vector-borne zoonosis. Most cases of canine leishmanias are caused by Leishmania infantum, but other species can also be found. In the Old and New Worlds, leishmaniasis is spread by the bite of phlebotomine female sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia respectively. The objectives of the study were to estimate the seroprevalence and associated risk factors in Weliso, Ambo, and Ejaji towns of South-West and West Shewa Zones, Oromia, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2019 to September 2020. The study population consists of dogs found in the study towns. The study subjects include 368 dogs selected by using a simple random sampling method. A blood sample (5 ml) was collected to test for the presence of rK39 antigen inducing specific antibodies using an Indirect ELISA kit. All the data were analyzed using the STATA version 14 software program. Pearson’s Chi-square and logistic regression tests were used to evaluate the association between the seropositivity of canine Leishmania infantums and hypothesized risk factors. Results An overall canine Leishmania infantum seroprevalence of 84.24% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 80 - 88%) was obtained. In Weliso, Ambo, and Ejaji towns canine Leishmania infantum seroprevalence of 79.82% (95% CI: 71- 87%), 76.11% (95% CI: 67- 84%), and 93.84% (95% CI:89 – 97%) were found respectively. Univariable logistic regression analysis showed that town (P=0.001), season (P=0.001), mixed living environment (P=0.003), and Kebele (P<0.05) were significantly associated with Leishmania infantum seropositivity. However, the multivariable analysis indicated that wet season (P = 0.001) and a mixed living environment (P = 0.025) were independent predictors of canine Leishmania infantum seropositivity. Conclusion The seroprevalence of canine Leishmania infantum in dogs was very high. Wet season and mixed living environment are predictors of seropositivity. The high percentage of seropositive dogs indicates the potential role of dogs to maintain the infection and the possible spread of L. infantum infection to humans. Therefore, improvement of the living environment and health care facilities of domesticated dogs, community awareness and health education, and further epidemiological studies are suggested.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Tanit Arunratanothai ◽  
Ravisorn Booncharoen ◽  
Sirapop Suwankomolkul ◽  
Nareudee Limpuangthip

Abstract Background Thailand has encountered an imbalanced dentist distribution and an internal brain drain of dentists from public to private health care facilities. To tackle these challenges, the compulsory service (CS) program, which has been initially implemented for physicians, was extended for dentists. Method This policy and workforce document review describes the background, development, and policy implementation of the CS program in Thailand during the past three decades. Outcomes after policy implementation and future directions are also discussed. The information was gathered from the relevant policy and workforce documents available from 1961 to 2021. Results In Thailand, junior dentists, specifically newly graduates, have to enroll in the CS program by working as oral health practitioners in public hospitals for at least 3 years. Dentists must pay a maximum fine of 400 000 baht (~ 12 571 USD) if they wish to skip the program. This fine is lowered according to the number of attending years in the program. CS program conditions are related to each university’s admission track. The CS enrolled dentists receive several financial and non-financial benefits, including educational, employment-related, and living provisions. Altogether, successive Thai governments have launched directive policies to increase dentist distribution in rural areas and their retention in public hospitals. These policies have been implemented in 3 stages: (1) increase production of new dentists, (2) allocation of newly dental graduates to public hospitals, and (3) provide benefits for working in public hospitals. Conclusion During the past three decades, several public policies have been implemented to improve dentist retention and distribution to public hospitals across Thailand, particularly in rural areas. The present CS program may not completely resolve the oral health inequalities because the dentist retention rate in public hospitals depends on multi-dimensional considerations. Further modifications on the CS program and future well-planned policies are needed.

2022 ◽  
Davy Wadula Zulu ◽  
Adam Silumbwe ◽  
Patricia Maritim ◽  
Joseph Mumba Zulu

Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent globally, yet 3 million cases are missed every year. The World Health Organization recommends systematic screening of suspected active TB patients among those visiting the healthcare facilities. While many countries have scaled-up systematic screening of TB, there has been limited assessment of the extent of its integration into the health system. This study sought to explore factors that shaped the integration of systematic screening of TB in outpatient departments of primary healthcare facilities in Kitwe district, Zambia. Methods This was a qualitative case study with health providers including district managers, TB focal point persons and laboratory personnel working in six purposively selected primary healthcare facilities. Data was collected through key informant (n=8) and in-depth (n=15) interviews. Data analysis was conducted using QDA Miner software and guided by Atun’s Integration framework. Results Integration was facilitated by perceptions of the magnitude of the TB burden, alignment of the intervention with national TB aspirations, knowledge of stakeholder interests, power and values, regular performance management and intra-facility collaboration. Constraining factors included external partners’ influence in the TB screening program, unbalanced incentivization mechanisms, donor-driven financing and social determinants of health such as gender and stigma including the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion Systematic screening of TB is not well integrated into the primary healthcare facilities to capture all those suspected with active TB that make contact with the health system. Finding the missing TB cases will, therefore, require contextual adaptation of the systematic screening for TB and strengthening the health system.

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