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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 601
Olga I. Yablonskaya ◽  
Vladimir L. Voeikov ◽  
Kirill N. Novikov ◽  
Ekaterina V. Buravleva ◽  
Valeriy A. Menshov ◽  

Water vapor absorbs well in the infra-red region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Absorption of radiant energy by water or water droplets leads to formation of exclusion zone water that possesses peculiar physico-chemical properties. In the course of this study, normally functioning and damaged alkaline phosphatase, horseradish peroxidase and catalase were treated with humid air irradiated with infrared light with a wavelength in the range of 1270 nm and referred to as coherent humidity (CoHu). One-minute long treatment with CoHu helped to partially protect enzymes from heat inactivation, mixed function oxidation, and loss of activity due to partial unfolding. Authors suggest that a possible mechanism underlying the observed effects involves altering the physicochemical properties of aqueous media while treatment of the objects with CoHu where CoHu acts as an intermediary.

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 108
Denis V. Yanykin ◽  
Dmitriy E. Burmistrov ◽  
Alexander V. Simakin ◽  
Julia A. Ermakova ◽  
Sergey V. Gudkov

The influence of light conversion induced by glasses coated with up-converting luminescent nanoparticles on Solanum lycopersicum cultivation was studied. Nanoparticles of Sr0.46Ba0.50Yb0.02Er0.02F2.04 solid solution were used as the up-converting luminophore. These nanoparticles were able to transform IR radiation into visible light (λem = 660 nm with minor peaks at 545 nm and 525 nm). By applying the “variable” chlorophyll fluorescence (ΔF), it was shown that the cultivation of tomatoes under the photoconversion glasses stimulated changes in the rate of plant adaptation to ultraviolet radiation. The restoration time of values of effective quantum yield of photosystem II photochemical reactions and photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence (reflecting disappearance of imbalance between photosynthetic electron transport and the utilization of NADPH) was reduced from three weeks to three days in the case of control and photoconversion films, respectively. As a result, plants grown under photoconversion glass had an increased leaf number (12.5%), total leaf area (33%), stem length (35%) and chlorophyll content in the leaves (two-fold). It is assumed that an increase in the proportion of red light in the growing spectrum has a positive effect on photosynthetic activity and plant growth.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 1721
Priyanka Bhardwaj ◽  
Manidipa Roy ◽  
Sanjay Kumar Singh

This paper presents 2 dimensional (2D) and 1 dimensional (1D) gold (Au) coated VO2 (Vanadium Dioxide) nanogratings based tunable plasmonic switch. VO2 is a phase changing material and hence exhibits phase transition from semiconductor to metallic phase approximately at 67 ºC or 340 K (critical temperature) which can be achieved by exposure to IR radiation, application of voltage, heating, etc. and there is a huge contrast between optical properties of its metallic and insulating phases and hence that can be utilized to implement VO2 based optical switches. These VO2 based gratings couple the incident optical radiation to plasmonic waveguide modes which in turn leads to high electromagnetic field enhancement in the gaps between the nanogratings. The proposed Au coated VO2 nanogratings can be fabricated by using current state of art fabrication techniques and provides switchability of the order of femtoseconds. Hence the optical switching explained in our paper can be used fast switching applications. For an optimum switch our aim is to maximize its differential reflectance spectra between the 2 states of VO2, i.e., metallic and semiconductor phases. Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) reveals that wavelengths for maximum differential reflectance can be optimized over a large spectral regime by varying various parameters of nanogratings for example groove height (h), width (w), gap (g) between the gratings, and thickness (t) of Au coating over VO2 by simulation using RCWA for maximum differential reflectance between VO2 metal and semiconductor phase, i.e., the switching wavelengths can be tuned by varying grating parameters and thus we can have optimum optical switch.

2022 ◽  
Vol 962 (1) ◽  
pp. 012027
A O Orlov ◽  
A A Gurulev ◽  
S V Tsyrenzhapov

Abstract A method of measuring transmittance of radiation from the film of ice 0 in the infrared wave band is described. Ice 0 is formed from supercooled water at the temperature below –23°C. This ice is ferroelectric and forms a highly conductive layer of the nanometric order of thickness at the boundary with dielectric. The complexity of the experiment consisted in the necessity of using low intensities of the probing signal and considering radiation of the cooled parts of the installation. In order to obtain a thin film of ice, the method of depositing water vapor on a substrate cooled in nitrogen was used. The method rules out formation of condensate in cooling. Deposition of water vapor is possible only in heating, when delivery of cold nitrogen vapor into the chamber with the sample is excluded. To ensure exposure of the film to IR radiation, two sources of infrared radiation were considered: a halogen lamp with a broad radiation spectrum (on the surface of heated glass) and a CO2 laser with the radiation wavelength of 10.6 µm. In the first case, spectral measurements are possible when filters are used. In the installation based on a CO2 laser, an intense signal is emitted, requiring consideration of sample heating. Components of the installation have been elaborated and investigated, on which transmittance of radiation from the film of ice 0 is planned to be measured.

2022 ◽  
Vol 130 (2) ◽  
pp. 325
И.Д. Скурлов ◽  
П.С. Парфёнов ◽  
А.В. Соколова ◽  
Д.А. Татаринов ◽  
А.А. Бабаев ◽  

Semiconductor 2D nanostructures are a new platform for the creation of modern optoelectronic devices. Layered 2D PbSe-MoS2 nanostructures with efficient photoinduced charge transfer from PbSe nanoplatelets (NPLs) to MoS2 were created. When PbSe NPLs with short organic ligands are deposited onto a thin layer of MoS2 NPLs, a decrease in their photoluminescence intensity and a decrease in the average photoluminescence lifetime are observed. When a layered 2D PbSe-MoS2 nanostructure is illuminated with IR radiation, a photocurrent appears, which indicates the contribution of PbSe NPLs to the electrical response of the system. Ultrathin layers of transition metal dichalcogenides sensitized with nanostructures based on lead chalcogenides can be used in photodetectors with a spectral sensitivity region extended to the near-IR range.

David Römisch ◽  
Julian Popp ◽  
Dietmar Drummer ◽  
Marion Merklein

AbstractIn times of increasing global warming, the awareness of the necessity for significant CO2 reduction is growing. Especially in the transport and aerospace sector, lightweight construction has potential to achieve emission reduction goals by reducing the overall vehicle weight. Thereby, adding lightweight fibre-reinforced composites to materials such as steel and aluminium is used to achieve weight savings. Furthermore, continuous-fibre-reinforced thermoplastics (CFRTs) begin to replace more traditional thermoset thermoplastics due to their easier bulk production and uncomplicated storage. Hybrid parts often consist of a CFRT and a higher strength metal component. Here, the joining process poses the main challenge, due to different chemical and physical properties of the components. In the current state of the art, riveted and bolted joints are commonly used, leading to increased weight due to auxiliary elements and requiring precise bolt holes often destroying load-bearing fibres. Joining with cold formed pin structures is an innovative and versatile joining process, which avoids the need for auxiliary elements. These pins are subsequently inserted in warm formed holes in the CFRT component and then caulked to create a form-fitting hybrid joint. To obtain a fundamental understanding of this joining process, hole-forming and pin-caulking, are investigated in this study. First, the hole-forming with IR-radiation is investigated with regard to suitable process parameters and resulting fibre morphology. The formed holes are consequently mechanically characterized. Second, the caulking-process is investigated by iteratively upsetting a pin and subsequently measuring the geometry. Based on these findings two different suitable caulking degrees are defined and samples for mechanical as well as microscopic investigations are manufactured. The created joints are first investigated via micro-sections and reflected light microscopy to identify possible damage in the CFRT component, which can result from the pin caulking process. Second, a mechanical characterisation under shear load as well as pin extraction loads normal to the sample surface is conducted and the normal load tests are compared with the bearing strength of CFRT samples.

Екатерина Николаевна Муратова

Изучение оптических свойств наноразмерных мембран пористого анодного оксида алюминия позволяет значительно расширить области применения данного материала. В работе представлены результаты тепловизионных исследований мембран пористого анодного оксида алюминия с различными структурными параметрами. Построены профили распределения температуры для мембран, полученных в различных электролитах на основе серной, щавелевой и ортофосфорной кислотах. Установлено, что экранирование ИК излучения сильнее (примерно на 30%) проявляется у мембран с меньшим диаметром пор d ≈ 20 нм по сравнению с мембранами, у которых d ≈ 200 нм. Это связано с рассеиванием теплового излучения на неоднородностях структуры, которых значительно больше в мембранах пористого анодного оксида алюминия, полученных на серной кислоте. В качестве источников неоднородности выступают поры малого диаметра, недотравленные области и дефекты. Также, за счет повышенной активности серной кислоты по сравнению с другими используемыми кислотами большее количество анионов встраивается в структуру образца. Study of optical properties of nanoscale membranes of porous anodic alumina can significantly expand the scope of this material. The paper presents the results of thermal imaging studies of porous anodic alumina membranes with various structural parameters. Temperature distribution profiles for membranes obtained in various electrolytes based on sulfuric, oxalic and orthophosphoric acids have been constructed. It was found that the shielding of IR radiation is more pronounced (approximately 30 %) in membranes with a smaller pore diameter d ≈ 20 nm compared to membranes with a larger pore diameter d ≈ 200 nm. This is due to the scattering of thermal radiation on structural inhomogeneities, which are much higher in porous anodic alumina membranes obtained with sulfuric acid. Small-diameter pores, under-etched areas and defects act as sources of inhomogeneity. Also, due to the increased activity of sulfuric acid in comparison with other acids used, more anions are incorporated into the structure of the sample.

2021 ◽  
Rhiannon Boseley ◽  
Jitraporn Vongsvivut ◽  
Dominique Appadoo ◽  
Mark Hackett ◽  
Simon Lewis

Degradation of fingermark residue has a major impact on the successful forensic detection of latent fingermarks. The time course of degradation has been previously explored with bulk chemical analyses, but little is known about chemical alterations at the micron-scale. Here we report the use of synchrotron-sourced attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) microscopy to provide spatio-temporal resolution of chemical changes within fingermark droplets, as a function of time since deposition. Eccrine and sebaceous material within natural fingermark droplets were imaged on the micron scales at hourly intervals for the first 6 – 12 hours after deposition, revealing that substantial dehydration occurred within the first 8 hours. Changes to lipid material was more varied, with samples exhibiting an increase or decrease in lipid concentration due to the degradation and redistribution of this material. Across 12 donors, it was noticeable that the initial chemical composition and morphology of the droplet varied greatly, which appeared to influence on the rate of change of the droplet over time. Further, this study attempted to quantify the total water content within fingermark samples. The wide-spread nature and strength of the absorption of Terahertz/Far-infrared (THz/Far-IR) radiation by water vapour molecules were exploited for this purpose, using THz/Far-IR spectroscopy. Upon heating, water confined in natural fingermarks was evaporated and expanded in a vacuum chamber equipped with multipass optics. The amount of water vapour was then quantified by high-spectral resolution analysis, and fingermarks were observed to lose approximately 14 – 20 µg of water. The combination of both ATR-FTIR and Far-IR highlight important implications for experimental design in fingermark research, and operational practices used by law enforcement agencies.

2021 ◽  
Victor N. Uzhegov ◽  
Valeriy S. Kozlov ◽  
Mikhail V. Panchenko ◽  
Svetlana A. Terpugova ◽  
Elena P. Yausheva

2021 ◽  
pp. 000370282110643
Andrea Teuber ◽  
Robert Stach ◽  
Julian Haas ◽  
Boris Mizaikoff

An innovative mid-infrared spectroscopic sensor system based on quantum cascade lasers has been developed. The system combines the versatility of substrate-integrated hollow waveguides (IHWGs) with the robustness of attenuated total reflection (ATR) crystals employed as internal reflection waveguides for evanescent field sensing. IHWGs are highly reflective metal structures that propagate infrared (IR) radiation and were used as light pipes for coupling radiation into the ATR waveguide. The combined IHWG-ATR device has been designed such that the utmost stability and robustness of the optical alignment were ensured. This novel assembly enables evanescent field absorption measurements at yet unprecedently harsh conditions, that is, high pressure and temperature. Combining these advantages, this innovative sensor assembly is perfectly suited for taking ATR spectroscopy into the field where the robustness of the assembly and optical alignment is essential.

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