metabolic genes
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zhongpei Zhu ◽  
Min Zhang ◽  
Weidong Wang ◽  
Peng Zhang ◽  
Yuqiang Wang ◽  

Background: The alterations in metabolic profile of tumors have been identified as one of the prognostic hallmarks of cancers, including osteosarcoma. These alterations are majorly controlled by groups of metabolically active genes. However, the regulation of metabolic gene signatures in tumor microenvironment of osteosarcoma has not been well explained.Objectives: Thus, we investigated the sets of previously published metabolic genes in osteosarcoma patients and normal samples.Methods: We applied computational techniques to identify metabolic genes involved in the immune function of tumor microenvironment (TME) and survival and prognosis of the osteosarcoma patients. Potential candidate gene PAICS (phosphoribosyl aminoimidazole carboxylase, phosphoribosyl aminoimidazole succino carboxamide synthetase) was chosen for further studies in osteosarcoma cell lines for its role in cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis.Results: Our analyses identified a list of metabolic genes differentially expressed in osteosarcoma tissues. Next, we scrutinized the list of genes correlated with survival and immune cells, followed by clustering osteosarcoma patients into three categories: C1, C2, and C3. These analyses led us to choose PAICS as potential candidate gene as its expression showed association with poor survival and negative correlation with the immune cells. Furthermore, we established that loss of PAICS induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation, migration, and wound healing in HOS and MG-63 cell lines. Finally, the results were supported by constructing and validating a prediction model for prognosis of the osteosarcoma patients.Conclusion: Here, we conclude that metabolic genes specifically PAICS play an integral role in the immune cell infiltration in osteosarcoma TME, as well as cancer development and metastasis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Dong Zhang ◽  
Yiliang He ◽  
Karina Yew-Hoong Gin

Cyanobacteria are one of the dominant autotrophs in tropical freshwater communities, yet phages infecting them remain poorly characterized. Here we present the characterization of cyanophage S-SRP02, isolated from a tropical freshwater lake in Singapore, which infects Synechococcus sp. Strain SR-C1 isolated from the same lake. S-SRP02 represents a new evolutionary lineage of cyanophage. Out of 47 open reading frames (ORFs), only 20 ORFs share homology with genes encoding proteins of known function. There is lack of auxiliary metabolic genes which was commonly found as core genes in marine cyanopodoviruses. S-SRP02 also harbors unique structural genes highly divergent from other cultured phages. Phylogenetic analysis and viral proteomic tree further demonstrate the divergence of S-SRP02 from other sequenced phage isolates. Nonetheless, S-SRP02 shares synteny with phage genes of uncultured phages obtained from the Mediterranean Sea deep chlorophyll maximum fosmids, indicating the ecological importance of S-SRP02 and its related viruses. This is further supported by metagenomic mapping of environmental viral metagenomic reads onto the S-SRP02 genome.

Duanrui Liu ◽  
Jingyu Zhu ◽  
Xiaoli Ma ◽  
Lulu Zhang ◽  
Yufei Wu ◽  

Background: Chronic Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is considered the major cause of non-cardia gastric cancer (GC). However, how HP infection influences the metabolism and further regulates the progression of GC remains unknown.Methods: We comprehensively evaluated the metabolic pattern of HP-positive (HP+) GC samples using transcriptomic data and correlated these patterns with tumor microenvironment (TME)–infiltrating characteristics. The metabolic score was constructed to quantify metabolic patterns of individual tumors using principal component analysis (PCA) algorithms. The expression alterations of key metabolism-related genes (MRGs) and downstream metabolites were validated by PCR and untargeted metabolomics analysis.Results: Two distinct metabolic patterns and differential metabolic scores were identified in HP+ GC, which had various biological pathways in common and were associated with clinical outcomes. TME-infiltrating profiles under both patterns were highly consistent with the immunophenotype. Furthermore, the analysis indicated that a low metabolic score was correlated with an increased EMT subtype, immunosuppression status, and worse survival. Importantly, we identified that the expression of five MRGs, GSS, GMPPA, OGDH, SGPP2, and PIK3CA, was remarkably correlated with HP infection, patient survival, and therapy response. Furthermore, the carbohydrate metabolism and citric acid may be downstream regulators of the function of metabolic genes in HP-induced GC.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that there is cross talk between metabolism and immune promotion during HP infection. MRG-specific transcriptional alterations may serve as predictive biomarkers of survival outcomes and potential targets for treatment of patients with HP-induced GC.

Medicine ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 100 (50) ◽  
pp. e27864
Qing Chen ◽  
Ziyu Ren ◽  
Dongfang Liu ◽  
Zongrui Jin ◽  
Xuan Wang ◽  

2021 ◽  
Augusto César Hunt-Serracín ◽  
Misha I. Kazi ◽  
Joseph M. Boll ◽  
Cara C. Boutte

The stringent response is a broadly conserved stress response system that exhibits functional variability across bacterial clades. Here, we characterize the role of the stringent factor Rel in the non-tuberculous mycobacterial pathogen, Mycobacterium abscessus ( Mab ). We found that deletion of rel does not ablate (p)ppGpp synthesis, and that rel does not provide a survival advantage in several stress conditions, or in antibiotic treatment. Transcriptional data show that Rel Mab is involved in regulating expression of anabolism and growth genes in stationary phase. However, it does not activate transcription of stress response or antibiotic resistance genes, and actually represses transcription of many antibiotic resistance genes. This work shows that there is an unannotated (p)ppGpp synthetase in Mab . Importance In this study, we examined the functional roles of the stringent factor Rel in Mycobacterium abscessus (Mab) . In most species, stringent factors synthesize the alarmone (p)ppGpp, which globally alters transcription to promote growth arrest and survival under stress and in antibiotic treatment. Our work shows that in Mab, an emerging pathogen which is resistant to many antibiotics, the stringent factor Rel is not solely responsible for synthesizing (p)ppGpp. We find that Rel Mab downregulates many metabolic genes under stress, but does not upregulate stress response genes and does not promote antibiotic tolerance. This study implies that there is another critical but unannotated (p)ppGpp synthetase in Mab, and suggests that Rel Mab inhibitors are unlikely to sensitize Mab infections to antibiotic treatment.

Life ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1393
Rafael A. Casuso ◽  
Saad Al Fazazi ◽  
Julio Plaza-Díaz ◽  
Francisco J. Ruiz-Ojeda ◽  
Ascensión Rueda-Robles ◽  

We tested whether physiological doses of hydroxytyrosol (HT) may alter the mRNA transcription of key metabolic genes in exercised skeletal muscle. Two groups of exercise-trained Wistar rats, HTlow and HTmid, were supplemented with 0.31 and 4.61 mg/kg/d of HT, respectively, for 10 weeks. Another two groups of rats were not supplemented with HT; one remained sedentary and the other one was exercised. After the experimental period, the soleus muscle was removed for qRT-PCR and western blot analysis. The consumption of 4.61 mg/kg/d of HT during exercise increased the mRNA expression of important metabolic proteins. Specifically, 4.61 mg/kg/d of HT may upregulate long-chain fatty acid oxidation, lactate, and glucose oxidation as well as mitochondrial Krebs cycle in trained skeletal muscle. However, a 4.61 mg/kg/d of HT may alter protein translation, as in spite of the increment showed by CD36 and GLUT4 at the mRNA level this was not translated to higher protein content.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Yue Feng ◽  
Yanlin Li ◽  
Wenduo Jiang ◽  
Yun Hu ◽  
Yimin Jia ◽  

Abstract Background Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mediated corticosterone-induced fatty liver syndrome (FLS) in the chicken by transactivation of Fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO), leading to demethylation of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) and post-transcriptional activation of lipogenic genes. Nutrition is considered the main cause of FLS in the modern poultry industry. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate whether GR and m6A modification are involved in high-energy and low protein (HELP) diet-induced FLS in laying hens, and if true, what specific m6A sites of lipogenic genes are modified and how GR mediates m6A-dependent lipogenic gene activation in HELP diet-induced FLS in the chicken. Results Laying hens fed HELP diet exhibit excess (P < 0.05) lipid accumulation and lipogenic genes activation in the liver, which is associated with significantly increased (P < 0.05) GR expression that coincided with global m6A demethylation. Concurrently, the m6A demethylase FTO is upregulated (P < 0.05), whereas the m6A reader YTHDF2 is downregulated (P < 0.05) in the liver of FLS chickens. Further analysis identifies site-specific demethylation (P < 0.05) of m6A in the mRNA of lipogenic genes, including FASN, SREBP1 and SCD. Moreover, GR binding to the promoter of FTO gene is highly enriched (P < 0.05), while GR binding to the promoter of YTHDF2 gene is diminished (P < 0.05). Conclusions These results implicate a possible role of GR-mediated transcriptional regulation of m6A metabolic genes on m6A-depenent post-transcriptional activation of lipogenic genes and shed new light in the molecular mechanism of FLS etiology in the chicken.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Adji Baskoro Dwi Nugroho ◽  
Sang Woo Lee ◽  
Aditya Nurmalita Pervitasari ◽  
Heewon Moon ◽  
Dasom Choi ◽  

AbstractVernalization is the process by which long-term cold like winter triggers transition to flowering in plants. Many biennial and perennial plants including Brassicaceae family plants require vernalization for floral transition. Not only floral transition, but dynamic physiological and metabolic changes might also take place during vernalization. However, vernalization-mediated metabolic change is merely investigated so far. One of secondary metabolites found in Brassiceceae family plants is glucosinolates (GSLs). GSLs provides defense against pathogens and herbivores attack in plants and also exhibits inhibitory activity against human cancer cell. Profiles of GSLs are highly modulated by different environmental stresses in Brassciaceae family plants. To grasp the effect of vernalization on GSLs metabolic dynamics in radish (Raphanus sativus L.), we performed transcriptomic and metabolic analysis during vernalization in radish. Through transcriptome analysis, we found many GSLs metabolic genes were significantly down-regulated by vernalization in radish plants. Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis also revealed that GSLs compounds were substantially reduced in vernalized radish samples compared to non-vernalized radish samples. Furthermore, we found that repressive histone modification (i.e. H3K27me3) is involved in the modulation of GSLs metabolism via epigenetic suppression of Glucoraphasatin Synthase 1 (GRS1) during vernalization in radish. This study revealed that GSLs metabolism is modulated by vernalization, suggestive of a newly identified target of vernalization in radish.

2021 ◽  
Fangfang Li ◽  
Chun Huang ◽  
Llingxiao Qiu ◽  
Ping Li ◽  
Guojun Zhang

Abstract Purpose The immunotherapy of lung adenocarcinoma has received more and more attention. Different immune cells can affect other metabolic genes and lifespan, and cell metabolism directly regulates immune cell functions. Therefore, it is crucial to explore the role of immune-related metabolic genes in lung adenocarcinoma. Methods In this study, we divided immune-related metabolic genes into three categories based on different immune characteristics and researched immune and clinical pathology. LASSO regression analysis was used to screen immune-related metabolic genes, and a clinical prediction model of the screened genes was constructed. Finally, we selected the intersection of immune metabolism genes that are highly expressed in the tumor site and immune metabolism genes that are negatively related to survival, and used qRT-PCR for experimental verification. Results We first screened out immune-related metabolic genes that may affect lung cancer tumor progression, and screened out 9 pivot genes (TK1, TCN1, CAV1, ACMSD, HS3ST2, HS3ST5, AMN, ADRA2C, ACOXL) through LASSO regression analysis and constructed Prognosis model. Finally, through the screening of tumor-related immune metabolism genes, we obtained five pivot genes (HMMR, PFKP, RRM2, TCN1 and TK1). Our qRT-PCR results also show that RRM2 is positively correlated with CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, and CDK8, revealing the close relationship between RRM2 and immune cell tumor infiltration. Conclusion We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the immune infiltration of the tumor microenvironment of lung cancer, and finally determined RRM2 as a promising immune metabolism checkpoint for lung adenocarcinoma based on the high correlation of RRM2 with immune cells and CDK family.

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