core genes
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Dong Zhang ◽  
Yiliang He ◽  
Karina Yew-Hoong Gin

Cyanobacteria are one of the dominant autotrophs in tropical freshwater communities, yet phages infecting them remain poorly characterized. Here we present the characterization of cyanophage S-SRP02, isolated from a tropical freshwater lake in Singapore, which infects Synechococcus sp. Strain SR-C1 isolated from the same lake. S-SRP02 represents a new evolutionary lineage of cyanophage. Out of 47 open reading frames (ORFs), only 20 ORFs share homology with genes encoding proteins of known function. There is lack of auxiliary metabolic genes which was commonly found as core genes in marine cyanopodoviruses. S-SRP02 also harbors unique structural genes highly divergent from other cultured phages. Phylogenetic analysis and viral proteomic tree further demonstrate the divergence of S-SRP02 from other sequenced phage isolates. Nonetheless, S-SRP02 shares synteny with phage genes of uncultured phages obtained from the Mediterranean Sea deep chlorophyll maximum fosmids, indicating the ecological importance of S-SRP02 and its related viruses. This is further supported by metagenomic mapping of environmental viral metagenomic reads onto the S-SRP02 genome.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 794
Renjian Xie ◽  
Bifei Li ◽  
Lee Jia ◽  
Yumei Li

Metastasis is the leading cause of melanoma-related mortality. Current therapies are rarely curative for metastatic melanoma, revealing the urgent need to identify more effective preventive and therapeutic targets. This study aimed to screen the core genes and molecular mechanisms related to melanoma metastasis. A gene expression profile, GSE8401, including 31 primary melanoma and 52 metastatic melanoma clinical samples, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between melanoma metastases and primary melanoma were screened using GEO2R tool. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) analyses of DEGs were performed using the Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). The Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) and Cytoscape with Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) plug-in tools were utilized to detect the protein–protein interaction (PPI) network among DEGs. The top 10 genes with the highest degrees of the PPI network were defined as hub genes. In the results, 425 DEGs, including 60 upregulated genes and 365 downregulated genes, were identified. The upregulated genes were enriched in ECM–receptor interactions and the regulation of actin cytoskeleton, while 365 downregulated genes were enriched in amoebiasis, melanogenesis, and ECM–receptor interactions. The defined hub genes included CDK1, COL17A1, EGFR, DSG1, KRT14, FLG, CDH1, DSP, IVL, and KRT5. In addition, the mRNA and protein levels of the hub genes during melanoma metastasis were verified in the TCGA database and paired post- and premetastatic melanoma cells, respectively. Finally, KRT5-specific siRNAs were utilized to reduce the KRT5 expression in melanoma A375 cells. An MTT assay and a colony formation assay showed that KRT5 knockdown significantly promoted the proliferation of A375 cells. A Transwell assay further suggested that KRT5 knockdown significantly increased the cell migration and cell invasion of A375 cells. This bioinformatics study provided a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of melanoma metastasis. The in vitro experiments showed that KRT5 played the inhibitory effects on melanoma metastasis. Therefore, KRT5 may serve important roles in melanoma metastasis.

BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Zherou Rong ◽  
Hongwei Chen ◽  
Zihan Zhang ◽  
Yue Zhang ◽  
Luanfeng Ge ◽  

Abstract Background Cardiomyopathy is a complex type of myocardial disease, and its incidence has increased significantly in recent years. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) are two common and indistinguishable types of cardiomyopathy. Results Here, a systematic multi-omics integration approach was proposed to identify cardiomyopathy-related core genes that could distinguish normal, DCM and ICM samples using cardiomyopathy expression profile data based on a human metabolic network. First, according to the differentially expressed genes between different states (DCM/ICM and normal, or DCM and ICM) of samples, three sets of initial modules were obtained from the human metabolic network. Two permutation tests were used to evaluate the significance of the Pearson correlation coefficient difference score of the initial modules, and three candidate modules were screened out. Then, a cardiomyopathy risk module that was significantly related to DCM and ICM was determined according to the significance of the module score based on Markov random field. Finally, based on the shortest path between cardiomyopathy known genes, 13 core genes related to cardiomyopathy were identified. These core genes were enriched in pathways and functions significantly related to cardiomyopathy and could distinguish between samples of different states. Conclusion The identified core genes might serve as potential biomarkers of cardiomyopathy. This research will contribute to identifying potential biomarkers of cardiomyopathy and to distinguishing different types of cardiomyopathy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Fangzhou Guo ◽  
Jun Yan ◽  
Guoyuan Ling ◽  
Hainan Chen ◽  
Qianrong Huang ◽  

Lower-grade glioma (LGG) is a common type of central nervous system tumor. Due to its complicated pathogenesis, the choice and timing of adjuvant therapy after tumor treatment are controversial. This study explored and identified potential therapeutic targets for lower-grade. The bioinformatics method was employed to identify potential biomarkers and LGG molecular mechanisms. Firstly, we selected and downloaded GSE15824, GSE50161, and GSE86574 from the GEO database, which included 40 LGG tissue and 28 normal brain tissue samples. GEO and VENN software identified of 206 codifference expressed genes (DEGs). Secondly, we applied the DAVID online software to investigate the DEG biological function and KEGG pathway enrichment, as well as to build the protein interaction visualization network through Cytoscape and STRING website. Then, the MCODE plug is used in the analysis of 22 core genes. Thirdly, the 22 core genes were analyzed with UNCLA software, of which 18 genes were associated with a worse prognosis. Fourthly, GEPIA was used to analyze the 18 selected genes, and 14 genes were found to be a significantly different expression between LGGs and normal brain tumor samples. Fifthly, hierarchical gene clustering was used to examine the 14 important gene expression differences in different histologies, as well as analysis of the KEGG pathway. Five of these genes were shown to be abundant in the natural killer cell-mediated cytokines (NKCC) and phagosome pathways. The five key genes that may be affected by the immune microenvironment play a crucial role in LGG development.

Liu Yang ◽  
Qi Yu ◽  
Yonghang Zhu ◽  
Manthar Ali Mallah ◽  
Wei Wang ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-35
Weiwei Lin ◽  
Yangxin Wang ◽  
Yisheng Chen ◽  
Qiangwei Wang ◽  
Zhaowen Gu ◽  

Background. This study is aimed at investigating the changes in relevant pathways and the differential expression of related gene expression after ischemic stroke (IS) at the single-cell level using multiple weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) and single-cell analysis. Methods. The transcriptome expression datasets of IS samples and single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) profiles of cerebrovascular tissues were obtained by searching the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. First, gene pathway scoring was calculated via gene set variation analysis (GSVA) and was imported into multiple WGCNA to acquire key pathways and pathway-related hub genes. Furthermore, SCENIC was used to identify transcription factors (TFs) regulating these core genes using scRNA-seq data. Finally, the pseudotemporal trajectory analysis was used to analyse the role of these TFs on various cell types under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. Results. The scores of 186 KEGG pathways were obtained via GSVA using microarray expression profiles of 40 specimens. WGCNA of the KEGG pathways revealed the two following pathways: calcium signaling pathway and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathways. Subsequently, WGCNA of the gene expression matrix of the samples revealed the calcium signaling pathway-related genes (AC079305.10, BCL10, BCL2A1, BRE-AS1, DYNLL2, EREG, and PTGS2) that were identified as core genes via correlation analysis. Furthermore, SCENIC and pseudotemporal analysis revealed JUN, IRF9, ETV5, and PPARA score gene-related TFs. Jun was found to be associated with hypoxia in endothelial cells, whereas Irf9 and Etv5 were identified as astrocyte-specific TFs associated with oxygen concentration in the mouse cerebral cortex. Conclusions. Calcium signaling pathway-related genes (AC079305.10, BCL10, BCL2A1, BRE-AS1, DYNLL2, EREG, and PTGS2) and TFs (JUN, IRF9, ETV5, and PPARA) were identified to play a key role in IS. This study provides a new perspective and basis for investigating the pathogenesis of IS and developing new therapeutic approaches.

Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 34
Long Liu ◽  
Zhilin Zhang ◽  
Chenglin Liu ◽  
Liangjian Qu ◽  
Dun Wang

The larch looper, Erannis ankeraria Staudinger (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), is one of the major insect pests of larch forests, widely distributed from southeastern Europe to East Asia. A naturally occurring baculovirus, Erannis ankeraria nucleopolyhedrovirus (EranNPV), was isolated from E. ankeraria larvae. This virus was characterized by electron microscopy and by sequencing the whole viral genome. The occlusion bodies (OBs) of EranNPV exhibited irregular polyhedral shapes containing multiple enveloped rod-shaped virions with a single nucleocapsid per virion. The EranNPV genome was 125,247 bp in length with a nucleotide distribution of 34.9% G+C. A total of 131 hypothetical open reading frames (ORFs) were identified, including the 38 baculovirus core genes and five multi-copy genes. Five homologous regions (hrs) were found in the EranNPV genome. Phylogeny and pairwise kimura 2-parameter analysis indicated that EranNPV was a novel group II alphabaculovirus and was most closely related to Apocheima cinerarium NPV (ApciNPV). Field trials showed that EranNPV was effective in controlling E. ankeraria in larch forests. The above results will be relevant to the functional research on EranNPV and promote the use of this virus as a biocontrol agent.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Tong Wang ◽  
Weiwei Wen ◽  
Hongfei Liu ◽  
Jun Zhang ◽  
Xiaofeng Zhang ◽  

Background: Stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) is a significant global health problem. It is urgent to identify reliable predictors and establish a potential prognostic model.Methods: RNA-sequencing expression data of patients with STAD were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Gene expression profiling and survival analysis were performed to investigate differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with significant clinical prognosis value. Overall survival (OS) analysis and univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed to establish the prognostic model. Protein–protein interaction (PPI) network, functional enrichment analysis, and differential expression investigation were also performed to further explore the potential mechanism of the prognostic genes in STAD. Finally, nomogram establishment was undertaken by performing multivariate Cox regression analysis, and calibration plots were generated to validate the nomogram.Results: A total of 229 overlapping DEGs were identified. Following Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis, 11 genes significantly associated with prognosis were screened and five of these genes, including COL10A1, MFAP2, CTHRC1, P4HA3, and FAP, were used to establish the risk model. The results showed that patients with high-risk scores have a poor prognosis, compared with those with low-risk scores (p = 0.0025 for the training dataset and p = 0.045 for the validation dataset). Subsequently, a nomogram (including TNM stage, age, gender, histologic grade, and risk score) was created. In addition, differential expression and immunohistochemistry stain of the five core genes in STAD and normal tissues were verified.Conclusion: We develop a prognostic-related model based on five core genes, which may serve as an independent risk factor for survival prediction in patients with STAD.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Rui Sun ◽  
Gonghao Xu ◽  
Dongyang Gao ◽  
Qi Ding ◽  
Yuanyuan Shi

Asthma, characterized by the continuous inflammatory response caused by a variety of immune cells, is one of the most common chronic respiratory diseases worldwide. Relevant clinical trials proved that the traditional Chinese medicine formula Guizhi Decoction (GZD) had multitarget and multichannel functions, which might be an effective drug for asthma. However, the effective ingredients and mechanisms of GZD against asthma are still unclear. Therefore, network pharmacology, molecular docking, and cell experiments were performed to explore the antiasthma effects and potential mechanisms of GZD. First, we applied the TCMSP database and literature to obtain the bioactivated ingredients in GZD. SwissTargetPrediction, TCMSP, GeneCards, OMIM, PharmGkb, TTD, DrugBank, and STRING database were used to get core genes. In addition, the key pathways were analyzed by the DAVID database. Molecular docking was used to predict whether the important components could act on the core target proteins directly. Finally, qPCR was carried out to verify the network pharmacology results and the possible mechanisms of GZD in the treatment of asthma. We collected 134 active ingredients in GZD, 959 drug targets, and 3223 disease targets. 431 intersection genes were screened for subsequent analysis. Through GO and KEGG analyses, enriched pathways related to inflammation and immune regulation were presented. Through the qPCR method to verify the role of essential genes, we found that GZD had an excellent anti-inflammatory effect. Direct or indirect inhibition of MAPK and NF-κB pathways might be one of the crucial mechanisms of GZD against asthma. GZD might be a promising potential drug for the treatment of asthma. This article provided a reference for the clinical application of GZD.

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