development phase
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2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Author(s):  
Minsoo Lee ◽  
Hyun Kwon ◽  
Hyunsoo Yoon

The instrumentation and control (I&C) system of a nuclear power plant (NPP) employs a cybersecurity program regulated by the government. Through regulation, the government requires the implementation of security controls in order for a system to be developed and operated. Accordingly, the licensee of an NPP works to comply with this requirement, beginning in the development phase. The compliance-driven approach is efficient when the government supervises NPPs, but it is inefficient when a licensee constructs them. The security controls described in regulatory guidance do not consider system characteristics. In other words, the development organization spends a considerable amount of time excluding unnecessary control items and preparing the evidence to justify their exclusion. In addition, security systems can vary according to the developer’s level of security knowledge, leading to differences in levels of security between systems. This paper proposes a method for a developer to select the appropriate security controls when preparing the security requirements during the early development phase; it is designed to ensure the system’s security and reduce the cost of excluding unnecessary security controls. We have formalized the representation of attack patterns and security control patterns and identified the relationships between these patterns. We conducted a case study applying RG 5.71 in the Plant Protection System (PPS) to confirm the validity of the proposed method.


Author(s):  
Lucía Caeiro-Villasenín ◽  
Clara Serna-Muñoz ◽  
Amparo Pérez-Silva ◽  
Ascensión Vicente-Hernández ◽  
Andrea Poza-Pascual ◽  
...  

The objective was to determine whether trauma in primary dentition causes alterations in the development of permanent dentition. Searches were made in May 2020 using PubMed, MEDLINE, MEDES, Scopus, Lilacs, and Embase. Papers in English, German, and Spanish, without restrictions in the year of publication, were included. The quality of the studies was analyzed using the NOS Scale. The search retrieved 537 references, and seven studies were included for a qualitative analysis. The results showed that trauma to a deciduous tooth can damage the bud of the permanent tooth. Enamel discoloration and/or hypoplasia were the most common sequelae in the permanent teeth after trauma to the primary predecessor. The type and severity of sequelae in the permanent tooth are associated with the development phase of the bud. Children with trauma of their primary teeth should receive checkups until the eruption of the permanent teeth for the early diagnosis and treatment of possible sequelae. Intrusion of the primary tooth was the trauma that caused the most damage and enamel alterations the most frequent sequelae.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Filippo Salustri ◽  
Erica Attard ◽  
Michael Grieg ◽  
W. Patrick Neumann

<div>The instructors of the undergraduate cornerstone design course in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering at Ryerson University aim to integrate diversity and inclusion into students’ design education. Our goal is to provide resources that students can use to understand human capabilities and limitations, so their designs are better suited to a wide range of users. The project was broken down in four phases: Phase 1 consisted of scoping deliverables and background research; Phase 2 included courseware development; Phase 3 employed the courseware into the Fall 2019 offering of our cornerstone design course; and Phase 4 reviewed and analysed student’s work to determine the efficacy of the courseware.</div><div>To initiate this effort, we focused on three Human Factors: vision, hearing, and strength. We created a process whereby students could assess these Factors quantitatively for specific interactions and use the assessments to justify specific functional requirements and constraints of their own designs.</div>


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Filippo Salustri ◽  
Erica Attard ◽  
Michael Grieg ◽  
W. Patrick Neumann

<div>The instructors of the undergraduate cornerstone design course in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering at Ryerson University aim to integrate diversity and inclusion into students’ design education. Our goal is to provide resources that students can use to understand human capabilities and limitations, so their designs are better suited to a wide range of users. The project was broken down in four phases: Phase 1 consisted of scoping deliverables and background research; Phase 2 included courseware development; Phase 3 employed the courseware into the Fall 2019 offering of our cornerstone design course; and Phase 4 reviewed and analysed student’s work to determine the efficacy of the courseware.</div><div>To initiate this effort, we focused on three Human Factors: vision, hearing, and strength. We created a process whereby students could assess these Factors quantitatively for specific interactions and use the assessments to justify specific functional requirements and constraints of their own designs.</div>


2022 ◽  
Vol 196 ◽  
pp. 1044-1052
Author(s):  
Tobias Onshuus Malvik ◽  
Atle Engebø
Keyword(s):  

Author(s):  
Armagan Altinisik ◽  
Emre Bolova

The prediction model for the energy contributors is studied to define the effect of door components. The model is validated by experimental measurements on produced vehicles. The correlation of the control results and the evaluation methods among the representative customers, appraisers and senior experts are performed and compared by objective energy measurements. The subjective evaluation aims to clarify real customer expectations in door closing process and carry it to new product development phase. This will also improve the competency of appraisers in final assembly approval zones. The energy contributors for boot swing door is numerically calculated and validated by experimental measurements in easy and hard-closing doors. Subjective evaluations in 45 vehicles with different closing energies were performed by three different groups as representative customers, appraisers, and senior experts. The results were evaluated by statistical tools. The major energy contributors were found as air binding, seal resistance and check strap both in the calculations and in the experiments. The results demonstrated good correlation between numerical model and objective measurements. Besides, the subjective evaluations showed parallel trends with objective energy measurements. The variation in customer evaluations is more than appraisers and experts. Customers are severer in the evaluations of hard-closing doors and more sensitive in 10° door closing angle. This is a unique study for rear boot swing door closing effort in an LCV model. The study contains both definitions of factors, components that contributes in door closing energy and subjective evaluations to correlate the closing behaviors of representative customers, appraisers, and senior experts. The output of the study would be used to improve the vehicle control plan (VCP) and design standards in new model development phase.


Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 156
Author(s):  
Paula Veske ◽  
Frederick Bossuyt ◽  
Jan Vanfleteren

Electronic textiles (e-textiles) and wearable computing have been emerging increasingly during the last decade. Since the market interest and predictions have grown, the research into increasing reliability and durability of wearables and e-textiles is developing rapidly. The washability of different integration methods and resistance to mechanical stress are the main obstacles being tackled. However, the freedom of movement and overall comfort is still often overlooked during the development phase. It is essential to see the e-textile product as a whole and consider several aspects of user experience. This work will focus on developing and improving the thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) lamination integration method for e-textiles. In the work, a stretchable copper-polyimide based circuit was laminated onto knit fabric using various TPU films and stacks. The study shares measurable characteristics to determine which material assembly and design would ensure the highest durability for the electronics part without losing its original textile softness, flexibility and stretchability.


2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (2) ◽  
pp. 89-106
Author(s):  
Abdul Rashid Abdul Aziz Abdul Aziz ◽  
Norizan Yusof ◽  
Nor Hamizah Ab Razak

In an adolescent, the development phase causes a variety of conflicts. One of the most common problems among adolescents is the issue of love breakup. It can lead to the disruption of self-concept which eventually leads to a failure to overcome real problems. Hence, this study was conducted to explore the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT) to address the problem of self -concept among adolescents. This is a qualitative study using interview sessions as a study design. The study was based on a counseling case of a teenage female client who was going through a breakup. The client suffered from depression and feels inferior to her self -image and chooses to isolate herself from others. Thus, the Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT) was utilized to reestablish the client's self -concept. REBT therapy enables the client to change the negative way of thinking to positive and rationalize her thinking to avoid her feeling depressed with the issue of the breakup. This is important in ensuring that the client successfully solves her problems and can give full commitment to her learning and responsibilities.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Atul Kumar Anurag ◽  
Adel Alkatheeri ◽  
Alvaro Sainz ◽  
Khalid Javid ◽  
Yaxin Liu ◽  
...  

Abstract This paper discusses a holistic combination of advanced formation evaluation techniques with pressure testing and reservoir navigation services to mitigate uncertainty related challenges in real time and successfully drill & place ERD laterals targeting Jurassic carbonate reservoirs. A meticulously planned approach to navigate the well trajectory by tracking the desired properties, informed decision-making while drilling and accurate data acquisition for aiding appropriate selection and placement in-flow control device (ICD) in lower completion design and future reservoir management contributed to the success of these complex wells in carbonate reservoirs. The first well in this study, involved drilling and evaluating a long lateral section as single oil producer targeting a carbonate reservoir. While no tar presence was expected, a combination of density, neutron porosity and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs while drilling resulted in identifying a deficit NMR porosity when compared to density porosity. Deployment of a formation pressure testing while drilling (FPWD) tool enabled measurement of the formation mobility and validate the presence of a tar. Using the same combination of measurements in the subsequent wells for delineating the tar enabled accurate planning of injection wells on the periphery of the field. Approximately 3 days were saved compared to the first well where the drill string had to be POOH to run-in with FPWD service. Hence, having FPWD tool in the same string helped in confirming the formation mobility in real time to call for critical decision making like changing the well trajectory or calling an early TD. Across all the wells drilled in this field, the formation pressure, mobility and porosity measurements provided valuable input for optimum ICD placement and design. Successful identification of unexpected tar resulted in substantial rig time savings, accurate planning of asset utilization and added confidence in design and placement of lower completions by utilizing LWD data. Benefits of integrated data and services combination became clear for applications involving advanced reservoir characterization and enhanced well placement in complex carbonate reservoirs. From the offset wells, a tar was seen in deeper formations but the integration of LWD NMR and mobility data from this well confirmed the presence of a tar within the zone of interest. The study established a cost-effective workflow for mitigating uncertainties related to tar encountered while drilling extreme ERD laterals in an offshore environment where any lost time results in significant increase in expenditures during the development phase. A systematic approach to tackle these uncertainties along with acquisition of critical data for the design & placement of completion results in optimum production from the reserves.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (23) ◽  
pp. 11577
Author(s):  
Woosuk Sung

This paper describes our best practices related to hybrid power system (HPS) development, with a focus on the specification development phase. The HPS specifications are based on the main development goals of our security robot, which place top priority on 24 h continuous operation on a single charge. Similar to human guards, security robots are expected to operate 24 h per day, seven days per week, but existing battery-powered robots cannot meet these goals. For long-duration missions, their operating times are too short, and their charging times are too long. As an effective alternative, hydrogen fuel cells are combined with batteries to hybridize the power systems of security robots. In this study, several HPS structures were comprehensively compared by selecting a one-stage series structure. Component specifications were determined based on the selected structure to achieve the main development goals of our security robot. To verify whether the determined specifications are valid, a HPS simulator was developed. The key operating conditions for the HPS were simulated, including overloading, terminal short-circuiting, and drive cycling. Under critical conditions, the behavior of the entire system and its components was confirmed. The developed specifications will eventually be carried over to the prototyping phase.


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