Pearson Correlation Coefficient
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2021 ◽  
Shahabeddin Sahraeian ◽  
Iman Khan Ahmadi ◽  
Hashem Sadeghiyeh

A total of 138 participants were recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk to evaluate the relationship between temporal discounting and pro-environmental behavior. Pro-environmental behavior was assessed by using a modified version of Whitmarsh and O'Neill survey. Temporal discounting was assessed by Kirby's 27-item delay-discounting measure. The results showed a positive trend correlation between pro-environmental behavior and temporal discounting; i.e. the more discounting of the future was correlated with less pro-environmental behavior. This trend became much more significant when we just analyzed those participants who answered "Yes" to the question "Do you think climate change is something that is affecting or is going to affect you, personally?" to which 98 out of 138 participants of our study answered "yes". For this upper %70 of participants the Pearson correlation coefficient was r = 0.28; p = 0.006. We also analyzed different demographic traits to see whether there is any difference between sub-groups regarding differential pro-environmental behaviors. Two features turned out to be highly predictive of the pro-environmental behavior: education and marriage. Married and higher educated tend to act more pro-environmentally than single and lower educated.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (19) ◽  
pp. 6127
Gorg Abdelmassih ◽  
Mohammed Al-Numay ◽  
Abdelali El Aroudi

In this study, we analyze observational and predicted wind energy datasets of the lower 48 states of the United States, and we intend to predict an optimal map for new turbines placement. Several approaches have been implemented to investigate the correlation between current wind power stations, power capacity, wind seasonality, and site selection. The correlation between stations is carried out according to Pearson correlation coefficient approach joined with the spherical law of cosines to calculate the distances. The high correlation values between the stations spaced within a distance of 100 km show that installing more turbines close to the current farms would assist the electrical grid. The total power capacity indicates that the current wind turbines are utilizing approximately 70% of the wind resources available in the turbine’s sites. The Power spectrum of Fourier’s spectral density indicates main, secondary, and harmonic frequencies correspond to yearly, semiyearly, and daily wind-speed periodic patterns. We propose and validate a numerical approach based on a novel fuzzy logic framework for wind turbines placement. Map optimizations are fitted considering different parameters presented in wind speed, land use, price, and elevation. Map optimization results show that suitable sites for turbines placement are in general agreement with the direction of the correlation approach.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (10) ◽  
pp. 70
LiQin Wu ◽  
Yong Wu ◽  
XiangYang Zhang

Although the study of artificial intelligence (AI) used in language teaching and learning is increasingly prevailing, research on language two (L2) learner cognitive psychological factors about AI writing corrective feedback (WCF) is scarce. This paper explores L2 learner cognitive psychology of pigai, an AI evaluating system for English writings in China, from perspectives of perception, noticing, uptake, initiative, retention and emotion. It investigates the consistency between learner cognitive psychology about AI WCF and the expected one and probes into the correlation of learner cognitive psychological factors about AI WCF, aiming at bridging the gap between the research of AI WCF and that of L2 learner cognitive psychology. After a 5-point Likert anonymous questionnaire survey of 1952 undergraduate L2 learners in Anhui University of Finance and Economics (AUFE), the statistical data of Pearson correlation coefficient indicate that learner perception, noticing, uptake, initiative, retention and emotion are positively related in the context of AI WCF, which conforms to the early research of learner cognitive psychology about WCF. But one sample t-test reveals that learner cognitive psychology of AI WCF only occasionally or sometimes consists with the expected one. The subsequent random interviews with 15 respondents suggest that pigai WCF is beneficial to L2 writing, yet there is still much room for it to improve to be deeply integrated with human WCF. 

2021 ◽  
pp. 004051752110471
Yujuan Wang ◽  
Wengang Li ◽  
Jun Wang

In order to facilitate the design of a hybrid filament before spinning, a k-m (Kubelka-Munk) iteration model was proposed, which was based on the calculation method for reflectance of a translucent object and needed to be used in conjunction with a fabric model that can reflect the arrangement order of monofilaments. Therefore, the model can not only calculate the color of each point on the fabric surface, but also the mixed color of the fabric. Twenty fabrics with five different blending ratios of black monofilaments and white monofilaments, four multifilament fineness and three fabric weave types were woven. The relationship between the gray distribution of all points on the fabric surface captured by the camera in a DigiEye colorimeter and calculated by the k-m iteration model was analyzed, and the color difference between the mixed color of the fabric tested by the Datacolor spectrophotometer and that calculated by the k-m iteration model was calculated. The results show that the intersection distance and Pearson correlation coefficient between the gray histogram of the photographed fabric image and that of the calculated fabric image were 0.79 and 0.89, respectively. The average color difference obtained by the k-m iteration model was 0.92 Color Measurement Committee (2:1) units, which was best compared with the calculation results of other models. By discussing the fabric structure parameters causing the lightness difference, it was concluded that the calculated lightness was smaller than the measured lightness difference for fabric with a longer float length, smaller multifilament fineness and a larger black monofilament blending ratio.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Howell Y. Wang ◽  
Shelia X. Wei ◽  
Cong Cao ◽  
Xianwen Wang ◽  
Fred Y. Ye

Abstract Purpose We attempt to find out whether OA or TA really affects the dissemination of scientific discoveries. Design/methodology/approach We design the indicators, hot-degree, and R-index to indicate a topic OA or TA advantages. First, according to the OA classification of the Web of Science (WoS), we collect data from the WoS by downloading OA and TA articles, letters, and reviews published in Nature and Science during 2010–2019. These papers are divided into three broad disciplines, namely biomedicine, physics, and others. Then, taking a discipline in a journal and using the classical Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to cluster 100 topics of OA and TA papers respectively, we apply the Pearson correlation coefficient to match the topics of OA and TA, and calculate the hot-degree and R-index of every OA-TA topic pair. Finally, characteristics of the discipline can be presented. In qualitative comparison, we choose some high-quality papers which belong to Nature remarkable papers or Science breakthroughs, and analyze the relations between OA/TA and citation numbers. Findings The result shows that OA hot-degree in biomedicine is significantly greater than that of TA, but significantly less than that of TA in physics. Based on the R-index, it is found that OA advantages exist in biomedicine and TA advantages do in physics. Therefore, the dissemination of average scientific discoveries in all fields is not necessarily affected by OA or TA. However, OA promotes the spread of important scientific discoveries in high-quality papers. Research limitations We lost some citations by ignoring other open sources such as arXiv and bioArxiv. Another limitation came from that Nature employs some strong measures for access-promoting subscription-based articles, on which the boundary between OA and TA became fuzzy. Practical implications It is useful to select hot topics in a set of publications by the hot-degree index. The finding comprehensively reflects the differences of OA and TA in different disciplines, which is a useful reference when researchers choose the publishing way as OA or TA. Originality/value We propose a new method, including two indicators, to explore and measure OA or TA advantages.

2021 ◽  
pp. 105566562110350
Léon N.A. Van Adrichem ◽  
Sophia A.J. Kronig ◽  
Otto D.M. Kronig

Objective Craniofacial measuring is valuable for diagnosis and evaluation of growth and treatment of positional skull deformities. Plagiocephalometry (PCM) quantifies skull deformities and is proven to be reliable and valid. However, PCM needs direct skin contact with thermoplastic material, is laborious and time-consuming. Therefore, Skully Care (SC) was developed to measure positional skull deformities with a smartphone application. Design SC is retrospectively compared to PCM. Setting Pediatric physiotherapy centers. Patients Age ≤1 year, analyzed or treated for positional skull deformities. Interventions A total of 60 skull shape analyses were performed. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures employed are Pearson correlation coefficient between cranial vault asymmetry index (CVAI; in SC) and oblique diameter difference index (ODDI; in PCM) and between cranial index (CI; in SC) and cranial proportional index (CPI; in PCM). Mann–Whitney U test determined difference of time consumption between PCM and SC. Results High correlation was found between CVAI and ODDI ( r = 0.849; P < .01) in positional plagiocephaly and very high correlation between CI and CPI ( r  = 0.938; P < .01) in positional brachycephaly. SC is significantly faster than PCM ( P < .001). Conclusions SC is valid in analyzing positional skull deformities and strongly correlates to PCM, the gold standard in daily physiotherapy practice. The combination of simplicity, validity, speed, and user and child convenience makes SC a promising craniofacial measuring method in daily practice. SC has potential to be the modern successor for analyzing positional skull deformities.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (19) ◽  
pp. 10519
Julia Calderón Cendejas ◽  
Lucía Madrid Ramírez ◽  
Jorge Ramírez Zierold ◽  
Julio Díaz Valenzuela ◽  
Martín Merino Ibarra ◽  

The present study explores the impact of different land uses on water quality in a Mexican basin and addresses key mitigation measures, with key measurements made by citizen scientists. The Amanalco-Valle de Bravo Basin reservoir is the major freshwater supply for Mexico City. By measuring physical-chemical and bacteriological parameters in creeks over 21 months and correlating them to land use areas, it was possible to understand the impacts of different land uses (urban, forest, riparian forests, and different agricultural systems) in water quality. The results show that the concentration of E. coli, nitrates, nitrites, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and total suspended solids were higher than the recommended reference levels, and that average oxygen saturation and alkalinity were lower than the recommended reference levels in most sites. The analysis of the Pearson correlation coefficient showed a strong relationship between water pollution and urban and agricultural land uses, specifically a higher impact of potato cultivation, due to its intensive use of agrochemicals and downhill tilling. There was a clear positive relationship between total forest area and riparian vegetation cover with improved water quality, validating their potential as nature-based solutions for the regulation of water quality. The results of the present study indicate the opportunities that better land management practices generate to ensure communities’ and water ecosystems’ health. This study also highlights the benefits of citizen science as a tool for raising awareness with regard to water quality and nature-based solutions, and as an appropriate tool for participative watershed management.

Juneffer Villamen Navales ◽  
Amadou Wurry Jallow ◽  
Chien Yu Lai ◽  
Chieh Yu Liu ◽  
Shu Wen Chen

(1) Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly worldwide. Uniformed nurses have played a critical role during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines; however, uptake of literature is limited. This study assessed the relationship between quality of nursing work life (QNWL) and nurses’ attitudes and practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. (2) Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Participants were recruited from four government hospitals in the Manila metropolitan area of the Philippines. Participants completed three questionnaires in an online survey: a demographic questionnaire, a QNWL questionnaire, and the attitude and practices toward COVID-19 questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, an independent t-test, a one-way analysis of variance, the Pearson correlation coefficient, and hierarchical linear regression were applied for data analysis. (3) Results: The mean age of the participants was 29 years. Most of the participants were single women who were not certified in their specialties. A total of QNWL scores were high, indicating that the participants displayed favorable attitudes and practices in relation to COVID-19. A statistically significant relationship was observed between QNWL, specialty certification, and practices related to COVID-19. Practices related to COVID-19 were a significant predictor of QNWL and one of its subscales, work design. (4) Conclusion: Young adult uniformed nurses in the Philippines have assumed numerous responsibilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Providing these frontline nurses with comprehensive specialized education and training is crucial.

Katerina Kabassi

Websites of environmental content constitute an important tool for promoting environmental information, affect environmental attitudes and promote protected areas as touristic destinations. However, these websites have to be evaluated to ensure that they reach their final goal. The use of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) models in website evaluation is relatively new and not many models have been tested for this purpose. Comparisons of such models have been implemented in various domains but not for the purposes of environmental website evaluation. The main objective of this paper is on presenting the procedure of comparison of MCDM models spherical by providing in detail the steps that have to be followed. This process was implemented for website evaluation and investigated the comparative performance of the TOPSIS and VIKOR models. This comparison process involves reliability analysis of the questionnaire and the sample of decision makers, pairwise comparisons of the models by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient and estimation of the Cohen’s Kappa for testing the inter-rater comparability, using the models as raters. Furthermore, a sensitivity and robustness analysis of those models is implemented, which also has not been implemented before in the application of those models in website evaluation. The tests implemented and presented in this paper reveal that the reasonable disagreement that was often observed among the methods did not affect their reliability. As a result, MCDM models proved very effective for evaluating websites of environmental content.

2021 ◽  
Somayeh Ahmadabadi

Abstract BackgroundGeneral health includes physical and mental health and their interactions, and physical activity can improve people’s mental and social health. The present study has compared general-social health and COVID-19-induced anxiety between active and inactive students during the COVID-19 -19 pandemic.A causal-comparative research design was used in this study. The statistical population consisted of all students of the Farhangian University of Mashhad in 2020, out of whom 752 students were randomly selected. Subjects were assessed for general health, social health, and COVID-19-induced anxiety. Data normality was investigated by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and data were analyzed statistically using independent t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient test.ResultsThe results of the present study showed that there was a significant difference between general health and COVID-19-induced anxiety of active and inactive students (p = 0.001), but no significant difference was observed between these two groups in social health (p≥0.05). Results obtained regarding the correlation indicated that there was a significant correlation between general and social health in both active and inactive students (p = 0.001). However, there was no significant correlation between COVID-19-induced anxiety and general-social health (p≥0.05).ConclusionAccording to the results of the present study, it can be said that an active lifestyle and physical activity are important factors to improve general health and reduce anxiety, especially in specific conditions of the COVID-19 outbreak. Therefore, it is recommended that students have a regular exercise program to reduce their anxiety and increase the level of their physical health.

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