spearman correlation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Ye Tian ◽  
Lin Xie ◽  
Jianyuan Jiang ◽  
Hongli Wang

Abstract Purpose To explore the relationship between the strength of posterior cervical extensors (PCEs) and cervical sagittal alignment in Hirayama disease (HD) patients. Methods We analyzed the (magnetic resonance imaging) MRI T2WI and X-rays of 60 HD patients who visited Huashan Hospital from June 2017 to February 2020. Symptoms of these patients include adolescent onset, manifestation of unilateral upper limb muscle weakness and muscle atrophy of the forearm and hand. MRI images were used to measure (the cross-sectional area) CSA of cervical PCEs. The ratio of muscle CSA to vertebral body areas at the same level is defined as R-CSA. Cervical sagittal alignment includes the C2–7 Cobb angle, T1 slope and C2–7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA). The geometric center of the C3–6 vertebral body was determined using the line connecting the C2 inferior endplate and the C7 upper endplate. When located behind the line, it is defined as a “local kyphotic deformity.” The number of vertebral bodies involved in kyphotic deformity was determined by measuring the local kyphosis angle (LKA). Spearman correlation analysis (α = 0.05) was used to determine the relationship between R-CSA and sagittal parameters. ROC curves were used to analyze the sensitivity and specificity of relevant variables. Results Spearman correlation test revealed that R-CSA negatively correlated with T1S (S = 0.34, r = 0.34, p = 0.01) and LKA (S = 0.44, r = 0.5, p = 0.01), but did not correlate with the C2-C7 Cobb angle (S = 0.20, p = 0.12) or C2-C7 SVA (S =  − 0.17, p = 0.46). (p < 0.05). ROC curve analysis showed that the areas under the curve (AUCs) of the T1 slope and LKA was 0.6696 and 0.7646, respectively. T1 slope, cutoff value: 17.2°; sensitivity: 0.5806; specificity: 0.7241; p < 0.05. LKA: cutoff value: − 14°; sensitivity: 1; specificity: 0.5333; p < 0.05. Conclusions In patients with Hirayama disease, the strength of posterior cervical extensors and cervical sagittal alignment are closely related. The local kyphosis angle can be used as a reference for the strength of posterior cervical extensors. These results indicate the weakness of PCEs, which may predispose the cervical spine of HD patients to a less stable situation. Therefore, patients with Hirayama disease should strengthen the exercise of the PCEs.

2022 ◽  
Ionela Daniela Găitan-Botezatu ◽  

Globally, post-event funding needs are growing, while the material and human damage caused by extreme events is constantly growing. The 2015 United Nations (UN) Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction estimated that worldwide, these extreme events cause losses of approximately $ 250-300 billion annually. Although there are now various post-event financing options (insurance, grants, loans, donations, etc.) for the population, companies or public institutions, these instruments are often not sufficient for post-event recovery and reconstruction, so many challenges remain for post-event recovery. Thus, there is often a gap between the financing needs of companies or the population and the existing financing instruments, most often the amounts needed for financing being higher than the amounts that are available through the various existing financing mechanisms. In this article we addressed the topic of post-event funding sources such as donations and highlighted that these, although they are one of the cheapest sources of funding, the support of post-event donors is often uncertain. Also, in the elaboration of this paper I used qualitative and quantitative research based on the use of methods such as Spearman correlation indicator, data processing and analysis, documenting reports, studying reference works and other studies.

Perspektif ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (3) ◽  
pp. 264-272
Koen Adi Suryo

Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara motivasi kerja karyawan dengan kompensasi. Penelitian dilakukan di “PT PAI”. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah seluruh karyawan PT ”PAI”, sampel sebanyak 20 orang karyawan diambil dengan teknik convenience sampling. Perangkat pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah perangkat kuesioner. Metode analisis data yang digunakan adalah metode deskriptif dan induktif. Perangkat analisis data yang digunakan adalah tabel distribusi frekuensi dan korelasi Spearman. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan positif kuat sebesar 0,983 dan signifikan antara motivasi kerja karyawan dengan kompensasinya pada PT ”PAI”. Abstract This study aims to determine the relationship between employee motivation and compensation. The research was conducted at "PT PAI." This research is descriptive. The population in this study were all employees of PT "PAI." A sample of 20 employees was taken using the convenience sampling technique. The data collection device used is a questionnaire device, and the method used is descriptive and inductive methods. Data analysis tools used are frequency distribution table and Spearman correlation. The results showed a strong positive relationship of 0.983 and significant between employee motivation and compensation at PT "PAI."

Esther Veldhoen ◽  
Hans Roos ◽  
Rolien Bekkema ◽  
Ludo van der Pol ◽  
Marcel Tinnevelt ◽  

Introduction Spirometry plays an important role in the assessment of possible respiratory failure in children with neuromuscular disorders (NMDs). However, obtaining reliable spirometry results is a major challenge. We studied the relation between Forced Oscillation Technique (FOT) and spirometry results. FOT is an easy, non-invasive method to measure respiratory mechanics, i.e. respiratory resistance R and respiratory reactance X. We hypothesized an increased resistance R and reduced reactance X in patients with more reduced lung function. Methods In this prospective single center study we included all children with NMDs able to perform spirometry. We consecutively measured respiratory resistance R and reactance X at 5, 11 and 19 Hz and (Forced) Vital Capacity, Peak Expiratory Flow. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated and regression curves were estimated. Results We included 148 patients, with a median age of 13 years (IQR 8-16). All correlation coefficients were statistically significant with p = 0.000. A negative correlation was found between resistance R and spirometry outcomes (spearman correlation coefficient (ρ) between -0.5 and -0.6). A positive correlation was found between reactance X (i.e. less negative outcomes) and spirometry outcomes (ρ between 0.4 and 0.6). Highest correlation was found at lower frequencies. Regression analysis showed a non-linear relation between FOT and spirometry results. Conclusion We found a non-linear relation between FOT and spirometry results with increased resistance R and reduced reactance X in patients with more restrictive lung function decline. Given the difficulties with performing spirometry, FOT may be a promising surrogate measure of lung function.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 ◽  
pp. 452-462
Muh. Ruslan Abdullah ◽  
Fasiha Fasiha ◽  
Abd. Kadir Arno

Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) are experiencing a slump due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and it is feared that it will be challenging to get back up. At this time, the Indonesian government has issued policies through several ministries, including the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Health, to stabilize the national economy. Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) are the pillars of the national economy, so that this sector needs attention during this pandemic to reincarnate in a better direction. This study aims to find a correlation between government policies and the revival/reincarnation of MSMEs. Data was collected through a questionnaire distributed through the MSME group on Facebook. To find Carried out the relationship between the two variables, the Spearman correlation test. The results found that the level of strength of the relationship or correlation was 0.619, indicating that there was a strong correlation between government policies on the Reincarnation of MSMEs and had a unidirectional relationship that showed a positive value so that the better the government's alignment with government policies will further improve the state of the Reincarnation of MSMEs towards positive growth.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 197-209
Nurwaningsih Ningsih ◽  
Ika Wijayanti ◽  
Ratih Rahmawati

The study aims to know the relationship of pandemic COVID-19 policy toward teenager marriage factor. The method used in this study is quantitative method with associative approch. Data collection techniques using questionnaires, while data analysis techniques use spearman correlation analysis the results showed that there was a significant relationship between COVID-19 Pandemic policy toward teenage marriage factor with relationship rate off 8,11%. Also Policy in pandemic covid-19 raises the awareners of healthy and clean life exercise a healthy lifestyle by following the healthy protocols applied by the goverment. But on the others hand, there is an event of latent or an uncological function of the policy of COVID-19 pandemic is one of the factor behind teenage marriage, where the policies are related to social restrinctions and network learning (online), socioeconomic, cultural and environment become the factor that cause teenagers in marriage.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261756
Muriel Rabilloud ◽  
Benjamin Riche ◽  
Jean François Etard ◽  
Mad-Hélénie Elsensohn ◽  
Nicolas Voirin ◽  

Background Worldwide, COVID-19 outbreaks in nursing homes have often been sudden and massive. The study investigated the role SARS-CoV-2 virus spread in nearby population plays in introducing the disease in nursing homes. Material and methods This was carried out through modelling the occurrences of first cases in each of 943 nursing homes of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes French Region over the first epidemic wave (March-July, 2020). The cumulative probabilities of COVID-19 outbreak in the nursing homes and those of hospitalization for the disease in the population were modelled in each of the twelve Départements of the Region over period March-July 2020. This allowed estimating the duration of the active outbreak period, the dates and heights of the peaks of outbreak probabilities in nursing homes, and the dates and heights of the peaks of hospitalization probabilities in the population. Spearman coefficient estimated the correlation between the two peak series. Results The cumulative proportion of nursing homes with COVID-19 outbreaks was 52% (490/943; range: 22–70% acc. Département). The active outbreak period in the nursing homes lasted 11 to 21 days (acc. Département) and ended before lockdown end. Spearman correlation between outbreak probability peaks in nursing homes and hospitalization probability peaks in the population (surrogate of the incidence peaks) was estimated at 0.71 (95% CI: [0.66; 0.78]). Conclusion The modelling highlighted a strong correlation between the outbreak in nursing homes and the external pressure of the disease. It indicated that avoiding disease outbreaks in nursing homes requires a tight control of virus spread in the surrounding populations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Boxue He ◽  
Cong Wei ◽  
Qidong Cai ◽  
Pengfei Zhang ◽  
Shuai Shi ◽  

Abstract Background Alternative splicing (AS) plays important roles in transcriptome and proteome diversity. Its dysregulation has a close affiliation with oncogenic processes. This study aimed to evaluate AS-based biomarkers by machine learning algorithms for lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) patients. Method The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and TCGA SpliceSeq database were utilized. After data composition balancing, Boruta feature selection and Spearman correlation analysis were used for differentially expressed AS events. Random forests and a nested fivefold cross-validation were applied for lymph node metastasis (LNM) classifier building. Random survival forest combined with Cox regression model was performed for a prognostic model, based on which a nomogram was developed. Functional enrichment analysis and Spearman correlation analysis were also conducted to explore underlying mechanisms. The expression of some switch-involved AS events along with parent genes was verified by qRT-PCR with 20 pairs of normal and LUSC tissues. Results We found 16 pairs of splicing events from same parent genes which were strongly related to the splicing switch (intrapair correlation coefficient = − 1). Next, we built a reliable LNM classifier based on 13 AS events as well as a nice prognostic model, in which switched AS events behaved prominently. The qRT-PCR presented consistent results with previous bioinformatics analysis, and some AS events like ITIH5-10715-AT and QKI-78404-AT showed remarkable detection efficiency for LUSC. Conclusion AS events, especially switched ones from the same parent genes, could provide new insights into the molecular diagnosis and therapeutic drug design of LUSC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 121-129
Nathania Immanuela Ony ◽  
Penny Handayani

Pendidikan adalah salah satu hal yang penting bagi perkembangan anak sekolah dasar (SD). Pada umumnya, proses pembelajaran di sekolah dilakukan secara tatap muka di dalam kelas (pembelajaran langsung). COVID-19 muncul dengan cara penyebaran yang mudah dan membuat pemerintah mengeluarkan kebijakan Belajar Dari Rumah. Hal ini menguatkan kembali peran orangtua sebagai pendidik utama anak, yang diterapkan dengan pola pengasuhan yang berbeda-beda. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan hubungan antara pola asuh orangtua dengan persepsi pencapaian perkembangan kognitif anak SD pada masa Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh. Sebanyak 220 partisipan telah mengisi kuesioner melalui google forms dan dianalisis dengan metode Spearman Correlation. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan korelasi yang signifikan antara kedua variabel (r(218) = 0.343, p<.01), yang menandakan adanya hubungan antara pola asuh orangtua dengan persepsi pencapaian perkembangan kognitif anak SD pada masa Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh.

2022 ◽  
Junmei Wang ◽  
Jiayao Xiong ◽  
Chao Yang ◽  
Xianshu Jiang ◽  
Min Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background: Among patients with diabetes who had been hospitalized, 30% had twice or more hospitalisations rate, accounting for more than 50% of total hospitalizations and hospitalization expense. The purpose of our study was to to find available strategies to reduce the readmission rate of diabetics in rural areas.Methods: This retrospective single-center study used the data from Yongchuan Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. The t-test and the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used to compare continuous and categorical variables, respectively. We used the Spearman correlation coefficient to examine the relationship between variables. Multiple linear regression was performed to analyze the influencing factors of hospitalisation time, and dummy variables were set for categorical independent variables. Results: There were a total of 1721 readmissions during a five-year period; among them, 829 were females and 892 males. The readmission rate of diabetic patients in the endocrinology department was 32.40%. The age, times of hospitalisation, and duration of all subjects were 64.67 ± 13.82, 2.69 ± 1.41 and 10.60 ± 6.78, respectively. Among all the diabetic patients, type 2 diabetes accounted for 98.55% (n = 1696). Most of the patients were readmitted due to poor glycemic control, infection, edema, dizziness, and weakness, accounting for approximately 56%. During the 5-year period, the majority of readmitted diabetic patients were hospitalized twice. Times of hospitalisation was weakly positively correlated with age (Rho = 0.206, P≤0.001), diabetic duration (Rho = 0.248, P ≤ 0.001) and hospitalisation expenses (Rho = 0.008, P = 0.035) by Spearman correlation analysis. Age, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were the main factors affecting times of hospitalisation in diabetes patients (all P < 0.05). Compared with current smokers, non-smokers and cessation smokers had high hospitalisations rate (all P for trend < 0.05). When taking diabetic foot infection as a reference, edema was more accountable than diabetic foot infection for hospitalisation times, which was statistically significant (P for trend = 0.048).Conclusion: Age, duration of diabetes and hospitalisation costs were positively correlated with times of hospitalisation. Age, duration of diabetes, blood pressure, ALT, smoking status and edema are the influencing factors of hospitalisation times. The most common causes of hospitalisation for diabetics are poor glycemic control, infection, edema, dizziness, and weakness. Controlling these factors may be key to developing rational health strategies for rural diabetics.

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