Lycopersicum Esculentum
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2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 6533-6545
Author(s):  
Alejandro Morales-Ruiz ◽  
Humberto Rafael Bravo-Delgado ◽  
Nazario Francisco-Francisco ◽  
Abraham Flores-Lezama ◽  
Ernesto Díaz-López

El tomate es la hortaliza de fruto más cultivadas a nivel mundial. De esta existen múltiples genotipos, que están genéticamente creados para condiciones ambientales muy específicas, por ello es importante conocer el comportamiento postcosecha de los frutos, que resultará en el cultivar mejor recomendado para cada región. El objetivo general fue: realizar la caracterización fisicoquímica y postcosecha de tres genotipos de jitomate, cultivados bajo condiciones de invernadero, en Tehuacán Puebla, México. La investigación se llevó a cabo en laboratorio. Los genotipos fueron: Merlisse, Maxcesa y Komet tipo bola, cultivados bajo invernadero. Las variables respuesta fueron: diámetro ecuatorial y polar, dinámica del peso de fruto, color de fruto, firmeza, contenido de Ca++ y K+ y vida postcosecha. El diseño utilizado fue completamente aleatorizado, cuyos tratamientos fueron los cultivares y siete repeticiones (3 x 7)= 21 unidades experimentales. Los resultados indican, que el mayor diámetro ecuatorial y polar así como pérdida de peso, fueron en Maxcesa, mientras que Komett, presentó la mayor firmeza y contenido de Ca++ y K+, siendo este último quien presentó la mayor vida de anaquel. De esta investigación se puede concluir, que el cultivar Komett, es quien mejor se adapta a las condiciones del valle de Tehuacán, Puebla.


Author(s):  
Smriti Sanyal ◽  
Sunita Mishra

A study on organoleptic evaluation for accessing sensory attributes of lycopene containing tomato purees & its overall acceptance was conducted at Food Science Analysis Laboratory, School of Home Science, B.B.A.U, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, during July 2020 to May 2021. Different treatments under the investigation were prepared using dried tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum), tomato pulp and water to find out most appropriate treatment having significantly higher sensory attributes and overall acceptability. Five different types of treatments/purees viz. Dried tomato powder without food additives (T1), Mixture of tomato powder and water (ratio 1:10) without heating (T2), Mixture of tomato powder and water (ratio 1:10) heating at 60-70 ᴼC for 5 minutes (T3), Fresh tomato pulp (T4) &  Tomato pulp cooked at 60-70 ᴼC for 35 minutes (T5) were used in the investigation. The effect of these treatments was distinguished as reflected on sensory characters like appearance, aroma, texture & overall acceptance. The highest overall acceptance of 8.20±0.7 on hedonic scale was obtained from tomato pulp cooked at 60-70 ᴼC for 35 minutes (T5) followed by dried tomato powder without food additives (T1) ie. 7.90±1.0. These results appeared highly promising depending on the appearance, aroma & texture.


2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 144
Author(s):  
Asniah Asniah ◽  
Wahyuni Wahyuni ◽  
Muhammad Taufik

The study aimed to evaluate the inhibition of Trichoderma sp. associated with the leaves of the tomato plant (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.). The research was carried out at the Plant Protection Laboratory of the Phytopathology Unit, Faculty of Agriculture, Halu Oleo University, Kendari. The study was arranged using a completely randomized design (CRD) with three types of pathogens, namely Collethotrichum sp., Schlerotium sp., and Paesilomyces sp., repeated five times. Observation parameters were the percentage of inhibition through multiple culture tests, secondary metabolites of volatile compounds, and nonvolatile compounds. The results showed that the ability to inhibit the fungus Trichoderma sp. against the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum sp. able be inhibited by 74.14% and 81.42% respectively in the volatile and nonvolatile secondary metabolite tests, while against the pathogen Sclerotium sp. able to be inhibited by 58.50% in the multiple culture test.


2021 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
pp. 779-785
Author(s):  
Dwi Erni Fadhilah ◽  
Achmad Vandian Nur ◽  
W Wirasti ◽  
Khusna Santika Rahmasari

AbstractThe quality of secondary metabolites in plants is determined by the altitude where they grow, in tomato plants secondary metabolites that have the potential as antioxidant activity are caused by β-carotene. β-carotene is a red-orange pigment that is very abundant in plants and fruits. β-carotene is an organic compound and is classified as a terpenoid, β-carotene is also one of the antioxidants that can prevent disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of β-carotene in tomatoes based on the altitude where they grew. The sample used in this study was Tomato Fruit (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) which was taken at an altitude of ±1206, ±845, ±548 and ±76 masl. Qualitative testing using Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), the mobile phases used are chloroform and ethyl acetate (7:3), the Rf values of the samples and comparisons are not much different. Quantitative testing using UV-Vis Spectrophotometry method at a wavelength of 461 nm. The results showed that the four positive samples contained β-carotene. The levels of β-carotene in the samples studied were sample A (±1206 masl) as much as 5.642 mg/100 gr, sample B (±845 masl) as much as 7.986 mg/100 gr, sample C (±548 masl) as much as 11.128 mg/100 gr and sample D (±76 masl) as much as 3.792 mg/100 gr. From this study, it was found that the highest β-carotene content was found in sample C (±548 masl) and the lowest β-carotene level was found in sample D (±76 masl). Environmental factors such as light, temperature, pH, altitude, and temperature greatly affect the content of β-carotene.Keywords: Determination of rates; β-carotene; tomatoes; UV-Vis spectrophotometry AbstrakKualitas metabolit sekunder dalam tumbuhan salah satunya ditentukan oleh ketinggian tempat tumbuhnya, dalam tanaman tomat metabolit sekunder yang berpotensi sebagai aktivitas antioksidan salah satunya disebabkan oleh β-karoten. β-karoten adalah pigmen berwarna merah-orange yang sangat berlimpah pada tanaman dan buah-buahan. β-karoten merupakan senyawa organik dan diklasifikasikan sebagai suatu terpenoid, β-karoten juga merupakan salah satu antioksidan yang dapat mencegah penyakit. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kadar β-karoten dalam buah tomat berdasarkan ketinggian tempat tumbuhnya. Sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Buah Tomat (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) yang diambil pada ketinggian ±1206, ±845, ±548 dan ±76 mdpl. Pengujian secara kualitatif menggunakan metode Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) dan Kromatografi Lapis Tipis (KLT), fase gerak yang digunakan yaitu berupa kloroform dan etil asetat (7:3) diperoleh nilai Rf sampel dan pembanding yang tidak jauh berbeda. Pengujian secara kuantitatif menggunakan metode Spektrofotometri UV-Vis pada panjang gelombang 461 nm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dari keempat sampel positif mengandung β-karoten. Kadar β-karoten dalam sampel yang diteliti yaitu sampel A (±1206 mdpl) sebanyak 5,642 mg/100 gr, sampel B (±845 mdpl) sebanyak 7,986 mg/100 gr, sampel C (±548 mdpl) sebanyak 11,128 mg/100 gr dan sampel D (±76 mdpl) sebanyak 3,792 mg/100 gr. Dari penelitian ini diketahui bahwa kadar β-karoten tertinggi terdapat pada sampel C (±548 mdpl) dan kadar β-karoten terendah terdapat pada sampel D (±76 mdpl). Faktor lingkungan seperti cahaya, suhu, pH, ketinggian tempat, dan temperature sangat berpengaruh terhadap kandungan β-karoten.Kata kunci: Penetapan kadar; β-karoten; buah tomat; spektrofotometri UV-Vis


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Antonio José Fernández-Espinosa ◽  
Arancha Peña-Heras ◽  
Sabina Rossini-Oliva

Abstract A laboratory study was carried out to investigate the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a mining soil amended with sewage sludge and irrigated with wastewater in comparison to the non-amended soil, with or without tomato plants (Lycopersicum esculentum L.). The study detected a total of nine VOCs emitted from the polluted soil: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, m-xylene, o-xylene, styrene, benzene-1,2,4-trimethyl and tetrachloroethylene, among which the most abundant were toluene, m-xylene and styrene (82.2, 4.1 and 3% respectively). The results showed that soil amended with sewage sludge reduced the emission of VOCs (styrene in pots without plants and benzene and xylenes in pots with plants). On the other hand, tomato plants contributed to increase significantly the emissions of all VOCs except styrene in both amended and non-amended soils.


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Author(s):  
M. A. Augie ◽  
M. Audu ◽  
M. A. Adegbite ◽  
S. Abdulmalik

The study was under taken to assess the fertility status of the flood plain soils of some selected local government areas of Kebbi State and recommend management practices to be provided for the maximum yield of tomatoes in Kebbi State. Soil samples were analyzed for the various physical and chemical properties following the standard procedures. The study revealed that the soils were predominantly sandy loam in texture with the mean particles composition of 715.71 gkg-1, 87.42 kg-1 and 196.87 kg-1 for sand, silt and clay, respectively. The soils contained low organic carbon of 6.0 gkg-1 and high concentration of nitrogen (0.8 gkg-1) which might be due to frequent addition of nitrogenous fertilizers on the soil. The low available phosphorus of 0.64 mgkg-1 was observed which might be due to acidity level of the soils (pH 5.6). On the basis of exchangeable bases, the soils were discovered to be low in Ca (1.51cmolkg-1), but high in Mg content (1.78 cmolkg-1). The soils contained high Na value of 0.59cmolkg-1 an indication ofsodicity hazard. The K content of 0.64 cmolkg-1 was also high in the soils of the study area. Based on the obtained values of the above parameters, the soils could be considered as medium in fertility. Based on the concentration of EC (0.55 dsm-1) ESP (6.04%) and pH 5.6, the soils could be considered to be free from salinity and sodicity at least for now, but has


2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (13) ◽  
pp. e150101318042
Author(s):  
Rafaela Menezes dos Passos ◽  
Jucenir dos Santos ◽  
Alan Rodrigo Santos Teles ◽  
Gabriel Francisco da Silva ◽  
Alessandra Almeida Castro Pagani

O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a interação entre os compostos bioativos da polpa de tomate encapsulado (técnica de gelificação iônica com 2% (M2) e 5% (M5) de alginato de sódio) e o azeite de oliva extra virgem, a influência da interação em relação à qualidade e a avaliar a estabilidade do produto final durante 60 dias de armazenamento. Foram feitas as análises de teor de licopeno, carotenoides, atividade antioxidante (ABTS), fenólicos totais, índice de peróxido, estabilidade oxidativa (Rancimat) e térmica (DSC). As análises foram realizadas em triplicata, aplicando o teste de Tukey ao nível de 5% de significância. As formulações analisadas mantiveram-se estáveis durante o armazenamento, não houve diferença significativa nos teores de licopeno e carotenoides. A formulação M2 obteve menor interação do microencapsulado com o azeite (A2) em relação ao teor de fenólicos e a atividade antioxidante, mantendo assim os compostos fenólicos mais aprisionados. A inserção das microcápsulas no azeite de oliva extra virgem não alterou a sua qualidade mantendo-o na faixa exigida pela legislação ao índice de peróxido, além de não influenciar no tempo de indução à oxidação. A partir da análise térmica de DSC observou-se que as formulações M2 e M5 apresentaram picos de desidratação (100 – 109°C) e degradação (390 – 400°C) em uma mesma faixa, tendo assim características térmicas semelhantes. Desta forma, o fato da junção microcápsulas/azeite não interferiu na qualidade do azeite e agregou valor nutricional, evidenciando a interação dos compostos biativos, podendo ser modificado o tipo de encapsulado, ou do encapsulante e obter uma microcápsula com características diferentes de liberação dependendo do objetivo.


Toxics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (10) ◽  
pp. 249
Author(s):  
Sebastian Elgueta ◽  
Marcela Valenzuela ◽  
Marcela Fuentes ◽  
Pilar Ulloa ◽  
Cecilia Ramos ◽  
...  

In recent years, the official authorities in Chile have reported transgressions in the maximum residue levels of pesticides in fresh vegetables. There is no official information about traceability, pesticide levels, and potential health risks. The aim of this study was to analyse pesticide residues and their corresponding dietary risk assessments in tomatoes from supermarkets in the Metropolitan Region. Pesticides were extracted using the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe, QuEChERS method, and their concentrations were determined by using chromatography with HPLC-FL/UV and GC-MS/ECD/NPD, following the Analytical Quality Control and Method Validation Procedures for Pesticides Residues Analysis in Food and Feed, SANTE guide and ISO 17025:2017 standard. In addition, a dietary risk assessment was carried out by comparing Chilean data to international references. The results reported that 9% of the samples had pesticide residue levels above the maximum residue levels permitted in Chile. All the scenarios evaluated revealed the highest estimated daily intake and hazard quotients for methamidophos and chlorpyrifos. Both the active substances used were acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and were neurotoxic under chronic risk assessment. The results showed the highest chronic hazard index in the Chilean scenario for all age groups and genders. The evidence obtained revealed that methamidophos, methomyl, and chlorpyrifos should be restricted for their use in Chilean agriculture.


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