Local Infection
Recently Published Documents


TOTAL DOCUMENTS

264
(FIVE YEARS 119)

H-INDEX

33
(FIVE YEARS 8)

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tomomi Anan ◽  
Tomohiro Ishimaru ◽  
Ayako Hino ◽  
Tomohisa Nagata ◽  
Seiichiro Tateishi ◽  
...  

Background: During a pandemic, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) play an important role in protecting oneself from infection and preventing the spread of infection to others. There are large regional differences in COVID-19 infection rates in Japan. We hypothesized that the local infection incidence may affect adherence to individual NPIs. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted online among full-time workers in Japan in December 2020. Data from a total of 27,036 participants were analyzed. The questionnaire asked the respondents to identify their habits regarding seven well-known NPIs. Results: Compared to the region with the lowest infection rate, the odds ratios for the region with the highest infection rate were 1.24 (p<0.001) for wearing a mask in public, 1.08 (p=0.157) for washing hands after using the bathroom, 1.17 (p=0.031) for disinfecting hands with alcohol sanitizers when entering indoors, 1.54 (p<0.001) for gargling when returning home, 1.45 (p<0.001) for ventilating the room, 1.33 (p<0.001) for disinfecting or washing hands after touching frequently touched surfaces, and 1.32 (p<0.001) for carrying alcohol sanitizers when outdoors. Five of the seven NPIs showed statistically significant trends across regional infection levels, the two exceptions being wearing a mask in public and washing hands after using the bathroom. Multivariate adjustment did not change these trends. Conclusions: This study found that NPIs were more prevalent in regions with higher incidence rates of COVID-19 in Japanese workers. The findings suggest that the implementation of NPIs was influenced not only by personal attributes but also by contextual effects of the local infection level.


Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (8) ◽  
pp. 918
Author(s):  
Adéla Holubová ◽  
Lucie Chlupáčová ◽  
Lada Cetlová ◽  
Niels A. J. Cremers ◽  
Andrea Pokorná

Non-healing wounds are usually colonised by various types of bacteria. An alternative to antibiotic treatment in patients with infected wounds with local signs of inflammation may be medical-grade honey (MGH), which favourably affects the healing process with its antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of MGH therapy on the healing process of non-healing wounds of various aetiologies and different wound colonisations. Prospective, observation–intervention case studies (n = 9) of patients with wounds of various aetiologies (venous leg ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers, surgical wound dehiscence) are presented. All wounds were treated with MGH and the healing trajectory was rigorously and objectively monitored. In all cases, pain, odour, and exudation were quickly resolved, which led to an improvement in the quality of life of patients. Despite the proven bacterial microflora in wounds, antibiotic treatment was not necessary. The effects of MGH alleviated the signs of local infection until their complete elimination. In eight out of nine cases, the non-healing wound was completely healed. MGH has antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects in wounds of various aetiologies and forms an effective alternative for the use of antibiotics for treating locally infected wounds.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lei Wang ◽  
Zhongliang He

Abstract BackgroundChronic empyema with chest wall sinus is a complex and refractory disease caused by multiple factors.It may be combined with bronchopleural fistula, residual bone and other necrotic tissue,causing local infection difficult to control, and the disease is a vicious circle.Case presentationThis paper reports a 62-year-old male patient who underwent right pneumonectomy for squamous cell carcinoma of the lung 11 years ago and began to develop empyema with purulent sinus in the anterior chest wall 3 years ago. Therefore, he was admitted to our medical center for further treatment. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed the right pleural effusion with the chest wall rupture sinus. According to his clinical symptoms and imaging examination, he was diagnosed as chronic empyema with chest wall sinus.Due to the large empyema cavity,the patient should be treated with free vastus lateralis musculocutaneous flap combined with pedicled pectoralis major muscle flap transplantation.After the operation, acute respiratory failure occurred due to left lung aspiration pneumonia.ConclusionsAfter a series of treatment measures such as tracheal intubation, tracheotomy, anti-infection, maintenance of circulatory stability, and rehabilitation training, he was finally rescued and cured.Follow-up after discharge showed that the tissue flap survived and empyema was eliminated.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jun Akashi ◽  
Ayako HIno ◽  
Seiichiro Tateishi ◽  
Tomohisa Nagata ◽  
Mayumi Tsuji ◽  
...  

Objectives: This study aimed to examine the relationship between regional infection level and treatment interruption for chronic diseases. Methods: A cross-sectional Internet monitoring survey was performed between December 22 and 26, 2020. Data from 9,510 (5,392 males and 4,118 females) participants needing regular treatment or hospital visits were analyzed. We determined the age, sex and multivariate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of treatment interruption associated with various indices of infection level by nesting multilevel logistic models in prefecture of residence. In the multivariate model, sex, age, marital status, job type, equivalent household income, education, self-rated health, and anxiety were adjusted. Results: The ORs of treatment interruption for the lowest versus highest levels of infection were 1.32 (95% CI: 1.09 to 1.59) for the overall incidence rate (per 1,000 population), 1.34 (95% CI: 1.10 to 1.63) for the overall number of people infected, 1.28 (95% CI: 1.06 to 1.54) for the monthly incidence rate (per 1,000 population), and 1.38 (95% CI: 1.14 to 1.67) for the number of people infected per month. For each index of infection level, higher infection was linked to more workers experiencing treatment interruption. Conclusion: Higher local infection levels were linked to more workers experiencing treatment interruption. Our results suggest that apart from individual characteristics such as socioeconomic and health status, treatment interruptions during the pandemic were also subject to contextual effects related to regional infection levels. Preventing community spread of COVID-19 may thus protect individuals from indirect effects of the pandemic, such as treatment interruption.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hussein Naji ◽  
Aafia Mohammed Farooq Gheewale ◽  
Ebtesam Safi

Abstract BackgroundGastrostomy has become a common surgical procedure within the pediatric population with feeding difficulties and nutritional issues. In the aims of improving clinical outcomes, this research targets to compare the rate of complications of two different laparoscopic techniques of a gastrostomy button placement in a pediatric population: A combination of modified U-stitches and seldinger technique laparoscopic gastrostomy (MLG) versus the standard laparoscopic gastrostomy (LG).MethodsEighty-nine children were recruited for this retrospective case control study that assesses the surgical outcomes of a novel MLG, being the cases to the standard LG in children which are the controls. The main outcome measure is the rate of postoperative complications encompassing dislodgement of gastrostomy button, leak around button, local infection, and development of granulation tissue post-surgery which is compared between the two population groups.ResultsThe p-value of the study was shown to be 0.03 proving a statistical significance between the complication rates. ConclusionAs a result, the modified U-stitches laparoscopic gastrostomy has a lower rate of complications in comparison to the standard laparoscopic gastrostomy making it a better technique for gastrostomy placement in children.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Nora S. Wolff ◽  
Max C. Jacobs ◽  
W. Joost Wiersinga ◽  
Floor Hugenholtz

Abstract Background The gut microbiome plays a protective role in the host defense against pneumonia. The composition of the lung microbiota has been shown to be predictive of clinical outcome in critically ill patients. However, the dynamics of the lung and gut microbiota composition over time during severe pneumonia remains ill defined. We used a mouse model of pneumonia-derived sepsis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in order to follow the pathogen burden as well as the composition of the lung, tongue and fecal microbiota from local infection towards systemic spread. Results Already at 6 h post-inoculation with K. pneumoniae, marked changes in the lung microbiota were seen. The alpha diversity of the lung microbiota did not change throughout the infection, whereas the beta diversity did. A shift between the prominent lung microbiota members of Streptococcus and Klebsiella was seen from 12 h onwards and was most pronounced at 18 h post-inoculation (PI) which was also reflected in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines indicating severe pulmonary inflammation. Around 18 h PI, K. pneumoniae bacteremia was observed together with a systemic inflammatory response. The composition of the tongue microbiota was not affected during infection, even at 18–30 h PI when K. pneumoniae had become the dominant bacterium in the lung. Moreover, we observed differences in the gut microbiota during pulmonary infection. The gut microbiota contributed to the lung microbiota at 12 h PI, however, this decreased at a later stage of the infection. Conclusions At 18 h PI, K. pneumoniae was the dominant member in the lung microbiota. The lung microbiota profiles were significantly explained by the lung K. pneumoniae bacterial counts and Klebsiella and Streptococcus were correlating with the measured cytokine levels in the lung and/or blood. The oral microbiota in mice, however, was not influenced by the severity of murine pneumonia, whereas the gut microbiota was affected. This study is of significance for future studies investigating the role of the lung microbiota during pneumonia and sepsis.


2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Dianna E. B. Hergott ◽  
Jennifer E. Balkus ◽  
Guillermo A. García ◽  
Kurtis R. Cruz ◽  
Annette M. Seilie ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Prevalence of falciparum malaria on Bioko Island remains high despite sustained, intensive control. Progress may be hindered by high proportions of subpatent infections that are not detected by rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) but contribute to onward transmission, and by imported infections. Better understanding of the relationship between subpatent infections and RDT-detected infections, and whether this relationship is different from imported versus locally acquired infections, is imperative to better understand the sources of infection and mechanisms of transmission to tailor more effective interventions. Methods Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed on a sub-set of samples from the 2015 Malaria Indicator Survey to identify subpatent infections. Households with RDT(+) individuals were matched 1:4 with households with no RDT(+) individuals. The association between living in a household with an RDT(+) individual and having a subpatent infection was evaluated using multivariate hierarchical logistic regression models with inverse probability weights for selection. To evaluate possible modification of the association by potential importation of the RDT(+) case, the analysis was repeated among strata of matched sets based on the reported eight-week travel history of the RDT(+) individual(s). Results There were 142 subpatent infections detected in 1,400 individuals (10.0%). The prevalence of subpatent infections was higher in households with versus without an RDT(+) individual (15.0 vs 9.1%). The adjusted prevalence odds of subpatent infection were 2.59-fold greater (95% CI: 1.31, 5.09) for those in a household with an RDT(+) individual compared to individuals in a household without RDT(+) individuals. When stratifying by travel history of the RDT(+) individual, the association between subpatent infections and RDT(+) infections was stronger in the strata in which the RDT(+) individual(s) had not recently travelled (adjusted prevalence odds ratio (aPOR) 2.95; 95% CI:1.17, 7.41), and attenuated in the strata in which recent travel was reported (aPOR 1.76; 95% CI: 0.54, 5.67). Conclusions There is clustering of subpatent infections around RDT(+) individual(s) when both imported and local infection are suspected. Future control strategies that aim to treat whole households in which an RDT(+) individual is found may target a substantial portion of infections that would otherwise not be detected.


2021 ◽  
pp. 1420326X2110303
Author(s):  
Zhiqiang (John) Zhai ◽  
He Li

Infection risk is commonly used to predict potential health impacts of airborne respiratory diseases such as ‘severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)' and associated environment conditions and mitigation measures. The assumption of perfect air-mixing in spaces is widely applied in prediction, which projects a single mean risk of infection in the space. Detailed distribution of infection risk, especially for large spaces such as large lecture hall, indoor stadium and ballroom, will be highly desired for evaluating indoor risks and improvement performance of mitigating strategies. This study developed new formulae for calculating the spatial distribution of infection risk, stemming from the original Wells–Riley model but integrating the spatial distribution of pathogen concentrations. Case studies were presented for two typical large public spaces (i.e. restaurant and ballroom). Distributed infection risks were predicted with and without mitigation measures, upon which critical parameters of portable air cleaners can be optimized. The method can be employed for estimating local infection risks of airborne respiratory diseases using either measured or simulated pathogen concentration.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lei Wang ◽  
Zhongliang He

Abstract BackgroundChronic empyema with chest wall sinus is a complex and refractory disease caused by multiple factors.It may be combined with bronchopleural fistula, residual bone and other necrotic tissue,causing local infection difficult to control, and the disease is a vicious circle.Case presentationThis paper reports a 62-year-old male patient who underwent right pneumonectomy for squamous cell carcinoma of the lung 11 years ago and began to develop empyema with purulent sinus in the anterior chest wall 3 years ago. Therefore, he was admitted to our medical center for further treatment. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed the right pleural effusion with the chest wall rupture sinus. According to his clinical symptoms and imaging examination, he was diagnosed as chronic empyema with chest wall sinus.Due to the large empyema cavity,the patient should be treated with free vastus lateralis musculocutaneous flap combined with pedicled pectoralis major muscle flap transplantation.After the operation, acute respiratory failure occurred due to left lung aspiration pneumonia.ConclusionsAfter a series of treatment measures such as tracheal intubation, tracheotomy, anti-infection, maintenance of circulatory stability, and rehabilitation training, he was finally rescued and cured.Follow-up after discharge showed that the tissue flap survived and empyema was eliminated.


Export Citation Format

Share Document