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Author(s):  
Zofia Maria Kiersnowska ◽  
Ewelina Lemiech-Mirowska ◽  
Aleksandra Sierocka ◽  
Michał Zawadzki ◽  
Michał Michałkiewicz ◽  
...  

Infections with multi-drug resistant microorganisms associated with the provision of health services have become an acute problem worldwide. These infections cause increased morbidity as well as mortality and are a financial burden for the healthcare system. Effective risk management can reduce the spread of infections and thus minimize their number in hospitalized patients. We have developed a new approach to the analysis of hazards and of exposure to the risk of adverse events by linking the patient’s health record system to the entire infrastructure of the hospital unit. In this study, using the developed model, we focused on infections caused by the Clostridioides difficile bacterium, as they constitute a significant number of nosocomial infections in Poland and worldwide. The study was conducted in a medical facility located in the central part of Poland which provides tertiary care. In the proposed PM model, a risk analysis of hospital acquired infections at the Intensive Care and Anesthesiology Unit combined with the hospital’s technical facilities and organizational factors was conducted. The obtained results indicate the most critical events which may have an impact on potential hazards or risks which may result from the patient’s stay at the specific ward. Our method can be combined with an anti-problem approach, which minimizes the critical level of infection in order to determine the optimal functioning of the entire hospital unit. Research has shown that in most situations the spread dynamics of nosocomial infections can be controlled and their elimination may be attempted. In order to meet these conditions, the persons responsible for the daily operation of the medical facility and its individual wards have to indicate potential events and factors which present a risk to the hospitalized patients. On the basis of a created spreadsheet directions for improvement may be finally established for all potential events, their frequency may be minimized, and information may be obtained on actions which should be undertaken in a crisis situation caused by the occurrence of a given phenomenon. We believe that the proposed method is effective in terms of risk reduction, which is important for preventing the transmission of multi-drug resistant microorganisms in the hospital environment.


Author(s):  
Saloni D. Shah ◽  
Atheesh Kumar M. ◽  
Venkata S. Nanduri

<p class="abstract">Bones form a vital part of the skeletal system providing mechanical support, strength, structure and protection to the human body. Inability of the bone to resist any kind of stress caused accidently can result in a bone injury or a fracture. This article provides a summary of eleven cases of bone injury and fracture treated successfully by yoga prana vidya (YPV) techniques as a complementary medicine for faster recovery. The study was carried out by two healers who independently healed eleven cases of bone injury and fracture using the bone regeneration techniques of YPV. Further, the data was collected and the results were analysed. By application of YPV healing techniques complementarily, it is observed that full recovery took place within 10 days to 45 days for the 3 hospitalised cases, and within 3 to 8 days for the two patients who had bandage/dressing done at a medical facility. In case of the remaining 6 patients who sought YPV healing help in preference to seeking medical help the recovery took place within 5 to 20 days. helping the patients to lead a normal life thereafter. It is observed that YPV techniques can be used for faster recovery of patients with injured and fractured bones. This paper shows the successful results when the techniques were applied on eleven participants. It is recommended to conduct further studies on a larger scale for the healing of bone related cases such as injury and fractures.</p>


Author(s):  
Meesha Singh ◽  
Rupsha Karmakar ◽  
Sayak Ganguli ◽  
Mahashweta Mitra Ghosh

Aims: This study aims at comparative identification of antibiotic resistance patterns in bacteria isolated from samples collected from rural environment (LS) and urban environments (SS). Metagenomic profiling gave us insights into the microbial abundance of the two samples. This study focused on culture-based methods for complete identification of antibiotic resistant isolates and estimation of comparative antibiotic resistance among the two samples. Study Design: Untreated medical waste and anthropogenic waste disposal can lead to the propagation of different antibiotic resistant strains in wastewater environments both in urban and rural set ups which provide an insight towards this study approach mentioned in the methodology segment. Place and Duration of Study: Sewer system of a medical facility located in Purulia, India was the collection site for liquid sludge. Solid sludge and associated wastewater were collected in vicinity of a large urban medical facility from central Kolkata, India. Methodology: Physico-chemical properties were analyzed followed by microbiological and biochemical characterization. The antibiotic resistance patterns were determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay. Potent multidrug resistant isolates were identified using 16srRNA gene amplification followed by Phylogenetic profiling, using CLC Genomics workbench. Results: We observed maximum resistance in an E. coli isolate which was resistant up to 22 antibiotics. Combined data for resistance from urban and rural samples were found to exhibit 83.9% resistance to beta lactams, 85.7% to macrolides, 44.2% to fluoroquinolones, 50% to glycopeptides and cephalosporins, 35.7 % to carbapenems and sulfonamides, 28.5 % to tetracycline, and 23.8 % to aminoglycosides. Conclusion: The high prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria harbouring diverse resistance traits across samples indicated towards probable horizontal gene transfer across environmental niches. This study can prove to be useful to understand and map the patterns of resistance and stringently apply the counter measures related to public health practices.


Author(s):  
Cassandra Simmons ◽  
Claire Allison ◽  
Jayde Kee ◽  
Derek Ballas

Objectives: This case study intends to examine how staff characteristics, training methods, and duration of training impact overall staff preparedness and comfortability when transitioning to a new Labor and Delivery. Background: A new medical facility offers an opportunity for greater capacity and expanding services, but it also poses new challenges for staff. Success in this transition depends on how quickly the staff can adapt to their new environment and how prepared they are to deliver high-quality care to patients. Methods: An optional survey was conducted to determine the staff’s confidence in their training using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Results: After responses were collected, a paired samples two-sided t test revealed that there was no statistically significant change in the confidence and preparedness for staff. Conclusions: With this overall outcome, medical facilities will have more discernment on ways to improve their employees’ trust and confidence in performing their tasks and providing care while in a new environment. This will then be reflected in the care given toward patients in the future.


Blood ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 138 (Supplement 1) ◽  
pp. 4137-4137
Author(s):  
Syed M. Qasim Hussaini ◽  
Arjun Gupta

Abstract Background: more than 60,000 people die annually from hematologic malignancies in the united states (us). Patients with hematologic malignancies more frequently receive aggressive care toward the end-of-life and are more likely to die in a hospital compared to those with a solid tumor. Appropriate care of such patients is very dependent on an existing healthcare infrastructure. There are notable challenges to rural healthcare in the united states which contains less than 1/5th of all hospices in the us. In this study, we sought to investigate rural-urban disparities in place of death the us in individuals that died from hematologic malignancies. Methods: we utilized the us centers for disease control and prevention wide-ranging online data for epidemiologic research database to analyze all deaths from hematologic malignancies in the us from 2003 to 2019. A population classification utilizing the 2013 us census was made using the national center for health statistics urban-rural classification scheme. These classifications included: large metropolitan area (1 million), small- or medium-sized metropolitan area (50 000-999 999), and rural area (&lt;50 000). We estimated deaths in a medical facility, hospice, home, or nursing care facility. We stratified the results by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. The annual percentage change (apc) in deaths was estimated. All data was publicly available and de-identified. Findings: from 2003-2019, there were a total 1,088,589 deaths form hematologic malignancies in the united states, predominantly in large metropolitan areas (50.2%), followed by small or medium sized metropolitan areas (31.7%) and rural areas (18.2%). All regions noted decreases in medical facility and nursing facility related deaths, and increase in hospice and home deaths. While rural areas demonstrated the quickest uptake of hospice care (apc 61.5), they had the lowest overall presence of hospice care (8.3% of all rural deaths in 2019 vs. 14.9% for small or medium metropolitan vs. 12% for large metropolitan) and larger share of nursing facility related deaths (15.8% of all rural deaths in 2019 vs 12.3% for small or medium metropolitan vs 10.6% for large metropolitan). Discussion: we demonstrate end-of-life disparities in hematologic malignancies based on where an individual resides in the us with rural areas having notably lower share of deaths in hospice facilities. Older infrastructure, inadequate access to care, and financial barriers add to the medical complexity of care for all patients, and especially hematologic patients with high needs and complex treatment planning. These have been aggravated by rural hospital closures in the previous 18 months. The us senate is currently debating a bipartisan infrastructure that may add billions in building rural healthcare infrastructure to state budgets. Our findings are timely in helping inform congressional policy. Figure 1 Figure 1. Disclosures No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. S267-S267
Author(s):  
Srilatha Neshangi ◽  
Budder Siddiqui ◽  
Sarah Tran ◽  
Phillip Zhang

Abstract Background Patients who are admitted to the hospital with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) often have protracted hospitalizations complicated by bacterial or fungal co-infections. This also raises the question whether there is some feature of COVID-19 that predisposes to development of specific co-infections. To begin answering that question, we sought to review the distribution of microorganisms identified in bacterial and respiratory cultures in patients admitted with COVID-19. Methods In a retrospective review of all patients admitted with COVID-19 in the year 2020 at a single academic tertiary medical facility, all positive blood and respiratory cultures were reviewed. Common contaminants were removed. Duplicate growth of the same organism within the same patient was not counted as a separate event. Results 787 patients were admitted with COVID-19 for the specified time frame. There were 131 and 147 unique events of documented bacterial or fungal growth seen in blood cultures and respiratory tract cultures, respectively. The most commonly identified organism in blood cultures was Staphylococcus aureus (3.94% of patients with COVID-19), followed closely by Enterococcus (2.41%), Klebsiella (1.65%), and Escherichia (1.27%). Staphylococcus aureus was also the most frequently isolated organism in respiratory cultures (7.24% of patients with COVID-19), followed by Pseudomonas (3.43%), Klebsiella (1.78%), Serratia (0.89%), and Stenotrophomonas (0.89%). Conclusion This suggests that the distribution of pathogens implicated in coinfections in this patient population may not be substantially different from what might be expected in patients admitted for reasons outside of COVID-19. Further investigation with a larger patient population would provide more generalizable data, including patients admitted for reasons outside of COVID-19. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures


2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
pp. 233-240
Author(s):  
Wojciech Taras

The reviewed monograph is the first study of this kind in the Polish doctrine of administrative law. It consists of a short introduction, five chapters, each of which is closed with a few-page selection of the jurisprudence of common and administrative courts, and an ending with a summary of the presented considerations and eight de lege ferenda remarks, as well as an extensive bibliography. The author analyzed a number of acts of different legal force concerning the administrative and legal consequences of death for the relatives and society. Attention was paid in particular to the issues of death of the guardian of a public administration body, the obligations of the medical facility towards the patient and his family, the preparation of a death certificate, handling of the corpse and the location of cemeteries.


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