heat production
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Geothermics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 100 ◽  
pp. 102318
Author(s):  
Koenraad F. Beckers ◽  
Nicolás Rangel-Jurado ◽  
Harish Chandrasekar ◽  
Adam J. Hawkins ◽  
Patrick M. Fulton ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kaiu Piipponen ◽  
Annu Martinkauppi ◽  
Sami Vallin ◽  
Teppo Arola ◽  
Nina Leppäharju ◽  
...  

Abstract The energy sector is undergoing a fundamental transformation, with significant investment in low-carbon technologies to replace fossil-based systems. In densely populated urban areas, deep boreholes offer an alternative over shallow geothermal systems, which demand extensive surface area to attain large-scale heat production. This paper presents numerical calculations of the thermal energy that can be extracted from the medium-deep borehole heat exchangers of depths ranging from 600-3000 m. We applied the thermogeological parameters of three locations across Finland and tested two types of coaxial borehole heat exchangers to understand better the variables that affect heat production in low permeability crystalline rocks. For each depth, location, and heat collector type, we used a range of fluid flow rates to examine the correlation between thermal energy production and resulting outlet temperature. Our results indicate a trade-off between thermal energy production and outlet fluid temperature depending on the fluid flow rate, and that the vacuum-insulated tubing outperforms high-density polyethylene pipe in energy and temperature production. In addition, the results suggest that the local thermogeological factors impact heat production. Maximum energy production from a 600-m-deep well achieved 170 MWh/a, increasing to 330 MWh/a from a 1000-m-deep well, 980 MWh/a from a 2-km-deep well, and up to 1880 MWh/a from a 3-km-deep well. We demonstrate that understanding the interplay of the local geology, heat exchanger materials, and fluid circulation rates is necessary to maximize the potential of medium-deep geothermal boreholes as a reliable long-term baseload energy source.


2022 ◽  
Vol 61 (1) ◽  
pp. 20-39
Author(s):  
Jamal Asfahani

Aerial gamma-ray spectrometric technique is used herein to evaluate the radioactive heat production (HP) of Ar-Rassafeh Badyieh Area (Area-2), Syria. The nine already established lithological scored units of Area-2 have been separately characterized for the heat production HP parameter. The Concentration-number (C-N) model and the log-log plots associated with fractal technique are proposed and applied as a new approach to map the measured equivalent uranium (eU), the equivalent thorium (eTh), and potassium (K%) and the computed heat production (HP) of Area-2. The HP of Area-2 varies between a minimum of 0.06 and a maximum of 4.28 ?w/m3 with an average of 0.548 ?w/m3 and a standard deviation of 0.27?w/m3. The highest observed HP values are related to the phosphatic environments represented by two lithological scored units A and B.


Author(s):  
Yu. Selikhov ◽  
K. Gorbunov ◽  
V. Stasov

Solar energy is widely used in solar systems, where economy and ecology are combined. Namely, this represents an important moment in the era of depletion of energy resources. The use of solar energy is a promising economical item for all countries of the world, meeting their interests also in terms of energy independence, thanks to which it is confidently gaining a stable position in the global energy sector. The cost of heat obtained through the use of solar installations largely depends on the radiation and climatic conditions of the area where the solar installation is used. The climatic conditions of our country, especially the south, make it possible to use the energy of the Sun to cover a significant part of the need for heat. A decrease in the reserves of fossil fuel and its rise in price have led to the development of optimal technical solutions, efficiency and economic feasibility of using solar installations. And today this is no longer an idle curiosity, but a conscious desire of homeowners to save not only their financial budget, but also health, which is possible only with the use of alternative energy sources, such as: double-circuit solar installations, geothermal heat pumps (HP), wind power generators. The problem is especially acute in the heat supply of housing and communal services (HCS), where the cost of fuel for heat production is several times higher than the cost of electricity. The main disadvantages of centralized heat supply sources are low energy, economic and environmental efficiency. And high transport tariffs for the delivery of energy carriers and frequent accidents on heating mains exacerbate the negative factors inherent in traditional district heating. One of the most effective energy-saving methods that make it possible to save fossil fuel, reduce environmental pollution, and meet the needs of consumers in process heat is the use of heat pump technologies for heat production.


Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 124
Author(s):  
Martina Hlatká ◽  
Vieroslav Molnár ◽  
Gabriel Fedorko ◽  
Beáta Stehlíková ◽  
Gabriela Bogdanovská

Exchangeability means the possibility of the fuel changing, with conservation of the required energy and environmental criteria. The assessment of fuel exchangeability should be realized by a suitable method, which must reliably present the possibility of the exchangeability of fuels, or reject it. In the presented paper, research on the exchangeability of solid fuels in the field of heating production is surveyed by the case study. Based on the available published knowledge from previous studies on fuel exchangeability, the statistical method was chosen for evaluation. The application of this method is useful. For example, by evaluating the exchangeability of natural gas, the manuscript will describe its application for the field of solid fuels in heat production. The research evaluated and analyzed the sample of 12 fuels. For each fuel sample, 35 gas attributes were measured, which were classified into separate flue gas attribute groups: ash content, combustion heat, heating capacity, sulfur content, combustible content, water content, emission factor, carbon content, hydrogen content, and oxygen content. Attributes of flues were evaluated and grouped according to the fuel properties—ash content and combustion heat, sulphur content, water content, emission factor, carbon content, hydrogen content, nitrogen content, oxygen content, and combustible content.


Author(s):  
Jay S Johnson ◽  
Taylor L Jansen ◽  
Michaiah Galvin ◽  
Tyler C Field ◽  
Jason R Graham ◽  
...  

Abstract Heat stress (HS) decreases lactation output in sows due to an attempt to reduce metabolic heat production. However, this negatively affects litter growth performance. Therefore, the study objective was to determine whether electronically controlled cooling pads (ECP) would improve indirect measures of lactation output (e.g., total heat production; THP) and litter growth performance in HS exposed sows. Over two repetitions, 12 multiparous (2.69 ± 0.85) lactating sows [265.4 ± 26.1 kg body weight (BW)] and litters were assigned to either an ECP (n = 3/repetition) or a non-functional ECP (NECP; n = 3/repetition) and placed into farrowing crates within indirect calorimeters from d 3.7 ± 0.5 to d 18.7 ± 0.5 of lactation. Litters were standardized across all sows (11.4 ± 0.7 piglets/litter), and sows were provided ad libitum feed and water. All sows were exposed to cyclical HS (28.27 ± 0.26°C nighttime to 33.09 ± 0.19°C daytime). On d 4, 8, 14, and 18 of lactation, indirect calorimetry was performed on each individual sow and litter to determine THP and THP/kg BW 0.75. Body temperature (TB) was measured hourly using vaginal implants, and respiration rate [RR; breaths per minute (bpm)] was measured daily at 0700, 1100, 1300, 1500, and 1900 hrs. Sow feed intake (FI) was assessed daily. Litter weights were obtained at birth, on d 4, 8, 14, and 18 of lactation, and at weaning. Data were analyzed using PROC GLIMMIX with sow and/or litter as the experimental unit. An overall decrease (P < 0.01; 25 bpm) in RR and maximum daily TB (P = 0.02; 0.40°C) was observed in ECP versus NECP sows. An increase in THP (P < 0.01; 20.4%) and THP/kg BW 0.75 (P < 0.01; 23.1%) was observed for ECP when compared to NECP sows and litters. Litter average daily gain and weaning weight was increased (P < 0.05; 25.0 and 19.2%, respectively) for ECP versus NECP litters. No FI differences were observed (P = 0.40) when comparing ECP (5.66 ± 0.31 kg/d) and NECP (5.28 ± 0.31 kg/d) sows. In summary, ECPs improve litter growth, thermoregulatory measures, and bioenergetic parameters associated with greater milk production in lactating sows exposed to cyclical HS.


Biomolecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1914
Author(s):  
Irina P. Voronova

The present review summarizes the data concerning the influence of serotonin (5-HT) receptors on body temperature in warm-blooded animals and on processes associated with its maintenance. This review includes the most important part of investigations from the first studies to the latest ones. The established results on the pharmacological activation of 5-HT1A, 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT2 receptor types are discussed. Such activation of the first 3 type of receptors causes a decrease in body temperature, whereas the 5-HT2 activation causes its increase. Physiological mechanisms leading to changes in body temperature as a result of 5-HT receptors’ activation are discussed. In case of 5-HT1A receptor, they include an inhibition of shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis, as well simultaneous increase of peripheral blood flow, i.e., the processes of heat production and heat loss. The physiological processes mediated by 5-HT2 receptor are opposite to those of the 5-HT1A receptor. Mechanisms of 5-HT3 and 5-HT7 receptor participation in these processes are yet to be studied in more detail. Some facts indicating that in natural conditions, without pharmacological impact, these 5-HT receptors are important links in the system of temperature homeostasis, are also discussed.


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