menstrual irregularity
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Begum Moriom Zamila ◽  
Hurjahan Banu ◽  
Md Shahed Morshed ◽  
Sukanti Shah ◽  
Afroza Begum ◽  

Background: Menstrual irregularities may predict over adverse consequences in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Objective: To observe the relation of variants of menstrual cycles with clinical and biochemical features of PCOS.Methods: This cross-sectional study encompassed 200 PCOS women diagnosed by Rotterdam criteria and 120 age-matched healthy controls. Subgroups were classified according to menstrual cycle length as: polymenorrheic (<21 days), eumenorrheic (21-35 days), oligomenorrheic (36 days-3 months) and amenorrheic (>3 months). Glucose was measured by glucose oxidase, lipid by glycerol phosphate dehydrogenenase-peroxidase and all hormones by chemiluminescent immuno-assay method.Results: Around 86% of PCOS patients had menstrual irregularity, among which 75% had oligomenorrhea followed by amenorrhea (9%) and polymenorrhea (2%). All the subgroups of PCOS patients (polymenorrhea excluded from further analyses) had significantly poor metabolic manifestations than the control namely insulin resistance (IR), impaired glycaemic status, general and central obesity, metabolic syndrome and dyslipidaemia. Acanthosis nigricans (AN), hyperandrogenemia (HA) and IR had significant predictive association with PCOS patients with both irregular [OR (95% CI)- AN: 21.994 (6.427, 75.267), p<0.001; HA: 27.735 (8.672, 88.704), p<0.001; IR: 7.268 (2.647, 19.954), p<0.001] and regular cycle [AN: 16.449 (3.830, 70.643), p<0.001; HA: 24.635 (6.349, 95.590), p<0.001; IR: 6.071 (1.658, 22.234), p=0.006] in reference to control group. None of the variables had significant predictive associations with irregular cycle in reference to regular cycle in patients with PCOS.Conclusion: Oligomenorrhea was the most common variant of menstrual irregularity in PCOS patients. All menstrual variants including eumenorrhea had similar manifestations in PCOS women, but poorer than controls.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 06 No. 01 January’22 Page: 96-103

2021 ◽  
Vol 119 (1) ◽  
pp. e2113762118
Jenna Nobles ◽  
Lindsay Cannon ◽  
Allen J. Wilcox

US state legislatures have proposed laws to prohibit abortion once the earliest embryonic electrical activity is detectable (fetal “heartbeat”). On average, this occurs roughly 6 wk after the last menstrual period. To be eligible for abortion, people must recognize pregnancy very early in gestation. The earliest symptom of pregnancy is a missed period, and irregular menstrual cycles—which occur frequently—can delay pregnancy detection past the point of fetal cardiac activity. In our analysis of 1.6 million prospectively recorded menstrual cycles, cycle irregularity was more common among young women, Hispanic women, and women with common health conditions, such as diabetes and polycystic ovary syndrome. These groups face physiological limitations in detecting pregnancy before fetal cardiac activity. Restriction of abortion this early in gestation differentially affects specific population subgroups, for reasons outside of individual control.

Dragan D. Micic ◽  
Hermann Toplak ◽  
Dusan D. Micic ◽  
Snezana P. Polovina

SummaryThe presence of obesity may significantly influence female fertility through various mechanisms. Impairment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis in obese women may induce anovulation and infertility. Obesity may have an effect on women’s spontaneous and assisted conception rates, increased miscarriage rates, premature labor, stillbirth and perinatal risks, and menstrual irregularity. It has been suggested that weight loss improves reproductive outcomes due to fertility amelioration and an improvement in menstrual irregularity and ovulation. It is still not known which weight reduction procedures (changes in lifestyle, pharmacological management or bariatric intervention) result in optimal outcome on infertility. Currently, bariatric surgery is defined as the best available method for the management of obesity and its associated diseases.We have analyzed literature facts about effects of bariatric surgery on the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and sexual dysfunction in obesity and pregnancy in obesity. Immediate positive effects of bariatric surgery are evident at the moment, while for long-term outcomes more prolonged follow-up investigations should be done.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Hong He ◽  
Xiaoxuan Yu ◽  
Tingjia Chen ◽  
Fei Yang ◽  
Min Zhang ◽  

Background. The association between sleep disturbance and the menstruation in the young women population has been scarcely studied. The aim of this study is to assess the association between sleep status and phase of the menstrual cycle in healthy, young, ovulating women. Methods. This cross-sectional study used the data collected from healthy young, ovulating Chinese females from September to December 2018. The association was analyzed by using linear regression and binary logistic analyses. Results. 2260 women aged 17 to 30 were included in the analysis. The average sleep duration of the respondents was 7.24 hours ( SD = 0.92 ). 61.7% of them admitted that they were accompanied by at least one of sleep symptoms including difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, dreaminess, early morning awakening, and somnolence. Sleep quality was significantly associated with dysmenorrhea (OR 95 % CI = 1.74 [1.40-2.17], P < 0.001 ) and self-awareness menstrual regularity (OR 95 % CI = 1.29 [1.06-1.56], P = 0.011 ). Conclusion. This study found that poor sleep quality is significantly associated with dysmenorrhea and self-awareness menstrual irregularity among healthy, young, ovulating, Chinese females.

Abdulla Al Nuaimi ◽  
Raya Almazrouei ◽  
Yusra Othman ◽  
Salem Beshyah ◽  
Khaled M. Aldahmani

<b><i>Objectives:</i></b> Macroprolactin (macroPRL) excess is an important cause of hyperprolactinemia. Several prolactin assays have high reactivity to macroPRL. However, macroPRL screening is not routinely performed in many labs. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of macroprolactinemia (MP) in patients with elevated prolactin using the Roche Elecsys assay in a large tertiary center in UAE. <b><i>Materials and Methods:</i></b> Consecutive samples of patients with elevated prolactin presenting to Tawam Hospital from June to August 2018 were evaluated for MP. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used to precipitate macroPRL. Monomeric prolactin recovery cutoff ≤50% was used to determine the prevalence of MP. <b><i>Results:</i></b> A total of 180 patients with elevated prolactin were included in the study with a mean age of 33.1 ± 11.9 years. The majority were women (87.2%), and about 77.8% were newly diagnosed patients with hyperprolactinemia. The main indications for prolactin testing were menstrual irregularity (<i>n</i> = 121), infertility (<i>n</i> = 11), galactorrhea (<i>n</i> = 11), and sellar masses (<i>n</i> = 12). MP was present in 8.3% of the patients. The median (IQR) of total prolactin level was 740.5 (579–1,085) IU/m before PEG precipitation and was not significantly different between MP and true hyperprolactinemia cases. Three patients with MP had pituitary MRI evaluation, which was normal. Eight patients with MP were treated with cabergoline. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> One in 12 patients with hyperprolactinemia had MP on the Roche Elecsys assay defined as the cutoff recovery of ≤50% post-PEG precipitation. Physicians should be aware of the prolactin assay used in their labs, and we recommend routine macroPRL assessment in mild hyperprolactinemia samples in labs using the Roche Elecsys platform.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (11) ◽  
pp. 3759
Geethika S. G. Liyanage ◽  
Ryo Inoue ◽  
Mina Fujitani ◽  
Tomoko Ishijima ◽  
Taisei Shibutani ◽  

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive-aged women. Recently, various dietary interventions have been used extensively as a novel therapy against PCOS. In the present study, we show that soy isoflavone metabolites and resistant starch, together with gut microbiota modulations, were successful in decreasing the severity of PCOS-like reproductive features while increasing the expression of gut barrier markers and butyric acid in the gut. In the letrozole-induced PCOS model rats, the intake of both 0.05% soy isoflavones and 11% resistant starch, even with letrozole treatment, reduced the severity of menstrual irregularity and polycystic ovaries with a high concentration of soy isoflavones and equol in plasma. Antibiotic cocktail treatment suppressed soy isoflavone metabolism in the gut and showed no considerable effects on reducing the PCOS-like symptoms. The mRNA expression level of occludin significantly increased with soy isoflavone and resistant starch combined treatment. Bacterial genera such as Blautia, Dorea and Clostridium were positively correlated with menstrual irregularity under resistant starch intake. Moreover, the concentration of butyric acid was elevated by resistant starch intake. In conclusion, we propose that both dietary interventions and gut microbiota modulations could be effectively used in reducing the severity of PCOS reproductive features.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Seung Gyun Lim ◽  
Young Ah Lee ◽  
Han Na Jang ◽  
Sung Hye Kong ◽  
Chang Ho Ahn ◽  

There is a lack of studies regarding the long-term outcomes of Asian adults with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. We hypothesized that adults with CAH are at higher metabolic risk than their age-, and sex-matched controls. We further investigated the long-term health outcome-related factors in adults with CAH. We compared metabolic risk between adults with CAH (71 men, 93 women) and age-, and sex-matched controls (190 men, 261 women) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. The presence of obesity, testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs), and menstrual irregularity was assessed. Hormone status and treatment regimens were compared according to the presence of adverse outcomes. The median age was 27.0 y and 28.0 y for men and women, respectively. Adults with CAH had a higher waist circumference (88.0 vs. 82.3 cm in men, and 83.5 vs. 72.3 cm in women), and blood pressure (125.0 vs. 113.0 mmHg in men, and 120.0 vs. 104.0 mmHg in women) than age- and sex-matched controls (P&lt;0.05 for all). The 2.7-fold increased risk for hypertension (men) and 2.0-fold increased risk for obesity (women) was significant in patients with CAH (P&lt;0.05 for both). Obese adults with CAH showed significantly higher adrenal limb thicknesses (men) and 17-hydroxyprogesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels (women) (P&lt;0.05 for both). TARTs occurred in 58.1% of men and did not differ by hormone or treatment regimen. Irregular menstruation was observed in 57.1% of women, with higher dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in those with irregular periods. Adults with CAH had a higher metabolic risk than the general population. Poor disease control may increase their risk of metabolic morbidity and menstrual irregularity.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (10) ◽  
pp. 3436
Mana Miyamoto ◽  
Yuko Hanatani ◽  
Kenichi Shibuya

There is evidence showing that excessive mental stress is detrimental to the menstrual period, and it is known that many elite athletes are highly susceptible to mental anxiety. This study investigated the nutritional intake and mental anxiety of 104 relatively young elite endurance athletes aged 16 to 23 years and used a multiple logistic model to examine the factors that might be related to menstrual irregularity. Calcium intake was marginally associated with the occurrence of menstrual irregularities (odds ratio = 1.004, p = 0.030), whereas there were strong associations between body mass or state anxiety and menstrual irregularities in elite athletes (odds ratio = 0.557, p = 0.035 for body mass; odds ratio = 1.094, p = 0.006 for state anxiety). These results suggested that state anxiety would be an important factor causing menstrual irregularity in elite endurance athletes. It is recommended that elite athletes are monitored for anxiety levels and develop a strategy for stress management.

2021 ◽  
Vol 42 (8) ◽  
pp. 449-452
Brittany S. Bruggeman ◽  
Angelina Bernier

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