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Begum Moriom Zamila ◽  
Hurjahan Banu ◽  
Md Shahed Morshed ◽  
Sukanti Shah ◽  
Afroza Begum ◽  

Background: Menstrual irregularities may predict over adverse consequences in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Objective: To observe the relation of variants of menstrual cycles with clinical and biochemical features of PCOS.Methods: This cross-sectional study encompassed 200 PCOS women diagnosed by Rotterdam criteria and 120 age-matched healthy controls. Subgroups were classified according to menstrual cycle length as: polymenorrheic (<21 days), eumenorrheic (21-35 days), oligomenorrheic (36 days-3 months) and amenorrheic (>3 months). Glucose was measured by glucose oxidase, lipid by glycerol phosphate dehydrogenenase-peroxidase and all hormones by chemiluminescent immuno-assay method.Results: Around 86% of PCOS patients had menstrual irregularity, among which 75% had oligomenorrhea followed by amenorrhea (9%) and polymenorrhea (2%). All the subgroups of PCOS patients (polymenorrhea excluded from further analyses) had significantly poor metabolic manifestations than the control namely insulin resistance (IR), impaired glycaemic status, general and central obesity, metabolic syndrome and dyslipidaemia. Acanthosis nigricans (AN), hyperandrogenemia (HA) and IR had significant predictive association with PCOS patients with both irregular [OR (95% CI)- AN: 21.994 (6.427, 75.267), p<0.001; HA: 27.735 (8.672, 88.704), p<0.001; IR: 7.268 (2.647, 19.954), p<0.001] and regular cycle [AN: 16.449 (3.830, 70.643), p<0.001; HA: 24.635 (6.349, 95.590), p<0.001; IR: 6.071 (1.658, 22.234), p=0.006] in reference to control group. None of the variables had significant predictive associations with irregular cycle in reference to regular cycle in patients with PCOS.Conclusion: Oligomenorrhea was the most common variant of menstrual irregularity in PCOS patients. All menstrual variants including eumenorrhea had similar manifestations in PCOS women, but poorer than controls.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 06 No. 01 January’22 Page: 96-103

2021 ◽  
pp. 41-45
P.N. Kozlov

The criterion for appraisal of resistance of fatigue of structural material at action on it of repeatedly variables loads and static loads in the form of a bend or tensioncompression together with torsion, and also at action of loads, which create two-axis regular change of stress state in a dangerous point of material is constructed. The received criterion will acceptable be coordinated with the known experimental data. Keywords: dangerous point of material, regular cycle of loading, equivalent amplitude, equivalent average stress, chart of extreme amplitudes of stresses. [email protected]

2021 ◽  
Vol 78 (3) ◽  
pp. 198-211
David Roozen

The Cooperative Congregational Studies Partnership is the sponsor of the Faith Communities Today series of national surveys of American congregations. It started out as a conversation about “church” member surveys at the 1995 annual meeting of the Religious Research Association and by 2000 had grown into a multi-faith coalition of 27 denominations and faith traditions that, assisted with matching funds from the Lilly Endowment, conducted the largest national survey of American congregations ever undertaken, as a research-based resource for congregational development. In 2003 the partnership became a self-sustaining program of the Hartford Institute for Religion Research, and established a regular cycle of decadal and mid-decadal such surveys, with an occasional qualitative study sprinkled in, which has continued to this day. This article tells the history of how this unique experience of practical ecclesiology came to be, how it evolved, and what it has produced.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Sophie Baril

This article provides an approach to amenorrhea and is intended for pre-clinical and clerkship medical students. Primary amenorrhea refers to the absence of menarche by 15 years or 3 years post thelarche while secondary amenorrhea is the cessation of menses for 3 months in women with a previously regular cycle or for 6 months in women with previously irregular menses. While amenorrhea can be physiological it can also reflect an anatomical or more complex hormonal problem that students must learn to identify and investigate. 

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 47-50
Maria Clara da Silva Durando Vieira ◽  
Elivânia de Amorim Marques Gomes ◽  
Edna Frasson de Souza Montero

AbstractOvarian graft may be the target of the biochemical effects of oxidative stress caused at the time of transplantation. In order to evaluate the effect of N-acetylcysteine on the ovarian graft, regarding the estrous cycle preservation , 50 female and virgin EPM-1 Wistar rats, weighing up to 250g, originating from CEDEME of UNIFESP, were kept in adequate sanitary conditions. , receiving their own food and water. Daily vaginal smears were performed to identify the estrous phase for 8 days. The animals were randomly distributed into 05 groups: 1st Group (GTx), saline was administered subcutaneously, 2nd (NAC 150mgKg), 3rd (NAC 300mg / Kg), 4th (NAC 600mg / Kg) and 5th (NAC 1200mg / Kg) , that were administered NAC subcutaneously on the abdominal face, 60 minutes before left unilateral ovarian transplantation in retroperitoneum and contralateral oophorectomy for purposes of histomorphological analysis, with colpocytological evaluation. Euthanasia was performed by means of anesthetic lethal dose in half of the animals on the 4th postoperative day, with a single vaginal smear collection and euthanasia on the rest of the animals, between the 14th and 16th days, after the material was collected in order to define the estrus phase. It was evaluated in the graft that the animals exhibited in all groups return of estrous cycle in the later phase of the post-transplant, with better definition of regular cycle in the highest dosages of N-acetylcysteine. N-acetylcysteine induced the return of the estrous cycle in the rats’ ovarian graft , mainly in the highest dosage, proving its effectiveness in revascularization of the tissue after ischemia and reperfusion. Keywords: Acetylcysteine. Reperfusion. Histocompatibility Antigens. Menstrual Cycle. ResumoO enxerto ovariano pode ser alvo dos efeitos bioquímicos do stress oxidativo causado no momento do transplante. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da N-acetilcisteína no enxerto ovariano, quanto à preservação do ciclo estral, foram utilizados 50 ratos EPM-1 Wistar, fêmeas e virgens, pesando até 250g, originários do CEDEME da UNIFESP, mantidos em adequadas condições sanitárias, recebendo ração própria e água. Realizados esfregaços vaginais diários para identificação da fase estral durante 08 dias. Os animais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em 05 grupos: 1º Grupo (GTx), administrada solução salina via subcutânea, 2º (NAC 150mgKg), 3º (NAC 300mg/Kg), 4º (NAC 600mg/Kg) e 5º (NAC 1200mg/Kg), aos quais foi administrada NAC por via subcutânea em face abdominal, 60 minutos antes do transplante unilateral esquerdo do ovário em retroperitônio e à ooforectomia contra-lateral para fins de análise histomorfológica, com avaliação colpocitológica. A eutanásia foi realizada por meio da dose letal do anestésico em metade dos animais no 4º dia de pós-operatório, realizado única coleta de esfregaço vaginal e a eutanásia no restante dos animais, entre o 14 º e 16º dia, após a coleta do material para definição da fase estro. Foi avaliado no enxerto que os animais apresentaram em todos os grupos retorno de ciclo estral na fase mais tardia do pós-transplante, com melhor definição de ciclo regular nas dosagens mais elevadas de N-acetilcisteína. A N-acetilcisteína induziu o retorno do ciclo estral no enxerto ovariano de ratas, principalmente na maior dosagem comprovando sua eficácia na revascularização do tecido após isquemia e reperfusão. Palavras-chave: Acetilcisteína. Reperfusão. Transplante. Ciclo Ovariano.

2021 ◽  
Timothy Banyard ◽  
Corwin Wright ◽  
Neil Hindley ◽  
Gemma Halloran ◽  
Scott Osprey

&lt;p&gt;&lt;span&gt;The quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) is a regular cycle of alternating winds which dominates the behaviour of the tropical stratosphere. It is extremely technically challenging to model, and for this reason wind observations are vital to understand it fully. Characterised by downward propagating easterly and westerly regimes, the QBO progressed uninterrupted for more than 60 years until a highly anomalous deviation from its normal pattern in 2016. During 2019/2020, the start of a second disruption was seen in atmospheric analyses and radiosonde observations. Here, we exploit novel data from ESA's ADM-Aeolus satellite to demonstrate its ability to measure the QBO in unprecedented detail. A special adjustment of Aeolus' onboard range bin settings was implemented to observe this new disruption as it happened, providing a unique platform for studying the evolution of the event and the broader atmospheric effects triggered by it. In this presentation, we will show results from this special mode, highlighting how it has helped study the disruption, and how Aeolus and similar satellites can deepen our understanding of the QBO more generally.&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;

2021 ◽  
Matthias K. Auer ◽  
Luisa Paizoni ◽  
Meike Neuner ◽  
Christian Lottspeich ◽  
Heinrich Schmidt ◽  

AbstractContextHypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG)-axis disturbances are a common phenomenon in patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). 11-oxygenated androgens have been suggested to play a role in this context.DesignCross-sectional single center study including 89 patients (N=42 men, N=55 women) with classic CAH.Main Outcome MeasuresIndependent predictors for hypogonadism in men and secondary amenorrhea in women with CAH with a special focus on 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) and 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione (11OHA4).ResultsHypogonadotropic hypogonadism was present in 23% of men and 61% of those women currently not on contraceptives suffered from irregular menstrual cycles or amenorrhea. Testicular adrenal rest tumor (TART) was documented in 28% of men. While 11KT (3.5x) and 11OHA4 (5.7x) among other adrenal steroids were significantly elevated in men with hypogonadism, in stepwise logistic regression, the only significant independent predictor for hypogonadism were elevated 17-OHP levels (B = 0.006; p = 0.039). Although 11KT (5.2x) and 11OHA4 (3.7x) levels were also significantly higher in women with amenorrhea in comparison to those with a regular cycle, the only significant predictor for amenorrhea were elevated total testosterone levels (B = 1.806; p = 0.040). 11-oxygenated androgens were not different in those with TART and those without. Of note, there were no significant differences in 11OHA4 or 11KT between those with a regular cycle and those currently on hormonal contraceptives.Conclusions11-oxygenated androgens do not seem to add additional information for explaining menstrual disturbances and hypogonadism in patients with CAH in comparison to established marker of disease control.HighlightsThe 11-oxygenated androgens 11-ketotestosterone and 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione are significantly elevated in men with CAH with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and women with amenorrhea.Elevated 17-OHP levels in male patients and elevated testosterone levels in female patients are however the dominant predictor of HPG-axis disturbances.11-oxygenated androgens are not predictive for testicular adrenal rest tumors in men with CAH11-ketotestosterone and 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione levels do not seem to be influenced by intake of oral contraceptives.

Mirte R Caanen ◽  
Henrike E Peters ◽  
Peter M van de Ven ◽  
Annemarie M F M Jüttner ◽  
Joop S E Laven ◽  

Abstract Context Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) measured in adolescence as biomarker for prediction of adult polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is doubtful but not substantiated. Objective To investigate whether serum AMH levels and other PCOS associated features in adolescence can predict the presence of PCOS in adulthood. Design and Setting A long-term follow-up study based on an unique adolescent study on menstrual irregularities performed between 1990-1997. Participants and interventions AMH was assayed in 271 adolescent girls. Data on PCOS features were combined with AMH levels. In 160 of the 271 (59%) participants we collected information in adulthood about their menstrual cycle pattern and presence of PCOS (features) by questionnaire two decades after the initial study. Results AMH was higher in adolescent girls with oligomenorrhea compared to girls with regular cycles, median (IQR): 4.6(3.1-7.5) versus 2.6(1.7-3.8) μg/L (P&lt;0.001). Women with PCOS in adulthood had a higher median adolescent AMH of 6.0 compared to 2.5 μg/L in the non-PCOS group (P&lt;0.001). AMH at adolescence showed an area under the ROC curve for PCOS in adulthood of 0.78. In adolescent girls with oligomenorrhea the proportion developing PCOS in adulthood was 22.5% (95% CI, 12.4-37.4%) against 5.1% (95% CI, 2.1-12.0%) in girls with a regular cycle (P=0.005). Given adolescent oligomenorrhea, adding high AMH as factor to predict adult PCOS or adult oligomenorrhea was of no value. Conclusions Adolescent AMH either alone or adjuvant to adolescent oligomenorrhea does not contribute as prognostic marker for PCOS in adulthood. Therefore, we do not recommend routine its use in clinical practice.

2020 ◽  
Vol 11 (SPL4) ◽  
pp. 126-129
Dayana B A A ◽  
Sabeetha S

Menstruation is an ordinary physiological marvel for ladies showing her capacity for reproduction. Monthly cycle is an intricate cycle, including the conceptive and endocrine framework. It has to be a regular cycle. Anyway, this ordinary wonder isn't a simple one; it is regularly connected with some level of sufferings and shame. The pain during the menstrual cycle is known as Dysmenorrhea. The present study aims to determine the effectiveness of dietary mint and fenugreek paste for the reduction of dysmenorrhea among adolescent girls. A quantitative experimental research was conducted among 60 adolescent girls. A convenient sampling technique was used to select the samples. Self-administered structured questionnaires were used to collect demographic data, and pain scale was assessed. After the Pretest, an intervention was given to the study participants, i.e. administration of 6 grams of mint fenugreek paste prepared from 2 grams of mint powder, 2 grams of fenugreek powder mix with 2 grams of honey. It was given orally twice a day (i.e. 2 days before and 3 days during the cycle). On 5th day after intervention, post-test was conducted by a numeric pain rating scale. The study results shows mint and fenugreek paste had a significant reduction in the dysmenorrhea, p<0.001. Thereby, this indicates that the mint and fenugreek paste is effective in reducing the pain during menstruation.

2020 ◽  
Vol 108 (1) ◽  
Gertrud E. Rössner ◽  
Loïc Costeur ◽  
Torsten M. Scheyer

AbstractThe origins of the regenerative nature of antlers, being branched and deciduous apophyseal appendages of frontal bones of cervid artiodactyls, have long been associated with permanent evolutionary precursors. In this study, we provide novel insight into growth modes of evolutionary early antlers. We analysed a total of 34 early antlers affiliated to ten species, including the oldest known, dating from the early and middle Miocene (approx. 18 to 12 million years old) of Europe. Our findings provide empirical data from the fossil record to demonstrate that growth patterns and a regular cycle of necrosis, abscission and regeneration are consistent with data from modern antlers. The diverse histological analyses indicate that primary processes and mechanisms of the modern antler cycle were not gradually acquired during evolution, but were fundamental from the earliest record of antler evolution and, hence, explanations why deer shed antlers have to be rooted in basic histogenetic mechanisms. The previous interpretation that proximal circular protuberances, burrs, are the categorical traits for ephemerality is refuted.

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