Menstrual Irregularities
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Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (10) ◽  
pp. 3436
Mana Miyamoto ◽  
Yuko Hanatani ◽  
Kenichi Shibuya

There is evidence showing that excessive mental stress is detrimental to the menstrual period, and it is known that many elite athletes are highly susceptible to mental anxiety. This study investigated the nutritional intake and mental anxiety of 104 relatively young elite endurance athletes aged 16 to 23 years and used a multiple logistic model to examine the factors that might be related to menstrual irregularity. Calcium intake was marginally associated with the occurrence of menstrual irregularities (odds ratio = 1.004, p = 0.030), whereas there were strong associations between body mass or state anxiety and menstrual irregularities in elite athletes (odds ratio = 0.557, p = 0.035 for body mass; odds ratio = 1.094, p = 0.006 for state anxiety). These results suggested that state anxiety would be an important factor causing menstrual irregularity in elite endurance athletes. It is recommended that elite athletes are monitored for anxiety levels and develop a strategy for stress management.

M. Smitha

Background: Hirsutism is defined as presence of excess coarse hairs appear in male pattern in women.There is various aetiology of hirsutism like Idiopathic hirsutism, PCOS, androgen secreting ovarian tumours, menopause, CAH, Cushing’s syndrome, drugs which increases testosterone level, insulin resistance and tumour secreting androgen. We have designed present study with an aim to study the clinicoepidemiology, metabolic and hormonal profile of women with hirsutism in Konaseema region of Andhra Pradesh.Methods: All patients with hirsutism attending gynaecology outpatient department were selected for study based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. After that patient were examined clinically, BMI was calculated for each patient. Patients were clinically evaluated for signs of excess androgen secretion, Cushing syndrome, metabolic syndrome and hyperprolactinemia. Modified Ferriman-Gallwey scoring system was used for evaluating and quantifying hirsutism.Results: The mean Fasting plasma insulin12.42±2.41 (mIU/dl), the mean of HOMA-IR was 3.14±1.18. The mean value of dehydroepiandrosteronesulphate (DHEAS) 355.78±15.41 mcg/dl. There was statistically significant reduction in modified Ferriman-Gallwey scoring in before and after treatment (12.38± 1.55 vs. 9.62±1.6), the p value was 0.00001. The number of patients with menstrual irregularities were reduced from 63.3% to 20% after treatment and this difference is statistically significant (p=0.04).Conclusions: Hirsutism is associated with insulin resistance and DHEAS concentration was high. Modified Ferriman-Gallwey score was significantly reduced and there was significant weight loss and improvement in menstrual irregularities after treatment.

2021 ◽  
pp. 23-27
N. Kh. Khadzhieva ◽  
I. V. Kuznetsova

Purpose of the study. Evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of COC-DRSP in the control of psychosomatic symptoms in women with stressdependent menstrual irregularities.Materials and methods. The observational study involved 28 women aged 18 to 39 years with somatoform anxiety disorder and menstrual irregularities resulting from stressful events and did not have a tendency to improve in the process of therapeutic lifestyle modification and the use of means to improve adaptation. In order to prevent pregnancy and control the menstrual cycle, the patients were prescribed a combined oral contraceptive containing drospirenone (DRSP-COC) in the «24 + 4» regimen. Prior to the study, 3 and 6 months after initiation of therapy, psychosomatic symptoms of anxiety disorder were assessed.Results. Reception of DRSP-COC (Dimia) led to a significant decrease in the frequency and severity of psychosomatic symptoms after three cycles of therapy with the preservation of the effect with continued administration.Conclusion. DRSP-COC is effective in relieving psychosomatic symptoms in women with stress-related menstrual irregularities.

Faizah Mughal ◽  
Ashok Kumar ◽  
Jai Dev Maheshwari ◽  
Ali Nawaz Bijarani ◽  
Tayyaba Kazmi ◽  

Background: The menstrual cycle describes the healthy reproductive system of the women which is controlled by different hormones. Aim: The goal of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of irregular menstruation in different endocrine changes and to identify their association with the age of women in reproductive life. Methodology: It was a cross-sectional study conducted on women attending the gynecological clinic of Karachi from March 2019 to June 2019. Of the 165 women with different hormonal changes 100 presented with menstrual cycle abnormality. Results: Among the women with menstrual irregularities 51% women presented with insulin resistance, 23% with hyperandrogenism, 19% with hypothyroidism and 7% hyperprolactinemia. Age-related association was observed in menstrual irregularities women with insulin resistant and hyperandrogenism. Conclusion: Menstrual cycle is a physiological process, any irregularities in cycle can be caused by  even  minimal  hormonal  imbalance.  As  a  result,  it  is  critical  to  address  endocrine abnormalities in order to improve women's reproductive health.

2021 ◽  
pp. 43-46
Uma Jain ◽  
Jayshree chimrani ◽  
Kajal Krishna

INTRODUCTION- Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common, heterogeneous disorder affecting 5-15% of women of reproducing age group and characterized by hyperandrogenic skin symptoms, (acne, Hirsutism and female pattern alopecia,) irregular menstrual bleeding, obesity, dysmenorrhea infertility, and increased risk of metabolic syndrome and endometrial cancer. MATERIAL AND METHOD-The present study was conducted in a private gynecological Clinic Shivpuri, (M.P.). After taking Consent women suffering from PCOS (Fullled the clinical and USG criteria of PCOS(Rotterdam criteria )) along with androgenic symptoms like acne, hirsutism and androgenetic alopecia with or without other symptoms like menstrual irregularities and dysmenorrhea were included in the study.. All patients then received a combination of ethenyl Estradiol (0.035mg) + Cyproterone acetate (2mg). The Patients were followed in the third month, Sixth month, and at about 1 year for improvement in various complaints RESULT- According to presenting symptoms the most common presenting symptom was acne 72.72%, followed by menstrual irregularities 68.18%, hirsutism 50%, alopecia 27.27%, and dysmenorrhea in 27.27%. In acne patients, 37.5% of patients showed improvement after 3 cycles of CPA/EE, 75% showed at 6 months and in 93.75%, improvement was seen at 12 months. In the case of alopecia (83.33%) patient showed improvement after >6 cycles. Patients with hirsutism showed no improvement after 3 months of therapy but 54.54% of the patients showed a change in texture after 6 months of therapy and 72.72% after 9-12 months of therapy. Patients with dysmenorrhea reported a decrease in pain after therapy. The acceptance of the treatment was very good. In 86.36% of patients, good tolerance of drug was seen and in only 3 patients adverse effects (headache and nausea) of the drug were there. All the patients were having good to moderate satisfaction with the therapy. CONCLUSION- Since androgen excess is the prime defect in polycystic ovarian disease, its reduction is the main therapeutic target for most women. Our study found that combined hormonal contraceptives containing ethenyl Estradiol (0.035mg) + Cyproterone acetate (2mg) in a 21/7 regimen had a positive effect in the treatment of acne, hirsutism, menstrual irregularity, and dysmenorrhea in PCOS patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-9
Олександра Маланчук

The analysis of the course, completion of pregnancy in women with reproductive losses and menstrual irregularities, the formation of risk groups with the aim of improving the prevention system, early diagnosis of perinatal pathology and predicting healthy offspring was carried out.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (2(98)) ◽  
pp. 75-81
O. Malanchuk ◽  
Ye. Sharhorodska ◽  
O. Shkolnуk

Objective - to study risk factors for perinatal pathology in women with menstrual dysfunction. Material and methods. The analysis of 207 birth histories of women with menstrual irregularities and charts of newborn babies was carried out. Results. Complications of pregnancy were significantly more often observed in women with menstrual dysfunction: in 72.9% of women against 32.0% in the control group. The main difficulties in childbirth were premature rupture of membranes - 21.5% and abnormalities of labor - 17.8%, and fetal distress - 15.0%. In the control group, the number of complicated deliveries was significantly less -21.0%. Premature babies were born significantly more often in this group - 15.0% and children with health impairment conditions constituted 9.3%.Conclusions. In women with menstrual irregularities, among the complications of pregnancy prevailed: the threat of termination of pregnancy in the first trimester and associated complications, and during childbirth - premature rupture of membranes, abnormalities of labor and fetal distress. Childbirth was often premature, much more often premature babies were born with health impairment conditions at birth.

Serbenuyk A. V. ◽  
Kaminskiy V. V.

The article presents an analysis of literature data and the results of our own retrospective studies of the characteristics of the menstrual cycle in female combatants who have undergone concussion. Clinical and anamnestic factors have been identified that negatively affect the menstrual function of women of reproductive age, who received contusions during hostilities. The relationship between the state of mental health of women and menstrual irregularities has been established. Aim: to identify and evaluate changes in the menstrual function of women - veterans of reproductive age. Also, to establish the relationship between menstrual irregularities in women - veterans of reproductive age who have undergone contusion, and the state of their somatic and mental health.Materials and method: The research was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductology of the National University of Health of Ukraine named after P.L. Shupika. To achieve this goal, a comprehensive clinical and laboratory examination was performed in 567 women of reproductive age (main group and comparison group) who participated in hostilities and suffered contusions, the average age of the subjects was 27.08 ± 4.23 years.The period of stay in the combat zone is 29.34 ± 9.21 months, the time from the moment of receiving a mild traumatic brain injury (contusion) is 18.8 ± 9.2 months. Group I - 399 fertile women who suffered contusions during the fighting with PKS. Group II - 168 women of childbearing age who suffered contusions during hostilities without PKS (mean age 32.21 ± 7.32 years).Results: The results of the studies revealed statistically significant deviations in the characteristics of the menstrual cycle of women who participated in hostilities who were injured with PKS, compared with women without PKS. It has been proven that women-viskovosluzhvits more often develop menstrual irregularities, namely a decrease or increase in the number, lengthening or shortening of the menstrual cycle by 7 days. Taking into account the revealed menstrual irregularities in the women under study, it can be argued that the detected changes are due to the influence of both craniocerebral trauma and stress factors associated with military service. This justifies the need to develop a program for monitoring and supporting the reproductive health of women-viyskovoservices, as well as medical and psychological rehabilitation of veterans, aimed at their full adaptation to a peaceful life.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
pp. 180-189
O. D. Rymar ◽  
S. M. Voevoda ◽  
E. V. Shakhtshneider ◽  
E. M. Stakhneva ◽  
S. V. Mustafina ◽  

Background: Hyperprolactinemia is one of the most common hypothalamic-pituitary-endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age, with the highest frequency at the age of 25–44 years. In addition to influencing the reproductive system, it is important to study the effects of prolactin (PRL) on various metabolic links. Available data indicate that the effect of PRL on metabolism depends on its level. In this regard, the study of the relationship of different levels of PRL with anthropometric parameters, indicators of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in young women is relevant.Aim: To study the frequency of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its individual components in women aged 25–45 years with different levels of prolactin.Materials and methods: Work design — cross-sectional research. A randompopulationsample of women 25–45 agedwas examined. Pregnant and breastfeeding women with macroprolactinoma, and taking antipsychotics were excluded. Information was collected using a structured ­questionnaire, including, but not limited to, the presence of pregnancies, childbirth, menstrual irregularities, and a clinical examination, anthropometric measurements, biochemical and hormonal blood analyzes were performed. Statistical data processing was carried out.Results: According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, this analysis presents data from 401 women, the average age of the examibed was 36.14±6.19 years. There was no difference in the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin (PRL) in the age groups of 25–34 and 35–45 years. According to the survey, the incidence of thyroid diseases in the studied groups is comparable. Every fifth woman indicated menstrual irregularities. Among women 25–45 years old, women with low-normal PRL values (Me = 4.49 [3.52; 5.41] ng/ml) have more unfavorable metabolic indicators. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was detected in 28%,with a predominant increase in the frequency of abdominal obesity — 55%, hypercholesterolemic LDL — 63%. Women with high PRL (Me = 41.35 [34.78; 45.88] ng / ml) also have an unfavorable metabolic profile: MS was detected in 47%, abdominal obesity — 56%, hypertension — 39%.Conclusions: In women 25–45 years old, low and high PRL values are more often associated with metabolic ill health. PRL values are from 7.8 to 28 ng / ml, i.e. conditionally defined as normal, highly normal and at the level of moderate hyperprolactinemia contribute to the maintenance of a favorable metabolic profile. When deciding on the treatment of women with non-tumor etiology hyperprolactinemia, it is important to assess the metabolic status, expanding their understanding of PRL as a hormone associated only with lactation and with the pituitary-gonad axis.

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